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1. Rich picture for the case study

1.a.Draw a spray diagram or rich picture that captures the situation described in the case study. 


Explain your rationale for the way you have drawn this diagram, for the elements you have included and excluded, and describe the insights you have gained about the system from drawing this diagram.

b.Choose a significant event described by the case study which you wish to explore further, and draw a multiple cause diagram showing the causes of that event. 


Explain your rationale for the way you have drawn your diagram, for the elements you have included and excluded, and describe the insights you have gained about the system from drawing this diagram.

c.identify five key stakeholders described in the case study, describing each one and the nature of their interest in this IT system. 

2.aIdentify a significant failure in the situation described in the case study. You should select a failure that will allow sufficient scope for modelling in parts (b) and (c). 


Explain in one or two paragraphs: 


why you consider it to be a failure 
why you consider it to be significant enough to justify further analysis 
who, in the situation, would and would not have agreed that it was a failure, and why they would hold this view. 

b.State a sociotechnical system you can perceive in the situation described in the case study that you would expect to be useful to you in a study using the Systems Failures Approach.

Draw a systems map of it in its environment, based solely on the information contained in the case study. Take care to select a system for which the case study provides sufficient detail for your model. 


Explain your rationale for the way you have drawn your map, for the elements you have included and excluded, and describe the insights you have gained about the system from drawing the map. 


c.Carry out a comparison of the system you mapped in 2(b) and the Formal System Model (FSM). Present your answer as a diagram similar to Figure 1. 


Explain your rationale for the way you have drawn your diagram, for the elements included and excluded, and describe the insights you have gained about the system from drawing the diagram.

3.Apply each of the following concepts to analyse the systems described in the case study: 


• a.complexity

• b.emergence

• c.adaptation

• d. co-evolution. 


For each concept write a paragraph of explanation setting out the insight you have gained by applying the concept to the case study's systems. In your answer you should explain, with justification, if the systems in the case study exhibit these concepts. 
Where appropriate,

1. Rich picture for the case study

Figure 1: Rich picture presenting the provided case study

(Source: Created by Author)

The above diagram has been drawn to present the information being presented in the study of Disclosure and Barring Service (DBS) system of UK Government. The Government decided to implement a new IT system for criminal records checking hence, the rich picture illustrates the requirement of a new system. The system is required by both the Government and Customers and the above picture reflects the same with three major entities involved in the process of implementing the new IT system. The components of the system has been excluded in the diagram and only the reason for new system is presented.

Figure 2: Multiple Causes Diagram for a significant event (Delay)

(Source: Created by Author)

The above diagram represents a significant event that has been found in the case study that is delay in the project. The missed deadlines has been considered as the significant event and the other variables are causes of the event. The delay event has occurred due to the different factors illustrated in the above diagram. In the diagram only the causes behind the event has been included and effect has been excluded as it is multiple cause diagram. It has been identified that there are major issues in the system that has to be resolved for successful delivery on time.

UK Government: It is the major stakeholder as presented in the case study as it has decided to digitize their Disclosure and Barring Service (DBS). The service is for checking criminal records and UK Government has decided to develop the IT system. The Government has contracted this project so that criminal records could be checked by the customers.

Criminal Records Bureau (CRB): This stakeholder is responsible for marinating the criminal records however it was being carried out through paper works. This stakeholder is indirectly related with the IT system. Thus, a decision was made in 2012 to merge with Independent Safeguarding Authority for forming the DBS.

Tata Consultancy Service (TCS): It is one of the major stakeholder as the government has been contracted for designing, building and running of the new IT system. The system will be developed by this company for provisioning of DBS and transiting the existing services that also includes update service from Capita.

Customer: The customers are also major stakeholder related to the new IT system as they will be benefitted from the system. The customers will access the new IT system so that they can check if there is any criminal record or other services at their own convenience.

2. Multiple causes diagram for significant event

Parliament?s Public Accounts Committee (PAC): It is another stakeholder related to the new IT system as they are providing report on the project. The report prepared by the committee reflects the extent and cost of delays on the project to determine the success or failure of the new IT system.

From the case study, it has been identified that over budgeting was a major failure as the cost for the programme was expected to be £229m more than the initial planned budget of £656m.

The cost is considered to be significant failure as the overhead would eventually lead to decrease in the reserve funds of UK Government. The system may be a failure due to increase in cost as a result of which the charges for customers are also increasing. The increase in cost also affects the views of various stakeholders and the scope of the system may also change. It would eventually lead to decrease in features of the system.

From the situation reflected in the case study, it can be said that UK Government would not agree to the fact that it was failure and the customers would agree that it was failure. The reason behind customers think of it as a failure as they are being charged £13 a year for the update service instead of the £10 expected in 2012. UK Government would not consider it is a failure as they have decided to recover the additional expense from the customers by building a surplus of £114m for their services.

The sociotechnical system that can be perceived in this situation as described in the case study is Social Media Sites and it will be useful for study using the Systems Failure Approach.

Figure 3: Systems Map for the Sociotechnical System

(Source: Created by Author)

The above diagram illustrates the systems map for Disclosure and Barring Service (DBS) system that demonstrates the system boundary and entities involved with the system. In the diagram, the two major stakeholders of the system has been included along with the different services while the other stakeholders has been excluded. It has been shown that services of the system includes disclosure certificates that is required for safeguarding information. Again the safeguarding information comprises of criminal records and update service. The different entities of the system are Home Office which is sponsor and Employees who will be working with the system.

Figure 4: Comparison of Systems Map using Formal System Model (FSM)

3. Identification of stakeholders

(Source: Created by Author)

The above diagram represents the comparison of systems map for Disclosure and Barring Service (DBS) system and the Formal System Model (FSM). The diagram presents the wider system and subsystems within the system for better understanding the requirement of new IT system. The above diagram presents the interconnection between the wider system, system and subsystems along with the environment. In the above diagram, the system and subsystems has been included only while the services and features of the system has been excluded. The connection and communication between the system and subsystems has been presented in the above diagram. The diagram reflects that there is resemblance of systems map for DBS with Formal System Model.

In the presented case study, it has been identified that there was complexity in the system as the requirements were not clearly identified. The system to be developed was also complex as there was mere chance of handling changes in scope during the development phase. The system was required to have different modules as per needs of the stakeholders but it was not clearly mentioned in the contract provided by Home Office. The requirements were only defined by the Home Office and proper requirement analysis was not done before accepting the contract. Hence, there were lot of complexities while carrying out development of the new IT system.   

From the case study, it is evident that the system will emerge as a revolutionary idea for the Government as well as Employees working with the criminal records management departments. The entity in the system has properties that are not contained in its parts that is reflected due to interaction between the subsystems of the system. The system is well confined as the parts are also well connected so that there is proper interaction between them for successful outcomes. The system will grow through interactions between the subsystems as update services are also included in the system. Emergence is an essential aspect for building successful IT systems as it helps to integrate the requirements through innovative ideas.  

From the case study, there is evidence that the system have to be adaptable as there will be increase in data and modules due to the update services. The system is adaptable to change as different users will have different requirements from the system. The features of the system will accessed by different users according to their user level. This concept is vital for development of successful IT systems as those systems have to be robust in nature to suffice the requirements of different users. The system should be able to provide support irrespective of the technical skills of the user.

This concept relates to end user development that means that the end users will be able to modify the system as per their requirements. It is an essential concept for the development of successful IT system as it helps to get the utmost experience from using the system. There is application of this concept in the new IT system for DBS as presented in the case study. The system will be able to fulfill requirements of the end users through various services and features.  

Arnold, R.D. and Wade, J.P., 2015. A definition of systems thinking: a systems approach. Procedia Computer Science, 44, pp.669-678.

Davis, M.C., Challenger, R., Jayewardene, D.N. and Clegg, C.W., 2014. Advancing socio-technical systems thinking: A call for bravery. Applied ergonomics, 45(2), pp.171-180.

FutureLearn. (2018). Multiple cause diagrams - Systems Thinking and Complexity. [online] Available at: https://www.futurelearn.com/courses/systems-thinking-complexity/0/steps/20381 [Accessed 20 Nov. 2018].

Haines, S., 2016. The systems thinking approach to strategic planning and management. CRC Press.

Jaradat, R.M., 2015. Complex system governance requires systems thinking-how to find systems thinkers. International Journal of System of Systems Engineering, 6(1-2), pp.53-70.

Kat Hall., 2018. UK Home Office's £885m crim records digi effort: A 'masterclass in incompetence'. [online] Available at: https://www.theregister.co.uk/2018/05/25/digitisation_of_crim_records_masterclass_in_incompetence_gov_watchdog/ [Accessed 20 Nov. 2018].

Oinas-Kukkonen, H. and Harjumaa, M., 2018. Persuasive systems design: key issues, process model and system features. In Routledge Handbook of Policy Design (pp. 105-123). Routledge.

Pearlson, K.E., Saunders, C.S. and Galletta, D.F., 2016. Managing and Using Information Systems, Binder Ready Version: A Strategic Approach. John Wiley & Sons.

Prendiville, A., 2018. Amplifying Relationships through Place and Locality in the Design of Local Government Digital Services. She Ji: The Journal of Design, Economics, and Innovation, 4(1), pp.47-59.

UK Parliament., 2018. Modernising the Disclosure and Barring Service inquiry. [online] Available at: https://www.parliament.uk/business/committees/committees-a-z/commons-select/public-accounts-committee/inquiries/parliament-2017/disclosure-barring-service-17-19/ [Accessed 20 Nov. 2018].

Wilson, B. and Van Haperen, K., 2015. Soft systems thinking, methodology and the management of change. Macmillan International Higher Education.

Young, W. and Leveson, N.G., 2014. An integrated approach to safety and security based on systems theory. Communications of the ACM, 57(2), pp.31-35.

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