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Managers and academics have emphasized the importance of strategic management for organizational success. Please search the extant academic literature (only peer reviewed academic/scientific articles) and perform a literature review on the current state of our knowledge about the impact of strategic planning on organizational performance. In other words, where does the current (last three years) scientific body of knowledge stand concerning the relationship between strategic planning and organizational performance? For example, through what mechanisms does strategic planning influence performance, to what extent does it impact performance….? Furthermore, please relate the scientific findings to your professional experience.

2) Organizations are increasingly seeking to grow by increasing their international presence. Please identify three important considerations/issues that firms face when expanding abroad along with the strategies suggested in the literature that these firms might use to reduce their exposure.

3) Corporate culture has been cited in the popular press and in academic literature as being an important internal environmental element in achieving a competitive advantage. Please select 3 orientations (i.e., marketing, entrepreneurial, customer) and explain how and to what extent these orientations influence organizational performance. Also don’t forget to tie-in how your findings from this literature review resonate with your experience.

4) Four corporate-level growth strategies include vertical, horizontal, concentric (related) and conglomerate (diversified). Please explain each strategy, offer a brief literature review of each including the context under which each strategy is appropriate, and offer an example of a firm that you consider best follows (or has followed) each of these strategies.

Explain what it means by ‘structure follows strategy’ (words from the great management historian, Chandler). Also provide a literature review of the impact of corporate structure on organizational performance and relate these findings to your experience.

Strategic Management

Strategic Management of the business organizations have become a necessary instrument as a means of developing competence in a dynamic and globalized business environment. Strategy Management is often linked with Global Business as most organizations entering the international market are facing numerous issues related to changing business conditions in the international market.

Various researches have described how culture plays a very important role in deciding the accurate strategy for one organization. Innovative tools and technologies, along with enforcing organizational ethics and policies help in measurement and management of culture in order to align them with the respective organizational objectives.

Strategic Management

Strategic Management is one of the most essential factors that determine the success of the organization in the face of changing business conditions. Extensive researches have explained the relationship between effective strategies and business performance, which can be extremely useful to understand the conditions of Nationstar Mortgage Company.

Literature review

As (Theriou, 2015) correctly noted, Strategic Management essentially includes knowing the internal and external conditions of a particular organization and creating the required space for amendments in the organizational structure and policies, in order to have a direct influence or control over the organization’s performance. It aims to offer maximum utilization of available resources in a sustainable fashion. The process of defining the accurate strategy for a particular organization is a complex process that aims to influence the decision-making process of the organization that would accelerate the process of achieving the organizational objectives.

Strategic management has been considered as one of the major elements in an overall management process within modernized business environment. In accordance to Hill, 2017), It is important to consider that in modern business context the importance strategic management within a firm has increased drastically. As competition in any industry have grown up companies have opted for strategic management which will improve the overall operations within a firm to have competitive edge over the other organizations in the market.

It is very significant in terms on how strategic management have come out as a management tool in order to  devise strategies for better management of firm performance.  It is important to consider that strategic management helps management of the firm to exhibit better control over the activities of the firm as well strategize the future activities which will be performed by the company under the strategic proforma of the form.

This increases  viability of the company's activities which helps in increasing their performance nd to gain a competitive edge over others in the market.  It is to be mentioned that strategic management includes planning, deriving strategic goals and objectives to  gaudie the company in carrying out there operational activities  through efficiency.  Overall it can be said that in modern business context strategic management plays an important role and has an heavy impact on the overall management as well as organizational performance.

According to (Valmohammadi & Ahmadi, 2015), Organizational Performance refers to the net productivity or output of the organization, as measured against its initial aims and objectives. It not only comprises of the financial development of the organization, but also incorporates the organization’s market performance and economic value created through shareholder returns. Development of an organization hugely depends on the effectiveness of the strategic planning and management, which in turn enhances the Organizational Effectiveness of the Company.

Literature Review

The determinants of organizational effectiveness are hugely depended on strategy-driven initiatives to enhance financial performance, customer service, employee satisfaction and social responsibility. According to ((Wu, Straub & Liang, 2015), Information Technology is one of the leading mechanisms of strategic planning and governance of an organization and enhances their abilities to survive in the contemporary dynamic global marketplace. The importance of IT governance in corporate structures became clearer with the bankruptcy of Enron in 2001 and the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, enacted in America on 2002.

As a member of Nationstar Mortgage Company’s finance department, the adoption of relevant business strategies like IT governance and planning can prove to be extremely helpful in the process of gaining more knowledge and insight on the existing economic conditions and market positions and help determine the most relevant business management strategy for the Company.

 It can be said that strategic management has direct impact on every aspect of business such as a company operational aspect, financial aspect, Marketing aspect and other activities. In terms of operational aspect strategic management within an organization tries to devise operational goal and objectives for the company based on which the company strategizes the overall operational activities which it will conduct in order get there strategic objectives and goals . This helps the organization better operational activities and to increase their operational efficiency. In the context of financial aspect strategic management helps an organization to check the flow of funds to maintain there operational activities at low and accurate cost.

This helps an organization to maintain the financial stability as well as helps in grownin financially efficient y saving funds for future operations. It is to be mentioned that strategic management help a company in better disbursement and controls of funds in the operational activities which automatically helps the firm in getting financially stable. The marketing objectives of company is using strategic management is devised in such manner that it helps the company in getting ahead in the market and to achieve and competitive edge over other in the market.

Strategies theory and models related to this are used in order to enhance a company's performance. It is evidently seen that strategic management has be used efficiently to enhance the organizational performance in the modern business context. Hence it can be prominently observed that strategic management has been used as an efficient tool which will help an organization to effectively operate within a growing market and economy (Hill, Jones & Schilling, 2014).


To conclude, the implementation of relevant strategies has a direct influence on the organization’s performance. Strategic Planning encompasses the understanding of existing business conditions and patterns, which creates a strong framework for the required actions.

International Presence of Organization

In the contemporary global business market, adequate research and consideration must be invested in order to be aware of the various issues that strike challenges in the process of expanding abroad. This essay provides a summary of extensive research in this field.

Literature Review

As per (Deresky, 2017), various challenges have been recognized and described that mainly affect the organizations aiming to expand beyond its geographical and political territory. A collective study of various developing organizations, aiming to expand abroad, has critically analyzed the three major areas of investigation: cultural harmony, organizational communication and effective strategic management.

International Expansion Strategies

Culture plays a very important role in determining an organization’s actions and performance. According to (Gollnhofer & Turkina, 2015), expanding in a new geo-political territory leads to intervention in a completely new set of cultures. It is important to consider that cultural differences might have an significant impact which can affect the expansion process of an organization. In the context of  expanding organization cultural values play an important role to build up an organization culture based on which there workforce culture through workforce of company attract and works together.

In case of increasing international presence the states of having cultural diversity is very important Although companies advancing in various reason often fail to counter cultural class due to which the operational breakdown of company while expanding occurs. The cultural aspects of workforce tend to derive such occasions of cultural clash. For example if there are to person within a workforce having different cultural values there will be cultural clash which will affect the overall operational activities of a firm (Hitt & Duane Ireland, 2017). Hence it is to be mentioned that cultural values and organizational culture has be diverse in nature otherwise here will e cultural problems which the company will face in it process of increasing international presence through expansion in different regions.

This will either create operational breakdown situations or will tend to slow down the progress of the firm on an international scene.  Gaining cultural competence requires extensive practices that remove cultural differences and acknowledges the need to respect other existing cultures. This directly affects the Company’s employees and customers respectively.

By the words of (Leutert, 2016) on China’s reform of state-owned enterprises, it can be understood how Organizational Communication is another major challenge that is triggered on the expansion to foreign grounds. Communication is considered to be an vual aspect when it comes to the expansion process of a company it is very important that there stand an effective communication system within the company while there are xpaning and increasing their presence on the international circuit. Communication plays an important role in the organization to help coordinating with its subsidiaries which is expanding in the global scene. Communication sometimes can also be a major barrier which a company might face in there expansion process.

It is quite clear that communication gap can play a major barrier in term sof informtionshring which can even cause stoppage of operation within the expansion process. Communication is major error and problem which a company has to face while expanding this because the communication line is not quite definite which causes problems within the coordination of the firm expanding on a regular basis  With increased physical distance and larger operating processes spread out to the international market, maintaining coherent communication amongst all organizational levels and processes. Transparent communication between the managing authorities and the management working in a different geographical location is important in order to carry out organizational procedures.

Marketing is another complex process that needs further implementation of strategic thinking and decision-making, as per (Christodoulides, Cadogan & Veloutsou, 2015). Diversifying in different geographical area may cause problem in the company for their marketing process. Marketing in unknown and indefinite regions can cause problems to the company as the needs and demands of the consumer are known properly by a company. This can play major barrier in marketing for company’s product and services. It is very significant to state that the need of marketing is very high in case of company in expanding on an international basis otherwise ficial and demographic losses can be faced by a company. It can be  said that as the marketing condition and situation of different region are complex and uncertain it is very essential that proper marketing strategies are used which suit the marketing situations (Arensberg,

Corporate Culture and Organizational Performance

2018). It is to be mentioned that if there is no proper marketing strategy that the company uses in it increasing on international scene process it will have to face different problems. Marketing strategies must be competent and compatible in order to help the organization properly market their products in different market regions. Effective marketing strategies need to demonstrate the particular demands and requirements of the new market and define the responsibilities of each organizational process.


To conclude, the Nationstar Mortgage Company needs to consider international presence and expansion in global market in order to enhance its competence in the present market. Implementing the particular strategies related to culture, communication and marketing would help the Company to reduce its exposure to the detrimental effects.

Corporate Culture

The importance of Corporate Culture has been defined as one of the most influential factors that determine the efficiency and productivity of the organization as a whole.

Literature Review

According to (Guiso, Sapienza & Zingales, 2015), strategic management of the internal organizational factors is necessary in order to make it competent and relevant in the current global business market. The influence of the corporate culture on organizational efficiency and productivity can be measured from the perspective of consumers, entrepreneurs as well as marketing. In order to ensure constant growth and development of organizations, it is necessary to equip the operational processes with sufficient knowledge and understanding of the existing cultures in correspondence to the organization’s shareholders.

Company Culture plays an important role in affecting the marketing processes of the organization. As per (De Mooij, 2018), with better understanding about the demands and expectations of the market, the organization should align its culture with its specific goals and requirements, in order to offer an ideal means to achieve their objectives.

According to (Adams, Jeanrenaud, Bessant, Denyer & Overy, 2016), fostering a culture of entrepreneurial leadership and management is an important means to make an organization more sustainable against the lash of time. Entrepreneurial skills include the skill to think creatively, in an innovative way that would produce the most relevant results to an increasing challenge. Adoption of entrepreneurial culture is a stepping stone for organizational sustainability.

Customer satisfaction is another major factor that defines or depends on corporate culture. Understanding the exact expectations of the market and implying them on organizational activities would have a direct impact on the practical outcomes of the operation processes.

 In today’s era of corporate culture, there has been policy of only profit, gained from customers and not focusing of the different aspects of the business. The aspects like customer satisfaction, proper marketing, right entrepreneurial and many are neglected by the organisation in order to make more profit and be follow business rules. The orientations like marketing, entrepreneurial and customers are very important in the corporate culture as they these orientations provide the glance to stay ahead their competitors in the same field. The three orientations are explained in following point, explaining in which manner these orientations influence organizational performance.

Corporate-Level Growth Strategies

 For any company, marketing can be a very vital role as it can be reason for upbringing or downfall of the particular company. The marketing strategies applied by the company culture also plays an important role in order to determine the strength , agile , product quality and brand
image of the organisation. Staying agile the company premise, meaning keep motivating the employees by providing the new challenges on the daily basis. In addition, it is also important to analyse the core important values of the company like the integrity, excellence and commitment to the work.

The marketing strategy also includes to understand challenges and opportunities when need by the market in order to stay active and ahead the competitors. The team  coordinators need to understand the benefits of team day-to- day challenges and keep them updating in order to keep them passionate about work and indulge in work. The organisation also needs to keep an eye on the market condition, where to invest in the market scenarios in order to improve the brand image and profit for the company and it will also help to stay ahead of their competitors. These factors helps organisation to improve its performance and also have a competitive advantage.

An entrepreneurial culture, in the organisation gives an important advantage to the company. The entrepreneurial, means the how capable are skills and the mind-set of the following new comer. This also includes the creativity levels, and the innovation capabilities of the client, these factors are very important for the of the organisation as they provide innovative ideas for the company. The ideas come very handy in the long run as the new minds can posses a lot creativity levels and Helps Company in lot ways.

The customer satisfaction, is the another orientation of the companies in order to make more profit and stay ahead of the competitors in the market. The most of the company now days are only paying attention for the profit but not for product quality and customer satisfaction gets compromised. This is not good for any company because for any company the customers should be number one priority and nothing else. These are the factors responsible of the corporate culture in the popular press and they should have their focus on the internal environment. Thus,
literature study comes in the following conclusion.


To conclude, determining the most relevant corporate culture for the Nationstar Mortgage Company is extremely important to bring about a systematic implementation of decisions and strategies.

Corporate-level Growth Strategies

Corporate strategies are important means to achieving the estimated objectives and quality of performance. A detailed understanding of the organization’s internal processes as well as external industry conditions need to be analyzed to produce relevant strategies for constant and systematic growth.

Literature Review

Corporate-level growth strategies are complex strategic decisions that ensure that all organizational objectives are achieved by the operational processes, leading to a development of sales, profits and international presence. Implementing strategic growth requires adequate information and knowledge about the various internal and external industry conditions, which then need to be implemented in the decision-making processes of the organization. The four corporate-level growth strategies include vertical, horizontal, concentric and conglomerate integration strategies.

Integration of business processes have become an important method to bring about development and expansion. According to (Roll, 2015), horizontal integration refers to the acquisition of various assets, infrastructures and companies from the same industry that would result in multiplying the strength and power of the organization in question. Rather than establishing brand new operations, the horizontal integration allows for an easy expansion of operations by the acquisition of independently running operations.

According to (Argyres & Mostafa, 2016), vertical integration refers to the strategic decisions that emphasize on venturing out and establishing new operational processes, in order to reduce their dependence on external forces or processes. One of the leading challenges of developing organizations is to cope with the increasing dependence on external suppliers and service providers. Hence, vertical integration helps in controlling external challenges and paves the way for further growth.

As per (Dhir & Dhir, 2015), a concentric diversification strategy is the strategy to improve the diversity of business of the chosen organization by adding and altering to their services offered. A creative and innovative thinking as to how the available resources can be further utilized to produce and provide a new category of consumable product or service.

According to (Santarelli & Tran, 2016), the Conglomerate Diversification growth strategy emphasizes on venturing in new markets that are untouched by the other contemporary businesses in the same industry. This strategy primarily emphasizes on the identification of an untapped market that could prove to be useful for the particular organization concerned. Though this strategy involves risk and unfamiliarity, it paves the way for economic flexibility and strength..

Market penetration is also one of the corporate growth strategies.  When a company penetrates the market with a product which already exists in the market is called market penetration. Market penetration can be done by a strong brand as it requires a great competitive strength. It is also a risky way to approach and aggressive as well (Mugo, M., Njanja, L., & David, M. 2015). New product development(NPD) is also one of corporate growth strategy. It is a process of researching, developing and bringing a new product to the market. A new product can be a physical product or it can be a service or experience.

This growth strategy identifies the needs of a customer and according to that, a company starts developing a new service or product. Investments are required for new product development and research. The consolidation process is also a corporate growth strategy process. Consolidation refers to a process in which small companies merges to become a large one for their economic growth and benefits. With the help of the consolidation process, a company can eliminate their competition and create a large scale of economies and scope. As cost is involved behind every company, consolidation process becomes a very high corporate strategy decision.

before consolidation of two companies occurs, all the stakeholder of this two companies or organization should be consulted and agreements regarding this can take many days, months or years to come to an end. Two different companies have their different vision and values which may cause a cultural conflict between them. A strong culture is required to become an organization more successful. If the culture of an organization is not strong then it may lead to conflict between them and it also requires more efforts for controlling employees and monitoring their behaviour. If mismanagement occurs during the consolidation process then it minimizes the potential gain and efficiency of the new strategic plan.

According to (Kazanjian, R. K., Drazin, R., & Glynn, M. A. 2017), one of the popular aspects of corporate strategy is mergers and acquisitions. By buying, selling, combining and dividing different companies an enterprise growth and makes benefits rapidly in their sector and can easily acquire new sectors or location also, this corporate strategy is known as mergers and acquisitions. A merger happens between the two company of the same size which agrees to combine and go forward as a single and new company. this process of combine two same size company is known as "mergers of equals". All the stocks of both the companies are surrendered and new stock is issued in its place. Like for example, in 1999 the companies named Glaxo Wellcome and

SmithKline Beecham merges and becomes a new company named GlaxoSmithKline.

 The global strategy is also a corporate strategic guide that helps in pursue different geographic markets. A global strategy in business terms required when a company or industries face a strong pressure to reduce the cost or price of the product but they can sell their product worldwide without any pressure of local responsiveness.


To conclude, the Conglomerate Diversification growth strategy could prove best for the National Mortgage Company that has been aiming to expand abroad with appropriate strategic management.

Impact of Corporate Structure on Organizational Performance

The business principle that states that the departments, divisions, process, teams and technology of an organization which are designed to achieve a firm’s strategy is called Structure follows strategy. The business principle structure follows strategy was proposed by the historian Alfred Chandler. For example, the strategies that need for technology implementations are done by the technology department because this type of work is done by the technology department (Matt, C., Hess, T., & Benlian, A. 2015).

The business principle of structure follows strategy is followed by top-down strategy planning and governance of organizational process, technology and structure. The objective and long-term goals are determined by the corporate strategy. When there is a change in the organization strategy it may be led to the new problems which will be solved by the new or redesigned structure for the successful implementation of the new strategy. An organization is the collective functioning of a group of individuals in collaboration towards same aims and objectives. Therefore, the functioning of an organization needs to be arranged in a particular order, based on its specific priorities in the business process.

Literature Review

According to (O'Neill, Beauvais & Scholl, 2016), the division and coordination of different jobs and responsibilities in a business organization is heavily dependent on its business approaches and particular goals and objectives. This distribution of business responsibilities is referred to as the organizational structure, which has an extensive impact on the organization’s performance or success. Designing an organization’s structure in a way that would enhance it competitive performance is a necessary tool for bringing about in-depth strategic management.

The allocation of tasks and responsibilities in various operation processes determine the power that is enjoyed by each of these levels. The hierarchical levels in an organizational structure make way for specific responsibilities and their accountability, in case of failure. It also works as a problem-solving mechanism through the integration and communication of the various processes working in the system.

According to (Islam, Jasimuddin & Hasan, 2015), organizational structure elaborates the task giving and performing relationships between various parties and holds a good amount of control over the coordination and dedication of the employees. With a more flexible organizational structure in an organization, employees enjoy more liberties and power in taking active part in decision-making processes. However, allowing lesser power to employees of the organization has numerous benefits like retaining more decision-making authority with the top-profile managers, lesser interruption and intervention in decision-making and reinforced focus on the growth of the organization, rather on the welfare of the employees.

By the words of Alfred Chandler, ‘structure follows strategy’—implying that a relevant corporate structure in extremely essential element in the process of implementing a particular corporate management strategy. Chandler emphasizes on the need to have a governing organizational structure that would allow all employees to be answerable or accountable to respective offices. Using the example of Sears Roebuck, he analyzes the need for and implementation of M-Form, a revolutionary multi-division form.

An organization is a group of peoples(employees) who work towards common goals and their relationship are determined according to some specific structure. There are some factors that can influence the performance of the employees which has a direct impact on the organization. Like if the goals and duties are not cleared to the employees it will effect on the organization directly. If the goals and duties are cleared then it will keep the employee motivated and as a result, they will perform better. A corporate structure must have a strong culture as it has also a direct impact on an organization performance.

If the culture structure is not strong then more efforts need to be placed in controlling and monitoring the behaviour of an employee. But when the culture of a company is good then less monitoring is required by the organization and work will be more effective. When an organization have a clear culture then the employees of the organization will be more loyal and it also prevents them to leave the company. Trust and believe in and between the employees is very important. The contribution of each employee is very important for the success of the organization. A corporate structure must include training, small seminars and workshops that will enhance the performance of their employees.

A employee learns 10% form the formal training and other 90% come by working with the coworkers and maintaining good relations with them. To improve the culture and organization performance a company should listen to the views and ideas of their employees on regular basis and works on them. A study shows that 75%  of employees work longer with the organization who regularly listen to their ideas and views and  65% employees leaves the company who thinks that their ideas and concern are not addressed by the company. An organization should match the skills by knowing their employees properly for the maximum efficiency and an which will also lead to good organization performance (Saebi, T., & Foss, N. J. 2015).

The employee which is creative and out of the box thinker is great to pitch a new idea to a client. So this are some factors that influence the employee performance and a corporate structure must include all this for a good organization performance.


Therefore, the need for a corporate relevant organizational structure that would support the marketing strategies of an organization is extremely essential for its all-round growth and development. The division of labor and responsibilities in an organizational structure determine the amount of power that is to be held by each of the organizational processes. Therefore, the organizational structure of the Nationstar Mortgage Company needs to be analyzed again in order to fit with the Company’s corporate strategies.


To conclude, strategy management is a complex process that involves various levels of governance including learning about internal and external market conditions, the challenges of performing as a global competitor, competitive advantages of organizations and core competencies of the available resources to the organization. The importance of strategic management in order to sustain in a dynamic market environment have been elaborated and analyzed in various theories and studies on the practical instances of contemporary businesses.

The various issues related to expansion in abroad have been discussed, along with strategies to control their exposure to the detriments. The knowledge from the extensive literature reviews offer a useful guidance regarding the strategy making and implementation processes of the Nationstar Mortgage Company.


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