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The Affordances Of Actor Network Theory In ICT

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Questions:

• Describe the scales on which the actants in your stories “act” in the assemblage.

• Discuss how these actions can enhance management functions.

• Outline what issues/questions these actions raise. To achieve this, compare and contrast the viewpoints of a range of theorists and critics explored throughout the module. ?

 

Answers:

Introduction

This essay is on Contemporary computing can be seen as an assemblage. It means that how new and modern technologies are introduced in the society. Many new technologies are been developed these days and in way the usage of these technologies are increasing. The essay is based on two stories from the computing world. The first story is on IBM helping to control Ebola using some the latest technologies. The technologies used by the company are data analytics, cloud computing, and mobile messages. The second story is about SAP helping Germany during the world cup. SAP is a German company; it used some of the latest technology, like, big data to provide the team with insights of the game. Both the story is based on new computing technologies and was successfully used to enhance the situations.

Ant

ANT is called the sociology of translation or enrollment theory. It rose to fame in the mid-1980s, principally with the work of Bruno Latour, John Law, and Michel Callon. It is a reasonable edge for investigating aggregate socio specialized procedures, whose spokespersons have given careful consideration to science a technologic exercises. It is a way to deal with the examination, and social hypothesis begins in the investigation of science is known as performing artist system hypothesis. Disregarding the way that it is known fundamentally for its questionable accentuation on the breaking point of nonhumans to act or take an enthusiasm for systems or frameworks or both, performing artist system hypothesis is similarly joined with convincing investigations of discriminating and routine human science (Greenhalgh and Stones, 2010). ANT is based on three main principles. They are agnosticism, generalized symmetry and free association. The first principle advocates that leaving any from the earlier presumptions of the way of systems, causal conditions, or the exactness of actant's records. ANT obliges and imposes that every interpretation made are unprivileged. The second principle says that by utilizing a solitary logical edge when deciphering actants, nonhuman, and human. Investigators must hold on to the registers to look at people and associations, bugs and gatherers, or PCs and their software engineers. The final principle concludes that by leaving any distinction between social phenomenon and natural.

 

Story 1

IBM applies data analytics, mobile technology and cloud computing to help fight the Ebola outbreak in West Africa

IBM has pushed data analytics, cloud computing and mobility technology; into examining to control the outbreak of Ebola in the area named Sierra Leone. According to a survey conducted by the WHO, this outbreak of Ebola has claimed the life of nearly 5000 individuals. It is one of the major disasters in the year 1976. This disease has centered in Sierra Leone, Guinea, and Liberia. Due to the technology that IBM is using to control an outbreak of Ebola has overwhelmed healthcare systems and local government.

Actant in the story: Ebola (diseases) ; Mobile ( used for sms); Cloud computing; data analytics

Human Actant: Ebola patients; Data analyst; Government officials; Doctors; Healthcare staff; Individuals of Sierra Leone, Guinea and Liberia; IBM

Software Actant: Algorithms used in data analysis; computer languages

Hardware Actant:  Server; Computers; Mobiles; Network

Structural Actant: Local government

How the actants are working with one another: Ebola is one of the major outbreaks that took place in the year 2014. It claimed the lives of many individuals in West Africa (Jane Kamau, 2014). To counter this disease IBM took an initiative in some of the parts of the affected area. They started using mobile technology for sending out message to the individual. They were sending messages to the individual warning them about the disease. About 40 to 50 percent of the individuals in Sierra Leone are illiterate (eHNA, 2015). Therefore, they were sending out SMS or messages and voice messages on the mobile phones. The administration utilized radio telecasts along SMS . A call centre was set up so that all the voice messages can be processed. The call centre was taking care of a huge number of calls a day. Stewart said he would like that figure to be in the millions to enhance the nature of the information produced. Airtel, an mobile network operator was running the sans toll number, and social researchers from the University of Cambridge are helping enhance the informing and behavior smaller than usual reviews over the air to remove more significant data. IBM volunteers are occupied with a group push to distinguish, stock and order all open information sources identified with the outbreak of Ebola (eHNA, 2015). IBM has conveyed SoftLayer cloud innovation to set up an Ebola Open Data Repository, giving governments, help organizations and scientists with free and open access to the information. IBM's Ebola effort proceeded in Nigeria, the fourth nation to be influenced by Ebola, which was as of late pronounced free of the ailment.

Cloud computing: Data is saved up in the internet and it can be retrieved as per the need of the company or the individual (Hurwitz, 2010). It promotes elasticity in the company, self-servicing and pay per use method. It can be of three different types. They are: public, hybrid and private.

How the system was helpful: The new technologies are very helpful in controlling the disease. These technologies could not be used to cure the disease but it was helpful to inform people about the outbreak. The initiative taken by IBM was commendable. The big data technology that was utilized by IBM in Africa stood to tackle many health care issues.

 

Story 2

SAP played its part in the national football team's victory over Argentina in the World Cup final in Brazil

SAP is a German based company. It helped the football team during world cup. All the data and information regarding the game was collected and analyzed by the company (Iisgroup.eu, 2015).  Big data technology was used by the organization to help the team. The software used by the company was SAP match insights.

Actants in the story: Big data; SAP match insights

Human Actant: German football team; Big data analysts

Software Actant: Algorithms; Programs

Hardware Actant: Computers; Cameras; Mobile phones; Tablets; Servers

Structural Actant: World Cup

 

How the actants are acting with one another:

SAP, a Germany based organization had influence in the national football group's triumph in World Cup. A lot has been said in regards to the exactness building and keen outline of Germany's football, which in the end defeated the young men from the barrios. Big data analysis and enterprise software have played a major part. In the year 2013, SAP and DFB started working together to build up a "Match Insights" programming framework for the German national group to use in arrangement for and amid the competition. SAP conveyed a model in the year 2014 and Joachim Low's administration group has been utilizing the product from that point onward. The German group dissected the information during the game, caught by camcorders around the pitch, and transformed it into data that could be seen on tablet or cell phones to help enhance group execution and addition a more profound understanding into its adversaries (Theregister.co.uk, 2015). The data or information gathered received or viewed on their phones or in the player lounge by the players. The greatest change coming about because of utilizing the information was the group's rate of passing, said SAP. At the point when Germany came to the World Cup semi-finals in the year 2010, the group had a normal ball ownership time of 3.4 seconds. Subsequent to utilizing SAP Match Insights, in light of the supplier's Hana innovation, it has possessed the capacity to lessen that time to 1.1 seconds.

Big data:  It is a broad area where a large number of data set is present. All the data or information is stored and analyzed for further usage (Dhar, 2014). It includes huge volumes of data sets that cannot be analyzed by the humans. All the data are captured, managed, curate and processed so that it can be used by the organizations (Dumbill, 2013). It can be used for taking major decisions in business.

How the technology was helpful: An essential piece of the procedure was the change of the pitch into a matrix with every player doled out a one of a kind identifier, which permitted his or her developments to be followed digitally. All the information was gathered and then the data was sustained into a framework running the SAP HANA stage in light of in-memory innovation, which removed KPIs and individual player data. The information was then changed over into reenactments and charts that could be seen on tablets and cell phones (Theregister.co.uk, 2015). Innovative headway achieved by Big Data examination and machine learning could change all aspects of business and has as of now been utilized in a greatly wide and different range of parts. The individuals who disregard the advantages Big Data on offer do as such at their risk. It's a given obviously that we ought to give full credit to Germany's group aptitudes and exertion for their prosperity all through the World Cup, yet there is no denying the part Big Data needed to play in their triumph.

 

Conclusion

This essay is on contemporary computing can be seen as an assemblage. There are two stories discussed in this essay. The first story is about the humanitarian act of IBM in controlling Ebola and the second story is how SAP helped its national football team to improve its game during the World cup. Both the stories are based on new computing technologies. These latest applications were used in the real life to improve the situation. The various actants in the both the stories are described in the essay.

 

References

Andrade, A. and Urquhart, C. (2010). The affordances of actor network theory in ICT for development research. The affordances of actor network theory in ICT for development research.

Dhar, V. (2014). Why Big Data = Big Deal. Big Data, 2(2), pp.55-56.

Dumbill, E. (2013). Making Sense of Big Data. Big Data, 1(1), pp.1-2.

eHNA, (2015). IBM, Airtel and Echo Mobile launches initiatives to help fight Ebola. [online] Available at: https://ehna.org/home?t=article&v=art-54e1e0aa280ed [Accessed 4 Aug. 2015].

Fenwick, T. and Edwards, R. (2010). Actor-network theory in education. Milton Park, Abingdon, Oxon: Routledge.

Greenhalgh, T. and Stones, R. (2010). Theorising big IT programmes in healthcare: Strong structuration theory meets actor-network theory. Social Science & Medicine, 70(9), pp.1285-1294.

Hurwitz, J. (2010). Cloud computing for dummies. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley Pub.

Iisgroup.eu, (2015). SAP HANA helps Germany to World Cup glory. [online] Available at: https://www.iisgroup.eu/news/2014/07/14/news-feature-sap-hana-helps-germany-to-world-cup-glory/ [Accessed 4 Aug. 2015].

Jane Kamau, S. (2014). Ebola Outbreak: Knowledge to Act. Occup Med Health Aff, 02(05).

Kirkpatrick, R. (2013). Big Data for Development. Big Data, 1(1), pp.3-4.

Theregister.co.uk, (2015). SAP: It was our Big Data software wot won it for Germany. [online] Available at: https://www.theregister.co.uk/2014/07/22/germany_worldcup_sap_hana/ [Accessed 4 Aug. 2015].

Williams, M. (2010). A quick start guide to cloud computing. London: Kogan Page.

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