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1. Synthesis 
2. Medicine,cisplatin 
3. Production of materials for human consumption (metallic compounds such as Al2O3, S8O2) 
4. Fabrication of materials for construction work 
5. Catalytic, some metal used in catalysis 

Synthetic Inorganic Chemistry

Inorganic chemistry defines the study of the creation, synthesis as well as the characteristics of compounds that are not having carbon-hydrogen bonds in their structures. Inorganic chemistry handles the synthesis and conduct of the inorganic as well as organometallic compounds. In as much as some of the inorganic species may be achieved in the pure forms from nature, quite a large number of them are often synthesized in the laboratory as well as in chemical plants. Inorganic chemistry is applied in the synthesis of plastics as well as fibres (Tsugawa et al., 2016).

While fibre defines any material which is continuous filaments or in elongated pieces that are directs, having the same length as thread, a plastics refers to any of the broad range of synthetic organic solids that is often applied  during the manufacture of industrial products. Fibres find their applications in numerous areas among them holding together of tissues in both animals as well as plants. Inorganic chemistry has been applied in the manufacture of various types of fibres among them textile and human made also called synthetic fibres for example microfibers, cellulose, mineral as well as polymers (Tsugawa et al., 2016).

Fibres may be made into string, filaments or even rope. They may as well be used as commonest of various composite materials or even mattered for the manufacture of products among them paper. Plastics are on the other hand polymers that have great molecular mass and could often be composed of other materials so as to enhance their performance or otherwise lower their cost of production (Comini, 2016).

The extensive knowledge of inorganic chemists on the coordination, redox, ligand exchanges as well as the photo physical properties of the various metal ions have aided in gaining an in-depth understanding of the interactions between the different inorganic compounds and the biological molecules of the human body (Comini, 2016). There is a trend of shift of focus by the pharmaceutical industry on inorganic drugs from the dominant organic drugs. Among the main reasons for this include:

  • Chances of transferring inorganic dugs in the body through reactions of ligand substitution and oxidation are high
  • Numerous activities of the metal ions with regard to biology have initiated the establishment of therapeutics based on metals (Müller & Krebs, 2016).

Metal complexes are being widely used in various therapeutic applications in which they are used in the treatment of an avalanche of human diseases. The science and concept of medical chemistry started with the realization of the drugs that are based on metals that were used for the treatment of syphilis. At the moment, metals or metalloids as well as their accompanying elements are being used and are incorporated into numerals therapeutic drugs as well as agents of diagnostic imaging (Malavath & Kumar, 2018).

Among the metals and/or metalloids commonly used include iron, silver, platinum, copper, selenium, bismuth, vanadium, antimony, arsenic, germanium, ruthenium, titanium, manganese, gadolinium as well as technetium among other metals and metalloids. There has also been noticed worldwide increase and tremendous growth in the sales of inorganic drugs, a trend that is expected to increase even further.

Inorganic chemistry is applied in the production of inorganic compounds that are used for various purposes such as fuels, pigments, coatings or even surfactants. Such substances in most case have relatively very high melting points as well as specific low or high properties of electrical conductivities that render them useful for categorical purposes for example:

Medicine

Ammonia is a source of nitrogen for manufacture of nitrogenous fertilizer and tends to be one of the main inorganic chemist that is used in the generation of plastics, fibres, nylons as well plastics alongside polyurethanes that are used in hard coatings that are resistant to pain, foams and adhesives as well as hydrazine which is used in rocket and jet fuels besides explosives (Roux, Hansson & Claustres, 2016).

Titanium dioxide is a neutrally available oxide of titanium that is often used in the form of a pigment of white powder in plastics, paper, paint, cosmetics, food, inks, coatings and even fibres. Titanium dioxide as well has excellent properties of resistance to ultraviolet light and thus its growing demand for application in photo catalysts (Comini, 2016).

Chlorine is yet another very important inorganic substance that is often used in the manufacture of polyvinyl chloride that is used in the manufacture of furniture, pipes as well as clothing. The substance is also used as a component in agrichemicals for example treatment of soil, fertilizers or even insecticides alongside finding its applications in pharmaceuticals and chemical for use in sterilization and treatment of water (Nbina & Avwiri, 2014). 

Inorganic chemistry has found wide applications in the construction industry especially when it comes to joinery work. One of such examples is the case of adhesives which are materials used for holding solid materials together by the use of surface attachment (Burrows et al., 2017). The main focus for this case is structure adhesives that are materials used in joinery work of engineering materials including wood, composites and metals. It is anticipated that an adhesive joint should be made using a structural adhesive that is able to sustain a load stress that is beyond 6.9 MPa for the increased period of time. One of such adhesives that have been found to be having such properties is hot melt adhesives which are often applied from the melt and have their properties attained upon the solidification of the adhesives (Nbina & Avwiri, 2014).

Pressure sensitive adhesives offer strength as well as adherence using just finger pressure during the process of application (Sekiguchi et al., 2015). Adhesive tapes that are commonly used in engineering joinery work are made through the application of an adhesive that is sensitive to pressure to a backing. Any of the ain classes of adhesive can be define into further details using its chemistry hence most of the structural adhesives are determined by one or more of the given chemistries: imide, epoxy, protein, acrylic, phenolic and bismaleimide. On the other hand, most of the hot melt adhesive is determined by the named chemistries: polyesters, polypropylene, polyethene, polyamides, ethylene-vinyl acetate as well as polyesters (Malavath & Kumar, 2018). The pressure sensitive adhesive is normally based on silicones, natural rubber, vinyl ethers, isoprene-styrene block co-polymers as well as acrylics.

Just like organic chemistry, inorganic chemistry is as well applicable in various catalysis reactions that are used in the production of some of the products and compounds that are essential for human kind. Among the process that use inorganic catalysts include the Contact Process that is used in the manufacture of sulphuric acid as well as the Haber process that is sued in the manufacture of ammonia. Another process of a similar nature is the conversion into nitric acid from ammonia (Smiley & Jackson, 2016).  

The contact process is the chemical process that is used in the production of sulphuric acid and encompasses the conversion of sulphur dioxide into sulphur (VI) oxide. The process is done in such a way that sulphur dioxide is passed over heated vanadium (V) oxide catalyst in the company of oxygen or air. Such is an example of a heterogeneous catalysis and the reaction is normally reversible. By virtue that the reaction is a reversible one makes it challenging and hence no difference to the functioning of the catalyst. (Malavath & Kumar, 2018) It enhances the rate of the forward reaction as well as the backward reaction in equal measure.

In the Haber process, nitrogen and hydrogen are combined to form ammonia in the presence iron catalysts, yet another reversible reaction and hence a heterogeneous catalyst. The manufacture of nitric acid from ammonia is also another heterogeneous catalysis example. The process encompasses the oxidation of ammonia from the Haber process using oxygen that is in the air in the presence of a catalyst, platinum rhodium (Malavath & Kumar, 2018).

References

Burrows, A., Holman, J., Parsons, A., Pilling, G., & Price, G. (2017). Chemistry3: introducing inorganic, organic and physical chemistry. Oxford University Press

Comini, E. (2016). Metal oxide nanowire chemical sensors: innovation and quality of life. Materials Today, 19(10), 559-567

Le Roux, G., Hansson, S. V., & Claustres, A. (2016). Inorganic Chemistry in the Mountain Critical Zone: Are the Mountain Water Towers of Contemporary Society Under Threat by Trace Contaminants?. In Developments in Earth Surface Processes(Vol. 21, pp. 131-154). Elsevier

Malavath, R., & Kumar, B. K. (2018). Soil as an infinitive source to meet the challenges of mankind

Müller, A., & Krebs, B. (Eds.). (2016). Sulfur: its significance for chemistry, for the geo-, bio-, and cosmosphere and technology (Vol. 5). Elsevier

Nbina, J. B., & Avwiri, E. (2014). Relative effectiveness of context-based teaching strategy on senior secondary students’ achievement in inorganic chemistry in Rivers State. AFRREV STECH: An International Journal of Science and Technology, 3(2), 159-171

Sekiguchi, A., Tanaka, F., Saito, T., Kuwahara, Y., Sakurai, S., Futaba, D. N., ... & Hata, K. (2015). Robust and soft elastomeric electronics tolerant to our daily lives. Nano letters, 15(9), 5716-5723

Smiley, R. A., & Jackson, H. L. (2016). Chemistry and the chemical industry: a practical guide for non-chemists. CRC press

Tsugawa, H., Kind, T., Nakabayashi, R., Yukihira, D., Tanaka, W., Cajka, T., ... & Arita, M. (2016). Hydrogen rearrangement rules: computational MS/MS fragmentation and structure elucidation using MS-FINDER software. Analytical chemistry, 88(16), 7946-7958

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