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Tour and travel is one of the most booming industries currently. With increase in foreign exchange along with the other major sources of income is creating positive response among the countries. However, growth of tourism is also been one of the major problems for cultural and biological threats for the existing diversity. Eco-tourism is one of the growing niche markets within the tour and travel sectors (Staiff , Kennedy & Bushell, 1999). Eco-tourism promoted the sustainability and spending billions of dollars advantages for the countries.
Market research shows that, eco-tourist are very much interested particularly interested in the proper planning and management for the existing flora and fauna along with conserving the culture and traditions who are on verge of extinctions. The study will focus on the current trend in the eco-tourism and various scenarios along with existing challenges faced by the eco tourism companies (Sheppard, 1999). Apart from that, the study will also focus on the various stakeholders of eco tourism and sustainability measures taken by the government and companies to maintain in the end.
Current trend in Eco-Tourism
Figure 1: SWOT on Eco-Tourism industry
(Source: Ross & Wall, 1999, pp-128)
Apart from the above, ROC (Respect our culture programme) has been developed in order to protect the culture and traditions of the nations. Along with that Climate action certifications programme is been dedicated to ranking the efforts to reduce the energy usage. Currently, most of the tourist are looking to visits via eco tourism in order to associates themselves with the healthy living environment (Van Schooten , 2005),. This is one of the social trends, which is continuously developing across the Globe specifically in UK, USA, Australia and other EU nations. The future social trend of the eco tourism suggest that, with more than 80% of the world population will be looking to go with eco tourism because it will be affordable for everyone (Ross & Wall, 1999).
Technological advancement like Go Green with recyclable products are been one of the most influential products are been made by the companies. Most of the retail companies like Woolworth and Tesco are selling organic food products, recyclable clothes and the bag packs for the tourist and locales. Apart from that, most of the eco tour and travel companies are using internet and E-feedback system to avoid the paper work (Sheppard, 1999). With rising in demand of the recyclable and eco friendly developed in less than years the companies will be manufacturing only these types of technology which is environment friendly.
The economic condition of world is very much fluctuating because of the economic downturn in 2008 has been one of the major reasons. Eco tourism industry is supports nearly protect the parks and other environmental assets to underpin the diversity and quality of visitor experiences (Baer & Singer, 2009) . The geo tourism form has been within the eco tourism Australia, which supports the awareness, builds closer relationship with tour operators reading the geo parks, national landscapes and protected areas. Since 2008, eco tourism Australia has been designed programme called Aboriginal tourism Australia (ATA). As the Australian high commission has also announced to develop more of eco tourism by giving the existing eco tourism companies tax, waive off 3.97% on their taxable income in coming years (Doucet, 2007).
Environmental regulations are been reformed by the most of the nation are being one of the major changes which would be made in coming years. As the environmental law plays very much significant law to in order to protect the bio diversity and create responsibility among the tour operator and the travellers. The ECO certifications programme is world first and has been developed to address the need of identify the genuine operators in Australia (Dow & Downing, 2006). ECO certifications have certain standard and are back by the bets practices ecological sustainability of the natural environment and the quality of eco tourism experiences. The Eco guide certification programme was launch in 2000 in Australia that endorses authentic environmental responsible eco tourism experience.
Political condition of the country is very much stable. The EU is looking to improve the training and other facilities. The law of eco-tourism is much needed to meet by the every tour and travel company (Dressler, 2006). However, government has sanctioned a loan of new motor way and airport around EU and Australia to create sustainability for eco-tourism. As with rise of consciousness of ecology, it is found that government is going is to spend more in eco tourism within 5-10 years.
Current view: Trend of Eco-tourism industry
Total leisure visitors from Australia
Total spending (in million $)
Graph 1: Trend of Eco-tourism industry in Australia
(Source: Flannery, 2005, pp-128)
For 5 years (2014-2019)
Increase the media exposure and ethical code of conduct to natural resources around the world
For 10 years (2014-2024)
Desire to move to novel destinations sometime as out do others for instance first person to visit the Arctic
For 25 years (2014 onwards)
Easier to access to remote eco tourism destinations via development of air routes and roads and other infrastructures
Over the past century, there has been eco tourism has grown where several authorities is widely considered the fastest growing sub component of tourism. In spite of the eco tourism growth , the research suggest that lack of training and funds are being one of the major reason for the problems of failure of various eco tourism planning since 2000. The main objective of the study is identifying the potentiality of eco tourism (Gore, 2006). The tourist arrivals to Australia and EU during the year 2009 amounted to about 2 billion, which shows that increase by 2.1% in compare to previous years. One of the major issues is lack of code of conduct followed by the Eco tourism tour operator in order to enhance the comfort zone.
Political parties are playing their card by taking the Eco-tourism as their major objective is for winning speech in the global platform. The politician’s uses name of ecology in order to creates strong impression in the mind of the people worldwide (www.ijhssnet.com, 2015).
With the help of common demographics and number of visitors shows the trend in the ethics in the eco tourism. Eco tourism companies are been summoned norms of code of conduct during the touring the guide is very much helpful for the tourist and guide operators (Bender & Knutson, 2010). The definitions given by the eco-tourism is very much helpful in assessing the that the given definitions is very much narrow and lack of agreed with existing society. One of the major stakeholder within the ethics and policy debate are travellers, tour operators companies and guide, politicians, and the law (www.uhu.es, 2015). These are all are the major stakeholders within ethical and political debate over the reforms of the policy of eco tourism.
Figure 1: Stakeholder mapping on Ethical code of conduct on the Eco tourism
(Source: Honey, 2008, pp-285)
The role of eco tourism is very much specifies the rules and norms like projecting the wildlife, preserving the habitat, cultivating the habit of listening rather than only seeing, and shopping also meant to bargain but also feel that wages paid to the people are lower etc(Orams, 1995). During the time of de politicizations speaks about the approaches which has ensured within the eco tourism that is currently is not enough for their sustainability. With the rise in the economic pressures by the politicians of the nations and countries are funding the sustainability programme. As ethical tourism in eco tourism is been one of the just added code conduct which are been asked to formulate to the tour operators which has been missing from the eco tourism concept.
One of the major dividing forces for the persuasion of eco tourism is politics and ethics. The general people of the Australia , UK and EU are being trying to promote the green tourism which is to follow the eco tourism seriously which has been ruling the out the right of full employment .
The political condition is very much in favour of the eco tourism (Sheppard, 1999). However, increasing inflations and other major dividing forced like poor ethical code of conduct, which has yet to reform, by the EU are some that is decreasing the potential changes within the eco-tourism.
Scenario 2: Twenty years on: The stage of contemporary eco-tourism research
The coming age development of eco tourism describes the major purpose of review to determine to what extents such thought process is justified. The nature of eco tourism indicates the value based benefits such as conservations, ethics, sustainability and education are some of the major benefit which offers prominent way of preaching the eco tourisms (Orams, 1995). The eco tourism satisfied the 3 core criteria’s attraction must be based on the nature , visitors must be able to focus on the learning or educating on these attractions and experience the product management should also follow the principles and practices associated with ecological socio-culture and economic sustainability (www98.griffith.edu.au, 2015).
Each of these criteria give ample evidence for interesting the ongoing the mode of eco-tourism. The industry shows that, eco tourism is been mainly costs if the private sector business that provide services to the eco tourist. However, with the failure of the rate of SME specialised eco tourism business and the factors of high attrition rate is one of the major issues that has been one of the major problems within the industry (Staiff, Kennedy & Bushell, 1999). An emerging issues within which has been pertinent within the geographic segmentation is the recognitions of non-tradition; eco tourist markets specifically in Asia and Australia.
Figure 3: Perceptual grid for the importance of factors affecting the eco tourisms
(Source: Dow & Downing, 2006, pp-298)
The failure of the small eco tourism in the future because of the lack of quality places and promise which has not be able to fulfilled by these companies. Some of the eco tourist companies in Australia has been able to mould themselves with the changing times and those who cannot are not able to sustain in the long run (www.uhu.es, 2015). After 20 years those companies are who are associated with the ecological balance will be able to sustain in the long run.
Target customers segment of Fast food industry
Asia, North America, Europe and Australia
Rural and Urban (102 million)
15-45 age category
Male, females and others
High ,Low and middle income groups
Employees and professionals
Working class, lower middle class, middle class and higher class
Single, nuclear, joint family
Traditional and moderns
Regular and other Festive seasons
Price advantages and diversify the products
festive season and Promotions
Scenario 3: Eco-Tourism: Changes, Impacts and Opportunities
The Eco tourism is been change is desired by the most of players involved in eco tourism many of them who are looking to identify the improvement within the existing situations. One of the major challenges that has been faced to measure the impacts of tourism is difficulty in the establishing the base level against the changing demand (Ramsar Centre, 1995). Another major activities are diversity of activities and tourism has not been up to the mark.
Apart from that paper also suggest that, tour operators and the visitors are being banned to use photo inside the cultural heritage in order to make the attraction of tourist places. Cost benefit analysis is been one of the major job which is needed to be impact on the eco tourism industry. The observations also suggest that, global evaluations of benefits and costs (Bender & Knutson, 2010). In order to specify the trade offs and comprise of decision made in the formal manner in order to full fill the demand of the changing needed of the customers. One of the major opportunists which has been suggested is that, extensive issue of advertisement like FMCG products would create supportive awareness and impact within the mind of the travellers. As the tour operators have been looking create guidance norms to the every traveller during the visit will also able to solve the problems of the new rules followed by every traveller during their visiting.
Figure 3: Perceptual grid for the importance of factors affecting the eco tourisms
(Source: Dow & Downing, 2006, pp-298)
Scenario 1: Ethical and politics of defining eco-tourism
The above scenarios is very munch explain that , future of the eco tourism is total dependent upon the political situation of the country and the ethical code of conduct which is very right (Dressler, 2006) . Ethical code of conduct is very much helps the guidance to the norms, which is needed to follow strictly by the travellers during the time of the travelling. However, totally dependent upon the politician and ethical code of conduct will not full fill the future of eco tourism.
The scenario two explains that, twenty years eco tourism industry will be changed and the market segment will higher for them. However, the company who are working with low quality of eco tourism services will not be able to sustain in the end in the business because of the changing demand of customer and frequent changing environmental norms as per the EU (Flannery, 2005).
Scenario3: Eco-Tourism: Changes, Impacts and Opportunities
From the above discussion, it has been found that, with changing times, eco tourism is also been changing. The change is also being the opportunities and threats for the existing the nature. With the rise in the ECO tourism certification is making the tough to survive the existing SME. Apart from that, one of the major opportunities will be founding in future would be remote areas for new places (Gore, 2006).
From the above, it has been observe that, Eco-tourism is small but its rapidly growing industry. Eco tourism is primarily a decreasing its nature of tourism in the market place. Some of the companies and countries has several norms and polices and other do not have which is making the confusions. One of the best methods of eco tourism is to maintain the sustainability and making norms for the betterment of the environment. Other major recommendations would be managing the operation via great method for instance not suing the paper and less of electricity.
Eco tourism is highly dependent upon the unique idea and creative approaches, which rarely carried it another format of tourism industry. By using sustainability tourism and ethical code of conduct, eco tourism will be able to achieve their goals.
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