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Background of the Study

1. Understand the context within which the research investigation sits: What is fracking and how can it replace the current fossil fuels.

2. Identify and examine current literature on the topic, and explore any gaps in previous research. 

3. Explore the key attributes of fracking and how the process impacts both the oil and gas industries and the environment surrounding it.  

4. Analyse the data to produce a definitive rationale for the impact on society. 

The research topic focuses on the impact of Fracking and Horizontal drilling process on social costs and the existence of oil and gas industries. The researcher had taken active participation in identifying alternative sources against the conventional production of gases to reduce the inclusion of fossil fuels. The application of the alternative sources is one of the latest inventions in the 21st century. However, the researcher would critically analyze the environmental hazards faced upon implementation of this alternative sources and the economic prosperity brought as well (Ladd 2013). The researcher would select the appropriate methodologies and analyze the data for proposing recommendations against the rising loopholes of the research topic. The applications of non-conventional sources are the reserves of immediate future and the researcher would discuss all the major implications about Fracking and horizontal drilling process in a successful manner.

Due to the immense demand of fossil fuels in present scenario, it is evidential that it will be a difficult task to accumulate fossil fuels and rather it will be further difficult to extract fossil fuels, thus raising huge concerns for the requirement of energy. In order to resist the crisis, there is an essentiality for the government to opt for alternatives and therefore, scientists are in the verge of other avenues that may provide alternative energy provisions. One of the most discussed situations explored in UK is the concept of Fracking as an unconventional Gas. Unconventional gas usually refers to three types of alternative sources such as tight gas, shale gas and coal bed methane (Kinnaman 2011). However, according to the nature of the research project, shale gas is the primary area of focus for the scientists. The conventional gas is produced without the interference of any special well requirements, but in terms of shale gas, the process of Fracking is being implemented. The process requires hydraulically fracture or stimulation for escaping the natural gas in an effective manner. Water, sand and chemicals are blasted near the rock structure at an extreme high pressure, which causes the rock to fracture or spilt and allow the natural gas to escape.

Significance of the Research

Horizontal drilling came into effect as an alternative for extracting natural Gas in which the well is turned horizontally at depth. Horizontal wells are capable of reaching much wider area of rock and extract natural gas trapped within the rock. Drilling companies operating with the horizontal technique could extract further more energy with lesser application of wells. The Fracking process and horizontal drilling is considered as one of the most significant techniques of extracting natural gas which acts as an alternative against the usage of  fossil fuels (Clark 2012). The application of horizontal drilling and Fracking Process has also enhanced the economical status of various nations all over the world. The processes of Fracking and horizontal drilling have made significant impact regarding jobs and prosperity across several countries all over the world. The UK Oil and Gas companies are applying creative and innovative production techniques to unlock the natural gas trapped below the surface in the shale rock. The domestic supply of natural gas in abundance is assisting UK manufacture a renaissance over a period. However, its evil impact on the environment has questioned the sustainability of the alternative sources in the mere future.

In the contemporary world, the extraction of shale rock is one of the major developments of the 21st century. The alteration of hydraulically drilling and fracturing extracts huge quantities of natural gas from the impervious shale formations, which seemed very difficult to penetrate. Horizontal drilling is a drilling process, where the well is turned horizontally at depth. Horizontal drilling is one of the most spectacular ways of extracting gas from the miraculous shale formation (Agha 2011). This invention can really act as a savior from many industrial acquisitions and preserve the application of conventional gas in an effective manner. However, one should take into consideration its ill effects and detrimental effect on society and environmental ground.

The researcher aims to discover the impact of Fracking and horizontal drilling as an alternative power source. However, the researcher would also critically analyze the impact of Fracking and horizontal drilling on the oil and gas industry, the overall cost involved in society and the detrimental effect on the community that may suffer on a larger scale upon application of the Fracking process. The objectives would break down the research aim in a logical sequence that would recognize the key characteristics and effects of Fracking as an alternative source of energy (Schow 2013).

Research Rationale

Fracking process and horizontal drilling has been of premiere importance in the present era. The alternative to the application of fossil fuels has been one of the latest interventions in 5the 21st century. The primary area of focus would be on the impact created by the alternative sources on oil and gas industries. On one hand, the alternative energy sources contribute towards economical expansion and further creation of trapped natural gas between the rocks, likewise, it has also created negative impact on the civilization surrounding the areas where Fracking process and Horizontal Drilling takes place (Hughes 2013). Few tremors have already stressed humanity for the past couple of years. The purification of water has also faced criticism due to overuse of these sources in the human living society. The researcher would critically analyze the positive impacts and the challenges faced by the environment due to implementation of these sources.

A critical analysis on Fracking and horizontal drilling along with the social costs and its impact on the oil and gas markets for measuring the success of the energy storage firms

The research aimed would be achieved by the following objectives:

Objective 1: Understanding the context within which the research investigation sits: What is the concept of Fracking and horizontal drilling and its impact on oil and Gas industry.

Objective 2: Identification and examination of current literature on the topic and exploration of gaps in accordance to previous research

Objective 3: Evaluating the key attributes of Fracking and horizontal drilling with its process that influences both the oil and gas industries and the environment surrounding it

Objective 4: Analyzing the data for producing a definite rationale regarding the impact of Fracking and horizontal process on society

Structure of the dissertation

Figure: Structure of the dissertation

Sources:  As created by author

The first section of the dissertation consists of the introductory part of the research project. The introduction part revolves around the research background, research significance, research aims, objectives and summary of the dissertation. The literature review deals with the various scenarios and applications from various angles and perspectives regarding the impact of Fracking and horizontal drilling on social costs and the UK industries of Oil and Gas Management. The third chapter of the dissertation deals with the application of appropriate research techniques outlined in an appropriate methodology for achieving the objective oriented outcomes. Data analysis and interpretation would concentrate on application of primary and mainly secondary analysis. Upon identification of the research issues, the researcher would propose suitable recommendations against the rising concerns of the research topic.

Research Aims

Introduction

In this particular chapter, the researcher has attempted to study various applications of Fracking and Horizontal drilling process that might shed light on the variables of the research issue. Incorporation of secondary data provided the researcher a generalized understanding of the research issue, which helps in proceeding in the research study properly analyzing the data in appropriate manner (Vidic et al. 2013). This chapter deals with the scope and dimension of Fracking and Horizontal Frilling with particular context to Oil and Gas industry. The researcher would critically analyze the social costs involved in Fracking and Horizontal drilling process and its impact on the oil and gas industry.

Conceptual Framework

Figure: Conceptual Framework

(Source: As created by Author)

As Mankind converges in an age where energy is a commodity of necessity, the question rises regarding the availability of the resources in the future. Previously coal and oil has been the primary source of power for the industries, but due to the presence of cost and ecological issues, government have decided to move ahead with the idea of implementing alternatives. Some of the usual alternatives consist of windmills, solar power and sources of natural gas (Felix 2014). While some of the ideas and concepts are productive in nature, many of them lacks feasibility due to high price and inefficiency of the sources to provide sustainable source of power for longer duration. In the contemporary world, the popularity of natural gas has increased immensely in USA. In accordance to huge demand of Natural Gas, However, the natural gas does burn in a cleaner manner, which is not the case with the process of Fracking, which is not environment friendly in nature (Kinnaman 2011). The proposed outcome has resulted in a great debate of whether or not the advantages of natural gas are worth the negative impacts it may have on the environment and the society.

The following literature review would explore the process of Fracking in contrast to the present and century old method of fossil fuel extraction and its impact of the proposed energy source in the society. The whole process is implemented in a vertical manner and more frequently by drilling horizontally into the rocks. The process takes active participation in creating the alternative routes to release the gas and enhancing the existing channels. It states that Fracking is a process of drilling through the rocks through injection of high-pressure water, sand and chemical mixture to release natural gas from the rocks (Clark 2012).

Research Objectives

The continued application of Fracking in the UK has completely changed the scenario of power industry but it created huge environmental concerns in the recent past. The primary area of concern is that Fracking process requires abundance of water, which involves subsequent amount of environmental costs. The dangerous chemicals utilized for the Fracking process can result in chemical emission with the water in the surrounding area, which can contaminate the water largely (Rabe and Borick 2013). The industry states that pollution problem results poor practice, rather than measuring risks. Earthquakes and tremors can result from the practice of this process, which may cause huge loss to humanity and the area surrounding them. The North West area experienced small tremors of 1.5 and 2.2 in 2011 following the Fracking process (Agha 2011).The environmental campaigners said that the process is creating huge mess for the governments from investing in renewable sources of energy and encouraging continuous reliability on the usage of fossil fuels.

Hydraulic Fracturing is a technique that is implemented to exploit the production of unconventional resources of Gas. In order to implement Fracking process to take effect in a successful manner, inspection is done regarding the components of environmental compatibility for extraction of resources in a successful manner. This also includes the density of the population, landscape, availability of water and soil conservation. The Fracking process starts with the application of vertical drilling which horizontal drilling depths implement for hundreds and thousands of meters (Peduzzi and Harding Rohr Reis 2013). Steel casing and cement are the major requirements in the implementation of Fracking and horizontal Drilling process. The combination of steel casing and cement is resistant for handling cycles of stress in a successful manner. The Fracking fluid consists of 90% water and the rest is a mixture of chemical ingredients and sand used as a drilling process. High-pressure exertion is implied for the Fracking process and Horizontal Drilling techniques for extracting trapped natural gas between the Rocks and at huge depth underneath the ground.

The fundamental application of Fracking process may be similar for all wells, however, each of them have unique characteristics that needs to be identified through fracture treatment and design of the fluid, thus differing in variation of production costs and productivity of wells. The Fracking fluid seeps the horizontal fractures exposed in order to allow the shale gas escape up to the surface. The flow back preserves water with a higher concentration of chemicals, but also solutes heavy metals from the ground (Jackson et al. 2013). The contaminated water is stored or treated in other activities later on. The advancement of technological implosion and technical knowledge are not the only factors of success in successful intervention of the Fracking and Horizontal Frilling process. The inclusion of legalized framework and availability of infrastructure are the determinant factors of success for successful implementation of the alternative sources. Geologists have suggested that politicization of Fracking process, which may sometimes take the better out of technical accessibility and economic prosperity.

Structure of the Dissertation

Vertical wells could drain rock units with high permeability in an effective manner. The fluids in the rock units tend to flow quickly and carefully towards a well over long distances. However, one needs to consider the fact that in areas where permeability is low; fluids tend to move very slowly and often becomes hesitant to reach the well bore. However, the obstacle can be tackled by bringing in the well bore relatively closer to the source of the fluid. Natural shale Gas extraction is one of the best interventions of horizontal drilling process. The low content of permeability rock units preserve significant amount of Gas in various regions of UK

Most horizontal drilling well starts at the surface as a vertical well. The progress of drilling is hundred feet above the target area of rock unit. At the very point, the pipe is pulled from the well and hydraulic motor is attached between the drill bit and drill pipe. The hydraulic motor is empowered by drilling flow mud down the drilling pipe (Warner and Shapiro 2013). This results the bit to drill a path that diverges from the orientation of the drill pipe. After the installation of the process, the bit and pipe are lowered back down the well and the bit drills a path that steers the well bore from vertical to horizontal over a distance of few hundred feet. The well is placed at a thin rock unit, which requires deep insight for successful intervention of the drilling activities. Horizontal drilling requires a lot of effort and involves high amount of cost in the production process. Upon combination with the hydraulic fracturing, the cost of the well can enhance at an alarming rate (Brantley and Meyendorff 2013). However, the extra cost incurred is managed by yielding higher production of non-conventional natural gas. Therefore, the Fracking and Horizontal Drilling process often results in lump sum production of natural shale gas, thus serving the industrial development in a proactive manner.

The applications of Fracking and Horizontal Drilling have productive in a financial manner and is the very reason responsible for the organizations showing interest in its development. The implication of profitability does not state that the exploitation of Shale Gas has to be cheaper than that of conventional natural gas production, but as there is a significant scarcity, the cost involved in the exploitation has to be relatively low. The depth required for shale gas production is lesser than 3500 m, which reflects more on the well costs than for the geological involvements (Rahm et al. 2013) The components that reflect on the costs involved in the production of non-conventional gas are Capital costs, operational costs, transportation costs, involvement of taxes and loyalties. The regional conditions have a huge impetus on the total costs involved and therefore, it is very much difficult to give a general statement about the non-conventional gas production.

The than that of e production costs involved in the production of non-conventional gas is higher in UK than that of US , where a range of break-even costs between  € 5/MBtu [ Million British Thermal Units] and  € 12/MBtu is assumed. An interesting fact taken into consideration is that the costs involved in the production of conventional and non-conventional Gas are relatively similar to each other due to a shift of conventional exploitation activities to areas, which are rather difficult to address. However according to present trends the price of natural gas has enhanced at an alarming rate in UK and therefore, there is a high incentive to develop new technologies, if there are enough chances of selling the product, which is much more economically beneficial in nature (Finke and Hays 2013). It is usually perceived that high cost involved in the production of gas prices would persuade more production, while lower price would take active participation in inhibiting growth. The tendency of enhancement for the price of conventional gas has urged many organizations to favor further investments in the Fracking and Drilling activities.

In the contemporary scenario, the hydraulic fracturing and horizontal drilling technique involves consumption of water on a larger scale, which is one of the most cost effective solution to fracture a rock for consumption of water or dill a well deep underneath. Fracking fluids are adjusted with the consumption of water according to the nature of the region or availability of resources in the targeted land. Depending on the area of well productivity for drilling activities, the resources of shale are divided into 10 tiers, with tier 1 being the most productive and tier 10 , the least productive portion of the shale (Jackson et al. 2013) Usually, there is scarcity in the production of well for drilling activities during the first year of exploitation by 70-90%. It is very much difficult to draw a universal conclusion regarding the profitability as the costs involved for exploitation and price of natural gas are dependable to each other and varies country wise depending on several factors.

If the triumph of Fracking process and Horizontal Drilling has already rocked the charts, environmental hazards are its immediate obligation. Therefore, organizations must be aware of its detrimental consequences before implementing these techniques in an effective manner. The primary concern taking effect due to implementation of these techniques is its ability to contaminate water in a negative manner. This may result in several health related issues for the civilization residing in the affected areas (Yethiraj and Striolo 2013). The Fracking process and horizontally drilling techniques cracks rocks in a horizontal manner around the drilling hole, therefore it has resulted into small tremors, which has disturbed the ecological balance in the recent past. The horizontal drilling techniques and Fracking Process releases the trapped gas into two layers of rock containing ground water.

Contamination of water is a very relevant issue faced due to the implementation of the Fracking Process. In accordance to a single drill, when the drilling and Fracking activities takes place it utilizes huge cubic meters of water, which can act as a primary area of concern. Moreover, the Fracking process involves mixing of chemical ingredients, propellants and sand with the water often contaminates the water, thus affecting the health of individuals. The major area of concern is that after penetrating the fluids into the well for drilling activities, it is extracted partly afterwards (Joskow 2013). One of the major drawbacks associated with water- based Fracking fluids is that  the abundance of water pimped down the hole during the stimulation process is never recovered afterwards. Therefore, flow back accounts only for a portion of the total usage of Fracking fluid.

Treatment of the polluted industrial water posts a big challenge for the organizations and the communities concerning human civilizations. Separation of chemicals and sand from the water still questions amount of residual ingredients disposed in the water. If we keep the detrimental effect of water contamination aside, there is a major concern for small tremors and earth quakes that might occur due to the intense horizontal drilling activities and Fracking process. In accordance of exploitation of non-conventional natural gas, there is a requirement of one drilling well per square kilometer in contrast to one drilling well utilized per 10 square kilometers in terms of conventional gas production (Schafft , Borlu and Glenna 2013).

It is important to note that Shale Gas is fossil resource. The amount of CO2 gas emissions resulted from the implementation of Fracking process and horizontal drilling techniques is not a preferential process, as it does not reduce the ill effects of Green House effects. The ill effects of the Green House gas emissions could post a significant threat to climatic alterations. Methane gas, which is an integral component of Green House effect is one of the responsible factors for poisoning atmosphere and cause several lung-related issues for the individuals (Lake et al. 2013)

However, the researcher entails a different story. According to them, upon investigation of the ill effects of the Fracking and horizontal drilling process, it is found out that the total shale gas utilized emit less Green House Gas than electricity generation initiated by the Coal. Moreover, the environmental hazards faced due to implementation of Fracking process and Horizontal Drilling Techniques often converts to social risk factors, if the area consider for Fracking and drilling activities belong to a densely populated location. However, geologists and scientists state that the production of non-conventional gas cause less stress to environment n contrast to the issues regulated due to production of conventional gas from fossil fuels. Experts should seek deep insight to the rising concerns and propose inventive measure for balancing economical expansion with environmental security (Jenner and Lamadrid 2013).

One of the major challenges for taking effective decisions concerns the energy sector to an extent so that policy makes make to find a procedure or balancing, security, economic and environmental interests, thus acting as a target triangle to seek deep insight into the energy policies. There are high expectations for the economical expansion associated with the Fracking and Horizontal drilling activities, yet the long-term risks associated with it are still unknown. There are various arguments related to the practice of Fracking process and Horizontal Drilling Techniques. While some suggested the introduction of sustainability policies for reducing the ill effects of Fracking process and drilling activities, others have approached for further expansion hydraulic fracturing which would counteract with the implemented polluter pays principle.

According to several authors, land access restriction and involvement of high costs are the major constrains for Europe. Furthermore, the availability of coal at a cheaper rate in contrast to shale gas hinders their progress in en effective manner. Some focused on the possible contribution of the Shale gas towards reduction of energy import dependency through shale gas and deduce the fact that internal markets are very much important as well as the United bargaining of the EU. Upon identification of the shale gas as economically and environmentally sustainable invention, the UK government may probe for further production of non-conventional gas. Some of the Geologists stated that the disposal of foams and Fracking fluids in the drinking water leads to water contamination   from the borehole, but not through the Fracking process. The economical prosperity in contrast to environmental sustainability is still in demise owing to the impact on Oil and gas industries

Hydraulic Fracturing has enhanced the rate at which oil and Gas is extracted from various wells in the United Kingdom. By enhancing the present availability of supply, the process of Fracking and horizontal drilling assists in lowering the prices of oil and gas in the respective industry. The basic economic statistics states that as the supply of any goods enhances, the relative cost involved in it decreases at an alarming rate (Smith and Ferguson 2013). The rate at which the decrease occurs depends on several factors, including the availability of the goods. Oil is a natural resource; however, it needs to be extracted for productive economic utilization.  The implementation of Fracking and horizontal drilling process lowers the cost of Oil industries to an extent by allowing the real supply to expand in an effective manner (Barth 2013).

There are visual limitations on the extent to which the process of Fracking and horizontal drilling can be utilized to enhance the supply. Supply of Oil is scarce in nature and Hydraulic Fracturing is usually expensive and complicated than traditional extraction of oil. If there is an enhancement in the global supply of oil and the oil prices dip, then there is no justification for the high expense of Fracking and horizontal drilling process. The variant factors of success in the competitive market impose a limit on itself, unless changes in technology make the technology cost effective in nature.

In accordance to the Long run, the Fracking and horizontal drilling activities would enhance the rate at which the price of the oil increases. When there is an experienced depletion in the approach of oil and gas industries, it may force the price of the oil and gas industries to enhance at an alarming rate (Fisk 2013). Upon enhancement in the rate of extraction, the process of Fracking and horizontal drilling techniques expedites its eventuality.  However, the scenario is unlikely to happen, as t is unlikely that there will be permanent unavailability of Oil in the mere future. Once the prices of the oil enhances at an alarming rate, the consumers would look forward for substitutes and it would not turn out to be profitable in terms of oil industries.

In the time of conducting the research, the researcher takes helps from various journals and magazines. These theoretical discussions are not applicable in every business situation. Apart from that, the researcher collected the data from books, journals, websites, therefore the researcher cannot assure regarding the data authentication provided in this research. The researcher identified that some of the information imparted in the information gathered from magazines, journals are manipulative in nature, and there were concerns regarding the actuality of the content. Due to low budget and restricted time, the researcher was unable to penetrate the research topic from various angles and perspectives.

The literature review section of the research topic focused on the application of Fracking and horizontal drilling process on the oil and gas industries of UK. It was identified that the Fracking and horizontal drilling activities were successful in gaining economic prosperity for the European countries. Similarly, it also created negative impacts on the environment of the surrounding countries by causing contamination of water and earthquakes.  Critical analysis of the Fracking process and horizontal drilling gives relative arguments for the preference of non-conventional gas in contrast to the production of conventional gas. The question remains regarding the sustainability of the alternative process in the mere future.

Approaches

A research methodology for a given research study can be referred to as the strategy or plan which help in directing a particular researcher towards gathering relevant information by implementing ways or methods suitable for conducting the research procedure (Bergh and Ketchen, 2010). It should be noted that proper approach is required to be implied by the researcher, which should be based on the suitability of the research outcome. As for example, qualitative method is best suited for the research if numeric outcome is required in the process. In addition, various research approaches could be adopted while conducting the research process, but he most popular approaches are positivism, Interpretivism and post-positivism. Each of the three approaches is different from each other and deal with different types of philosophies. The primary details of each of these approaches can be described below as:

Positivism: This approach utilizes empirical evidence, deductive reasoning, and hypothesis testing in its scientific approach. The data collection procedure includes the quantitative analysis, interviews and surveys based on larger sample sets of numeric values and scientific methods.

Post-positivism: This approach helps in sharing the main assumptions as implied in the ‘positivism approach’ but differs only in its more realistic approach than in the latter (VanderStoep and Johnson 2010). The data collection procedure includes the qualitative, quantitative and mixed methods as well.

Interpretivism: This approach is suitable for studying population especially in social science. It treats the subject matter to be distinguished from non-human subjects. The data collection procedure includes the subjective experience, qualitative data, and detailed examination of small number of respondents (Bernard 2011).

 Illustration of research methods

Figure: Illustration of research methods

Source: (Bryman and Bell 2011)

The above diagram, representing a research onion, illustrates on the different methods utilized in a research process. It also displays how these methods are inter-related among each other.

The first layer of the figure shows that each of the possible choices at this level requires careful thinking as these stances helps in guiding a researcher towards the research procedure. It also helps the researcher to estimate the possible limitations of the research process and thus, implement a better approach for collecting and analyzing the information or data. This would help the searcher to provide validity on the search findings as well (Ellis and Levy 2010).

The second layer, as evident in the diagram, includes the inductive and deductive methodologies as implemented in the research processes (Huxham and Vangen 2010). The decisions made at this level are strongly influenced by the same as made in the first level. This level enables a researcher to assess the reach aim, personal aims, and limitations for implementing the best suitable method for conducting the research (Burns and Burns 2010).This process, moving in the opposite way to deduction, helps in utilizing the research title as its approach.

The third layer of the research onion includes the choices, which are being referred to as the styles or ways of collecting and analyzing the data while conducting a particular research. It should be noted that each of the choices has its own advantages and limitations. The choosing options, though, can be associated with the viewpoints of a particular researcher (Cooper and Schindler 2010).

The fourth layer of the figure illustrates the requirements for utilizing the qualitative and quantitative methods and defining on how these methods are to be utilized (Denzin and Lincoln 2011). This stage enables a researcher to decide on implementing a suitable method and utilizing method that is more dominant in order to conduct the research. It should be noted that the quantitative and the qualitative methods do not have their own layer in the research onion diagram. Now, this does not mean that these methods are not important while conducting a research, but they are to be considered to be incorporated throughout the reset procedure (Corbetta 2010).

The fifth layer of the onion diagram is shown to incorporate the period relating to only two sections representing as choices viz., the longitudinal section, and the cross-section. The cross-sectional choice is associated with the short-term study while, the longitudinal section is associated with the research process to be carried over long period.

The final layer is the sixth layer, which transforms the research design into practical elements including the data collection and analysis (Crouch and Pearce 2012). This stage requires the researcher to decide on the implementation of appropriate collection and analyzing procedure while conducting the research. It also requires the researcher to select appropriate sample of population and an effective set of questionnaires while conducting research in order to acquire quality information for the research (Crowther and Lancaster 2012).

Now, considering the elements incorporated in the onion diagram, as illustrated above, and analyzing the literature review, as provided in this paper, the following the methodologies would be appropriate for conducting this research project which cab ne described below as:

The Positivism approach would be the most suitable for conducting this research as it would not only help us in generating appropriate questionnaires for conducting surveys but also would help in testing and explaining the deductive reasoning, and hypothesis testing in respective of our scientific approach (Leavy and Hesse-Biber 2010). This approach would also enable us in measuring against the appropriateness in the context of our research topic.

The research requires implementing a deductive approach against the aim of our research, given the limitations in respective of time and knowledge involved with the research (Knox, 2010). This deductive approach would help us in focusing more on our research objectives such that to end the answering of the overarching question. The most prominent limitation, as related to our research topic, is that most of the people in UK are unaware of the Fracking and horizontal drilling and their related impact.

As we are following a deductive approach in conducting our research process, a survey strategy would be the most suitable stagey to acquire quality information for our research. Appropriate questionnaires should be set and which should be conducted in data collection procedure (Lodico and Spaulding 2010). This conduction of survey based on the research questionnaires being set would be helpful in acquiring useful information about the factors involved in our research topic, in an economical way.

In order to gather opinions and numeric values for our reach process, mixed method approach would be appropriate for conducting our research (Johnson and Turner 2011). As mentioned previously, questionnaires would be used including both open and closed questions in order to acquire quality information in respective of our research topic.

Due to the limitation of time, we should be implying on the secondary research, which would be pricing us useful information in respective of our research topic. We should also be implementing cross-sectional design, as this approach would be more suitable for our research following a limitation in time (Denzin and Lincoln 2011).

The final aspect of choosing an appropriate methodology would be to choose between the qualitative and quantitative research questionnaires while conducting our survey. In order to analyse more efficiently about the acquired information, we would be including appropriate charts and graphs in our research paper (Huxham and Vangen 2010). This would enable the readers to easily understand the findings of our research and our overarching research aim as well.

The main idea behind conducting our research study was to develop an interviewing schedule as well as the research questionnaires for conducting an online survey from a random sample of people in UK thorough social networking websites. However, due to the limitation of time in our research study and lack of knowledge among the respondents in respective our reach topic, we also decided to implement secondary research procedure (Harrison and Reilly 2011). We relied on the information available from the secondary data sources in order to gain useful information in relative to our research topic.

However, our research data was also based on secondary data sources, we took useful information as relevant to our research questionnaires being set, and thus, making it more genuine, valid, and relevant to our research studies. We also considered ethical reasoning while conducting our research procedure. The ethical consideration as implemented by us in our research process implied that we maintained the confidentially and privacy of private information of the individuals while conducting our secondary research (Denzin and Lincoln 2011). We followed a professional code of conduct such that no useful data has been exploited anywhere in our research.

While selecting appropriate methods of conducting our research, we carefully analysed the scope and the kind of information required while conducting our secondary research. For our secondary research, we selected a random sample of employees working in oil and gas companies within UK from the company’s business report as available on their respective websites. We also considered the ideas, opinions, feelings, attitudes, and perceptions of the people relating to our research topic (VanderStoep and Johnson 2010). We, then, extracted useful information from the data available online by relating it with the research questionnaires, being set during the research

The main motive behind creating a set of questionnaires was that to extract useful information from the data available relative to our research topic. This strategy helped us to acquire valid, honest, and relevant data in respective of our research study.

A sample size of 50 respondents was selected in order to conduct secondary research for providing adequate, genuine, and useable information for the further analysis of the findings. But, we had overlooked the difficulty in finding and extracting useful information as relevant to our research questionnaire.

For acquiring information, for our research study, we selected random sample of employees working in the oil and gas companies in UK. We selected the views, opinions, thoughts, and ideas of the business professionals of higher hierarchical status of the organizations as we considered them the sources of quality information relating to the industry (Somekh and Lewin 2011). Then, we selected the statements of the employees whose views were relevant with our research topic and the research questionnaires as well. We also maintained the confidentially and privacy of private information of the individuals while conducting our secondary research.

We extracted some useful information as relevant to our questionnaires including both open and closed questions (Sekaran and Bougie 2010). Several attempts had been made while creating a set of questionnaires relevant to our research topic. Finally, an appropriate set of questionnaires was produces with the anticipation that it would help in generating both the qualitative and the quantitative data for our research study.

The questionnaires were as follows:

Are you familiar with Fossil fuels?

Could you briefly explain?

Do you know the fossil fuel is non-renewable?

Have you heard about Fracking and horizontal drilling processes?

Could you briefly explain?

Can Fracking act as an alternative to fossil fuel?

Could you briefly explain?

Can horizontal drilling technique be utilized for the extraction of natural gas?

Could you briefly explain?

Do you know about the impact of Fracking?

Do you know the benefits and limitations of Fracking in society?

Would you like to stop the Fracking process in affecting the society?

What are the advantages of horizontal drilling over Fracking?

The above set of questionnaire was surveyed with the views of the respondents and the useful information were consequently, extracted in order to acquire data relevant to our research topic (See Appendix 1). We also considered ethical consideration in our research process implied that we maintained the confidentially and privacy of private information of the individuals while conducting our secondary research.

While conducting our secondary research, the anonymity and confidentiality of the details of the respondents has been kept safe and secure. By following a professional code of conduct in our research procedure, we had been able to abide by the privacy and confidentially law while exacting information (Roger 2010). We also made sure that data should be destroyed after the information has been dealt with and utilized in the research process.

The closed questions including 1, 3, 4, 6, 8 and 10 would help in acquiring quantitative data. This data would help in determining the knowledge of the data sources in respective of the research topic. While, the open questions including 2, 5, 7, 9, 13 would help in provident qualitative information in respective of our research topic. These questions are aimed at extracting thoughts and views of the respondents about the process of frackning and its impact in the society (Gulati, 2010).

For conducting our secondary research, we selected random sample of employees working in the oil and gas companies in UK. We selected the views, opinions, thoughts, and ideas of the business professionals of higher hierarchical status of the organizations as we considered them the sources of quality information relating to the industry (Saunders and Thornhill, 2010). Then, we selected the statements of the employees whose views were relevant with our research topic and the research questionnaires as well.

Online Survey

Frequency

Percentage (Population)

Gender

Male

67

57.3

Female

54

43.7

Age

24-35

66

46.5

36-50

43

40.2

Above 50

21

13.3

Hierarchical Status

CEO

09

02.2

Business Managers

12

09.0

Supervisors

59

32.8

Workers

69

52.0


Table: Survey Statistics (Data collected from the reviews of various oil and gas companies)

Source: Author’s creation

For our primary research, we distributed the questionnaires to our respondents (randomly selected). The information gathered from the research were interesting and useful but, it could have made more realistic and original, had we conducted the survey vis-à-vis our respondents. Quick sac of the responses as provided by the respondents revealed their understanding of the Fracking and horizontal drilling processes. Although, the information acquired in the data collection method is relevant and useful, it could have been improved if we could have implied actual verbal appreciation while acquiring the data.

Analysis and interpretation of Data

While conducting our secondary research, we ensured that the data that we had been extracting from was relevant to our research topic. Our data sources were mainly based on:

Annual reports, market papers, magazines, and newspapers related to the oil and gas companies

The organizations were based in UK only

The data being collected from the source were not older than five years

The useful data from the sources were extracted after comparing as relevant to our concerned topic (Kothari, 2010)

Overall, there had been 50 respondents selected in our secondary research from whom we have been able to collect useful information based on the open and closed questionnaires being set in our research process. The closed questionnaires were related in determining the knowledge of the data sources in respective of the Fracking and horizontal drilling processes. These questions were also helpful in determining whether the respondents knew about any impacts of the Fracking process in our society as well (Lancaster, 2012). These questions were set for evaluating the opinions of theses respondents whether they knew about the frackning process. These questions helped in generating numeric information, which can be described below by the following table:

Questionnaires

Yes

No

Didn’t mention

Are you familiar with Fossil fuels?

45

0

5

Do you know the fossil fuel is non-renewable?

38

12

0

Have you heard about Fracking and horizontal drilling processes?

35

15

0

Can Fracking act as an alternative to fossil fuel?

34

14

2

Could horizontal drilling technique be utilized for the extraction of natural gas?

29

19

2

Do you know about the impact of frackning?

9

38

3

Do you know the benefits and limitations of Fracking in society?

12

15

23

Would you like to stop the Fracking process in affecting the society?

14

2

34


Source: Author’s creation

From the above table, it can be found that around 70% of the respondents had responded positively about the Fracking and horizontal drilling processes. Out of these 70% respondents, 33% did not know the process to be the best alternative to fossil fuels. The most astonishing fact was that only 19% were aware of the impact of the Fracking process in our society and only 25% of them were aware of the advantages and limitations of the Fracking process. Overall, this closed set of questionnaire helps in revealing the limited understanding and knowledge of the people about the diminishing fossil fuels and the Fracking process (Leedy and Ormrod 2012). In addition, most of them have never heard about Fracking as the alternating resource to fossil fuel.

The remaining were the open set of questionnaires which had been aimed at extracting thoughts and views of the respondents about the process of Fracking and its impact in the society. By careful analysis of the views, thoughts, description of the respondents, we were able to identify the findings, which can be illustrated by the following table as:

Questionnaire

Responses

Could you briefly explain about Fossil Fuels?

Detailed description

(35)

Brief Description

(15)

No comments

(0)

Could you briefly explain Fracking and horizontal drilling processes?

Detailed description

(15)

Brief Description

(24)

No comments

(11)

What are the benefits and limitations of Fracking and horizontal drilling processes?

It would deeply impact our society

(16)

It would not affect us in the near future

(29)

It would not affect us at all

(5)

What are the advantages of horizontal drilling over Fracking?

Detailed description

(4)

Political issue

(24)

No comments

(22)


Source: Author’s creation

From the analysis of the above table, it can be found that nearly as much as 50% of the respondents expressed their desires for not involving with the political; issues. Though, each of the respondents have been able to clearly explain about the fossil fuels but nearly 70% of them did not provide details about both the processes involved with the extraction procedure. It is very shocking to find out that as much as 90% of the respondents were unable to provide the advantage of horizontal drilling over Fracking.

The main aim of creating a set of questionnaires was that to extract useful information from the data available relative to our research topic. This strategy helped us in acquiring valid, honest, and relevant data in respective of our research study. The data as acquired by the data collection process illustrates the knowledge and understanding of the people in UK about the concept of the Fracking and horizontal drilling processes. Fracking can be regarded as an alternative for the non-renewable fossil fuel but most of the respondents fail to recognize this fact (Gummerson 2010). While, horizontal drilling can be utilized in extracting the shale gas form the shale gas reserves located deep within the earth surface (Hair and Money 2011). Due to the lack of public awareness in the mass, people are unable to identify the advantages and limitations of the Fracking and horizontal drilling processes. They are also unaware of the impact of the Fracking and horizontal drilling in the society as well. Thus, these consequences have to be realized if UK wants to exploit on the advantages of utilizing the Fracking and horizontal drilling process to within its oil and gas sector in the future.

We had acquired useful information by selecting 50 respondents in our secondary research from whom we have been able to collect useful information based on the open and closed questionnaires being set in our research process. However, the data acquired in the research process contained useful and relevant information but it could have been more realistic, had the research included wider range of sample (Leavy and Hesse-Biber 2010).

The closed questionnaires helped in determining the knowledge of the data sources in respective of the Fracking and horizontal drilling processes (Hakim 2010). These questions were also helpful in determining whether the respondents knew about any impacts of the related processes in our society as well. These questions were set for evaluating the opinions of theses respondents whether they knew about the Fracking and horizontal drilling processes. Due to the simplicity in the designing of the research questionnaires, the outcome of the research is straightforward and is very easy for the readers to interpret the outcome (Handwerker 2010). Although, the overall responses to the questionnaires being set were satisfactory, it could have been improved had we spent more time in conducting our primary research surveys and interviews in a more widespread area and incorporating more number of respondents as well.

As the fossil fuels are non-renewable sources of energy and is depleting constantly, there should be an implementation of renewable energy sources that would be renewed. In this context, Fracking and horizontal drilling should be considered as a possible alternative to the fossil fuel in the near future (Lodico and Spaulding, 2010).

Conclusions and Recommendations

Conclusion

Thus, to conclude, the alternate energy resources that are renewable in nature would be the future of the energy sources and Fracking is one of these future resources. This Fracking process should be implemented on a global basis and not just within UK. The US has been implementing the Fracking process within its oil and gas industry since the past few years. One thing the UK is not able to clarify whether Fracking should be implemented within the country and what would be the impact of implementing the sane in the society and the country’s economy. The horizontal drilling is another innovative technique in the extraction of shale gas from the shale gas reserves, which is located in the pores of the sedimentary layers, found deep within the earth’s surface.

However, our research data was also based on secondary data sources, we took useful information as relevant to our research questionnaires being set, and thus, making it more genuine, valid, and relevant to our research studies. We also considered ethical reasoning while conducting our research procedure. The ethical consideration as implemented by us in our research process implied that we maintained the confidentially and privacy of private information of the individuals while conducting our secondary research.

Proper analysis of the research study helps in revealing some issues. The major issue is the lack of knowledge and awareness in the people regarding the energy resources and their faster diminishing threat. Most people believe that the fossil fuels are the continuous sources of energy supply but it is not the case in reality. The research paper helps in displaying a clearer picture about the lack of appropriate or sufficing knowledge and information regarding the energy resources and their impact in our society. Thus, the research study helps in providing as message to the society about creating a public awareness in the mass such that the people could provide their valuable contribution for improving the future of the energy supply in respective of the oil and gas industry. Overall, the research paper would enable the reader to gain sufficient information about the various techniques involved with the extraction of natural gas and oil in the relevant industry in UK.

From the analysis of the findings as illustrated in this paper, it is evident that most of the people are unaware of the current situation of the energy resources and their impact in the society. This implies the lack of public awareness, which is a very serious issue and should be taken seriously for the betterment of the society. The standards of the public awareness regarding the social issues should be enhanced such that public could provide their own opinions based on the reality and not related to any tabloid gossip.

The original intention of conducting our research has been to implement the entire process by implementing a primary research approach. But due to the limitations of time and resource issues, we utilized secondary dada resources for our research. Moreover, the quality and relevancy of the information acquired during the data collection procedure could have been enhanced by incorporating more number of respondents while gathering information.

An important factor influencing my decision to pursue my business studies in GSM University is that I always wanted to start a business on my own. A dream of mine had led me to enroll myself to pursue a two years degree in business management program.

Prior to my enrolment in the GSM University, I wanted to pursue Event Management before a respected Professor in the University provided me with his valuable suggestion to pursue a carrier related to business. Following his advice, I decided to opt for pursuing Oil and Gas Management as the industry has been related to the innovative revolution that is currently going on. Thus, I am happy with the choice that I made for my career.

I pursued a degree in Oil and Gas Management form the GSM University, which has helped me getting proper knowledge and better understanding of the related processes, involved with in the Oil and Gas industry including the production, refinement, exploration, and distribution. While studying in the university, I was able to develop and enhance my skills in a wide range of areas including business communication, financial awareness, and teamwork, which would help me to succeed in the future. The University has also helped me in enhancing my abilities, building ideas and knowledge in order to become a future entrepreneur.

The University provides a high quality facilities including the standards library for its students helping them learn and enhance their skills in an efficient way. These facilities helped me in gaining access to the quality information regarding the business ventures of different companies and organizations all round the world. These resources helped me to enhance my knowledge about the business organizations and the respective techniques and methodologies that these organizations implement in order to run their business processes.

While studying at GSM, I get the chance of coming across some great personalities including my lecturers whose support has encouraged me in enhancing my personality. Overall, I am extremely happy with my decision of choosing the university to pursue my business studies.

Studying in GSM University had been a pleasure as it enabled me to develop my skills and acquire proper knowledge about business by exposing me with the business environment. It also helped me in enhancing my researching and analytical skills as well as improving my time skills, which would help me in becoming a perfect businessperson in the future (Agha 2011).

GSM University has helped me to enhance my creativity and knowledge in the field of business throughout since; I have been pursuing my studies in the university. All the modules being taught to us were rewarding especially the student programmed in the final year, which helped me in summarizing all the modules that I have studied during my course of study. I think these modules have been incorporating different ranges of skills and disciplines within themselves and upon learning of which, I had been able to integrate and apply the skills within myself. The skills and knowledge as acquired while studying in the university would helps in gaining confidence in facing the business world and would definitely help me in starting my business carrier in future as well.

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