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Instruments of National Power

1.  The military is an instrument of national power.  Pick two other instruments of national power and briefly describe them.  Give at least two examples of each.
a)  Instrument of national power

b)  Two examples

c)  Instrument of national power

d)  Two examples

2.  One ‘end’ defined in the National Security Strategy 2010 is the security of the United States, its citizens, and U.S. allies and partners.  A means associated with this end is U.S. nuclear forces.  Explain at least one way that U.S. nuclear forces will be used to achieve this end (refer to the QDR 2014, Section II, The Defense Strategy).  

3.  Using the QDR 2014 regarding the future security environment, describe the most significant threat, challenge, and opportunity and explain your rationale for choosing each.

a) Threat
b)  Challenge
c)  Opportunity
d)  Rationale

4.  Define a state and discuss whether states are still relevant.  

a) Provide a definition of a state using the C200 course materials.  Be sure to cite the author or doctrinal reference you used.    

b) Are states still relevant in the 21st century?  Explain why or why not.  

5.  For what purpose does the Geographic Combatant Commander conduct a Strategic Estimate?

6.  Describe how the Geographic Combatant Commander translates the strategic guidance and direction [contained in either the Guidance for Employment of the Force (GEF) or the Joint Strategic Capabilities Plan (JSCP)] into planning for theater strategy.

a)  GEF  
b)  JSCP

7.  Define strategy and explain how it informs planning.

a)  Provide a definition of strategy using the C200 course materials.  Be sure to cite the author or doctrinal reference you used.   

b)  How does strategy inform planning?  Explain.  

8.  Describe how Crisis Action Planning differs from Deliberate Planning.

The four instruments of national power are Diplomatic, Information, Military and Economic (DIME). Among these four factors, economic factor can be considered as a major instrument of national power. Developments of an economy are done with the help of sanctions of funding requirements from the government and it can become a major form factor.

As an example, it can be said the dominance of Apple, IBM, Intel, Microsoft etc in the US economy.  Another example could be cited as the enormous Gross Domestic Product of the US economy and the buying power of the citizens of US.

Diplomatic tool can also be used as an instrument of national power. Diplomacy can be used to maintain relationship between two countries.

Significant Threats, Challenges, and Opportunities in the Future Security Environment

Diplomatic agreement between United Nations and another country or any two security relationship reassessment can be cited as an example of Diplomatic national power. Another example can be a challenge in the GAAT region for the USEUCOM is to provide only non-lethal security assistance, link other assistance (e.g. economic aid) to continued participation in diplomatic efforts to resolve the territorial dispute, or also build the capacity of the other party to the territorial dispute.

2. One ‘end’ defined in the National Security Strategy 2010 is the security of the United States, its citizens, and U.S. allies and partners.  A means associated with this end is U.S. nuclear forces.  Explain at least one way that U.S. nuclear forces will be used to achieve this end (refer to the QDR 2014, Section II, The Defense Strategy). 

Protecting citizens of United States is categorized as one of the primary objectives of National Security of 2010, and nuclear forces play a crucial role in this regard. Developing nuclear weapons are very much required to fight terrorism in countries like Afghanistan. Recent disturbances in Afghanistan have clearly shown that a proper security strategy is required not only for the existing citizens of Afghanistan or United States but also for the entire world. Hence, placing nuclear weapons in those disturbed areas might be required to challenge the terrorist activities. Nuclear forces can also be divided into various sub-forms such as missiles used from the ground or air or by using submarines or ships etc. Also, serious consideration needs to be taken regarding budgeting of these nuclear weapons as maintaining nuclear weapons can be very costly in nature. Incorrect spending on these areas may, later on, lead to questioning from different governing bodies. The end state of security can have ways of a strong military and means of using that military in all of its capabilities:  combat, humanitarian assistance, training, counterterrorism, etc.           

3. The Quadrennial Defense Review of 2014 (QDR 2014) is prepared to rebalance, reshape and adapt the military force of United States of America in order to cope up with the opportunities and strategic challenges in the coming years. There are mainly three strategic pillars in QDR 2014, these are deterring aggression, defending that US land and developing international security with the help of US influence and deterring aggression.

More and more countries these days are becoming powerful and are developing advanced weapon to protect their nation. For example, growing terrorism activity in countries like Afghanistan can be considered as a serious threat to United Nations. Also, because of religious differences Middle East nations are becoming threats to the country. Competition for resources such as water and energy, between the countries can also become a factor for indifferences and lead to war. Cyber threats are also becoming a factor for instability as the usage of internet increases rapidly in the developing and underdeveloped nations. In addition to this, large economic based country, China can be considered as another major threat to US.

Managing high end sophisticated technologies are becoming an increasing challenge day by day. Counter stealth technology can be taken as an example of highly advanced weapons systems. Automated systems and robotics are also becoming a trend that helps to improve military strategy of any country. Innovations in the field of biotechnology can also lead to development of weapons that are difficult to detect and encounter.

Crisis Action Planning vs Deliberate Planning

In today’s complex situation, there are multiple strengths of United Nations that can be cited. Post recession US economy is becoming stronger and it is still one of strongest strengths of US government. Future prospect of US economy is also seems to be very strong. United Nations also has alliances with other countries such Europe in particular that needs technologically advanced but also possesses strong nuclear power. This alliance can be leveraged during crises such as war. In addition, human resources are strength of US military and it can be used for any kind of emergency.

The objectives United Nations defense system should always seek to protect its land and citizens. However, emerging countries such as China are becoming stronger day by day and increasing terrorist activities can be one of the biggest weaknesses of the country. Other countries are also increasing their strength in terms of acquiring new age defense weapons and that can pose serious threat to the country. Increasing number of cyber threats are also considered to be one of the weaknesses of United Nations.

4. a).  In the context of U.S. Army, states are different territories that define the categorization of tasks of the officials. They are divided into different departments or agencies to perform allocated tasks. Some are assigned to do laboratory research while others are instructed to bring out new and innovative ideas to combat the evil forces of the enemies. There are also some training schools for men and women to train them to join the army, which can also be referred to as states. States are specialized departments that render quality services to various sectors related to the U.S. army. States are usually set up to safeguard national interests. They are maintained by staffs from the intelligence bureaus who keep a track of everything taking place inside the U.S. army. The surveillance becomes much easier when the tasks are divided into various states as personal supervision is implemented for proper execution of the strategies.

b). States are still relevant in the 21st century. States can be used to form alliances and partnerships. Alliances and partnerships are a central and constant phenomenon in international politics throughout history. It has been seen multiple times that states have been used as a strategy in order to counter any activities like fighting the enemy. By forming alliances the security of the country can be increased. When a state joins an alliance, though entanglement becomes a possibility, the chances of defeating the enemy becomes stronger. Hence, it can be concluded that state is still a relevant concept in 21st century.

The estimate of strategy prepared by Geographic Combatant Commander is an available tool to CCMDs and sub unified commands since they develop and campaign design plans and subordinate campaign. It includes assessment of the broad strategic factors that can influence the theatre strategic area. It also includes the direction of analysis of strategy that is received from the secretary of defense, president, or the authoritative body of an international force. It includes all entities states, or groups in the operations scenario that may ask to justify the ability of CCMD’s of defending of US in a particular region. This will help in foresight of the relevant geo economic, cultural and geopolitical factors in that area. This assessment of operational and strategic challenges of the CCMD; an analysis of anticipated or known opportunity that can be leveraged by CCMD; and assessment of risks present in the security environment. It is a process, as well as a product. The development of the Strategic Estimate takes one through a process collects set of inputs, make their analysis, and transform them into a product. It would be correct to say that the process is as important as the product. Although CCDRs consider regional approaches within their theatres, one is unlikely to full versions of the Strategic Estimate product in the real world. Each part of the process for developing the Strategic Estimate is based on the analysis of a common set of information. The importance of information gathering cannot be over-emphasized, since the quality of strategic analysis usually depends on the breadth and depth of information brought to bear on the situation. The more quickly a planner masters the sources, whether from a library or the internet, the more quickly the planner can proceed with sound analysis.

6. Describe how the Geographic Combatant Commander translates the strategic guidance and direction [contained in either the Guidance for Employment of the Force (GEF) or the Joint Strategic Capabilities Plan (JSCP)] into planning for theater strategy.

GCC’s creates a theatre strategy emphasizing on meeting specific end states for their theatres. By theatre strategy it is meant a preparation of the long-term plans of the commander’s for the AOR. It is the connection between strategic joint operation planning and national guidance required for achieving regional and national objectives. To be more specific, it links activities of CCMD, resources and operations to policy of Government of United States (USG) and guidance of strategy. The theatre strategy must explain the end of regional state and the ways, objectives, and means to meet them. It must start with estimate of the strategy. Even though no particular format for a theatre strategy is there, it may if it wants, contain the commander’s challenges, vision, objectives, assumptions, trending patterns, and resources. GCCs implement theatre strategy in order to focus and align efforts and resources to prepare and mitigate for contingencies and conflict in their AOR and advance and support US interests. In order to support this objective, theatre strategies focus on activities for security cooperation, capacity building for partner and preparation for adverse situations. Theatre strategies typically implement regional and military engagement, intimate cooperation with the embassies, Department of State (DOS), and other departments of the federal system to achieve theatre objectives. Theatre strategy should be supported by the resources available to compliment the accomplishment of specific end states and should include policies, programs, military resources, and funding availabilities.

The CJCS exercises its power for directing the preparing of the joint plans through the primary medium. The JSCP gives strategic, military and operational campaign plans. It also provides planning for contingency based on present capability of the military. It acts as a link between strategic guidance included in the GEF and the operation planning products and activities, which are involved in the accomplishment of that guidance. In addition to CCMDs communication to the specific guidance necessary for deliberate planning, the JSCP normally translates policy related to strategy end states from the GEF into campaign for the military and guidance reserve plan for CCDRs and expands assistance to contain international defense posture, cooperation of security, and other related activities.

7. a). Strategy can be defined as a national, regional and governmental tool. It is a way that leads to means which are actionable events. Strategies can be changed, but they are frameworks that actual operations and tactics fit within.  Strategy drives planning or guides planning. When there are one or more goals to achieve under uncertain circumstances, few plans are set up to combat the situational difficulties, which are known as Strategies. Strategy is very important in any organizational structure because there are limited resources present to achieve the desired goals. Strategy usually involves goal-setting, determining strong actions to attain the goals and assembling resources for proper execution of the actions. Talking about military strategy, it is a collection of ideas applied by the military organizations (in this case U.S. military organization) to achieve the strategic goals that are desired by them. This type of strategy generally deals with planning and conducting of different campaigns, the disposition and movement of forces and of course in deception of their enemies. The military operational and strategic guidance are provided by the JSCPs to CCDRs, CCAs, Service Chiefs and DOD agencies to prepare contingency and campaign plans depending on the currently available military capabilities.

b). Orders and joint plans are developed with the military and strategy planning sets. The planners and commanders derive the understanding of the end states from the strategic guiding policies. Strategy affects the planning process. Planning transforms strategic direction and guidance into operational orders and campaign plans.  The objectives and mission of the organizational set up are planned before hand and respective strategies are set into motion for proper execution of the plans. Concept development, strategic guidance, plan assessment and plan development are used to map politico-military assessments in the level of strategic planning to evaluate the military objectives and strategies. Strategy and planning go hand in hand for execution. The planning process should include various strategies that can be used to combat situational difficulties. A proper planning should always contain appropriate strategies so that the crisis period can be easily conquered.

It requires deliberate planning focuses on the plans prepared, planned and occur in the non-crisis situation. The planning is used to plan, create and develop the contingency plans and campaigns for a wide range of the activities created on the requirements that are identified in GEF or other such planning directives. Global and theater campaign plans are the centered parts of the DOD’s constructive planning.

Crisis action planning (CAP) provides the CCDR’s and CJCS are the processes for making the information up as the chain of instructions to the SecDef and President so to attain a vital decision. It also highlights the instruments for commanding the successful execution of the activity. Crisis action plans are very similar to the deliberate plans but differs too. CAP works out on the real world and the dynamic conditions and not on the static ones.

References

R.M,Wilcox,Menning B.W. Guide to Strategic Estimate Developmen ,n.d.

Statement of General Philip Breedlove Commander U.S. Forces Europe,2019.

Strategic Estimate Caucasus Region, 2019.

House.gov,. "The United States House Of Representatives • House.Gov". Last modified 2016. Accessed January 5, 2016. https://www.house.gov.

State.gov,. "Bureau Of European And Eurasian Affairs". Last modified 2016. Accessed January 5, 2016. https://www.state.gov/p/eur/index.htm.

whitehouse.gov,. "The White House". Last modified 2015. Accessed January 5, 2016. https://www.whitehouse.gov.

 State.gov, "Bureau Of European And Eurasian Affairs", last modified 2016, accessed January 5, 2016, https://www.state.gov/p/eur/index.htm.

 R.M. Wilcox and Menning B.W, Guide to Strategic Estimate Development, (n.d), 5.

 whitehouse.gov, "The White House", last modified 2015, accessed January 5, 2016, https://www.whitehouse.gov.

 Statement of General Philip Breedlove Commander U.S. Forces Europe, (2019),1-5.

 Strategic Estimate Caucasus Region, (2019), 5.

 Statement of General Philip Breedlove Commander U.S. Forces Europe, (2019),1-5.

 Statement of General Philip Breedlove Commander U.S. Forces Europe, (2019),1-5.

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