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1.) Lonergan writes of a "transcendental method." that is, of a "method of the human mind" which underlies all our knowing. What is this method? What are the -transcendental precepts?' "How is the method "transcendental?" Why does Lonergan regard his account of it as fundamentally immune to criticism? 


2.) Although skepticism questions the very possibility of knowledge. O'Neill finds a deep devotion to truth within it. What does skepticism hold, what operation(s) of knowing does it emphasize, and why is it ultimately unsatisfactory and even self-contradictory?

3.) What is the empiricist approach to knowledge, what operation of the mind does it emphasize, and why does O'Neill consider it a useful corrective to the excesses of rationalism? Is it an adequate account of knowing? Explain why or why not. 

4.) What do idealists hold, what is valuable in their perspective, and where does their theory of knowledge fall short? 

5.) "Relativism contains useful reminders for students of human knowledge, but it fails to deliver a consistent or defensible philosophy of knowledge." Discuss. 

6.) Explain the basic position that rationalists take on human knowing,. What operations of human knowing does it emphasize and deemphasize and what are its strengths and weaknesses? 

7.) Show how Kant attempted to reconcile empiricism and rationalism. Was his attempt successful in the end? How did he define noumena and phenomena? Explain. 

8.) Existentialism emphasizes "subjectivity" over "objectivity." Why? Why does existentialism find philosophical systems and technology to be threats to the meaning of human life? On balance, is existentialism more an aid or an obstacle to human knowledge? Explain.

9.) According to Lonergan, insight is the keystone to human knowing. Explain the key elements of an insight according to his analysis. 

10.) Explain Lonergan's account of experiencing as a "preliminary unstructured awareness." 

Lonergan's Method for Enhancing Cognitive Learning

This method perceives learning either as an art or science which occurs in a formal logical manner (Helminiak, 2016).  Lonergan applied the natural science procedures to come up with the systems of how the human mind operates. He was able to establish how cognitive reasoning takes place within the human mind, hence the original method is the pattern of operation of the human mind to enhance various aspects such as cognitive learning among human beings. He demonstrates how the natural sciences yield knowledge that is applied by the human brain to improve the education for other aspects.

Being authentic requires self-transcendence. Bernard Lonergan ascertains that authenticity is the individual's esteemed need and the most cherished achievement in life. Intellectual doctrines enable individuals to obtain the knowledge of truth and goodness, and this allows them to differentiate the real fact from what seems to be right and proper from what is good(Ballantine,  Kelly & Larres, 2018). The following are the transcendental precepts by Lonergan to obtain the knowledge of truth and ethical aspects of life: attentiveness, intelligence, reasonability, and responsibility.

Lonergan states that ‘'it is only by being attentive to our experience, intelligent in understanding that experience, reasonable in judging whether our understanding is correct and responsible in judging whether something is true of value, that the human subject transcends his or her self.''(Lonergan, 2017). 

This is because of its specialization in allowing experience, understanding, and judging to apply to any field rather than being unique to a given specific field.

This is because you need to use this method to criticize Lonergan's account and yet the technique is practical.

It suggests that nothing can ever be known precisely (Jandric, 2017).

If we don't know anything, we can't say that we don't know unless the knowledge of the aspect is shared to us by those who know (Williams, 2017).

This is because it doesn't give fruitful results for knowledge (Walker, 2016).

It proposes aspects of truth, and yet the doctrine itself states that nothing is right or inevitable.

Experience in a given area results to obtaining the education in that given area.

Operation of mind emphasized by the empiricist approach to knowledge.

The human mind is capable of abounding the knowledge already acquired through experience in dealing with various aspects of life.

Why O ‘Neill consider empiricist approach as useful corrective to the excesses of rationalism.

This is because the acquired knowledge helps to balance out the rationalist thoughts.

Transcendental Precepts for Achieving Authenticity

Is empiricism approach an adequate account of knowing?

No

This is because some individuals exaggerate that they have innate knowledge on various aspects of life when no knowledge is inherent in a person.

Having a vast knowledge in a given area enhances new ideas in that area. Idealists claim that their various ideas on various aspects are as a result of the knowledge obtained as a result of experience in that given field (Ball, Dagger& O'Neill, 2016).

The most valuable aspect is that acquisition of knowledge in a given field enhances the possibility of generation of new ideas in that specific field.

Subject to endless variation since it's just in mind.

Many ideologists criticize the existence of God.

We can never be quite sure of anything because all the ideas originate from our minds.

It perceives everything as subjective and not objective hence it lacks the basis of truth. It uses opinions that might hinder the actual reality. People might have been killed in an accident, but it shall question how many? And yet human life lost even if it's one person is significant.

They believe that human knowledge is an innate ability and most rationalists perceive human beings as superior creatures capable of abounding their natural intelligence.

Emphasizes that human knowledge is an innate ability within the human being and does not put much attention on the relationship between experience and expertise.

Appreciates human knowledge as an ability.

Knowledge is acquired from experience, and it cannot be an innate ability.

With his intellectual arguments, he tried to combine philosophy and logic. He concluded that individuals could use their reasoning ability to conceptualize new knowledge. He further said that for real knowledge, the reasoning must be applied to a real cause. He claims that our thinking cannot be used to something which has not been given to us empirically. Knowledge originates from reasoning as long as its application is on something individuals have experienced.

Yes, it was successful as other scholars positively acknowledged it.

Noumena are the presumed things that comprise of reality like ideas which come as result of knowledge in a specific field while aspects are the appearances which constitute individual life experiences like the law of gravity by Newton after the falling mango experience.

This is because it focuses on the human nature rather than the existence of humankind.

The reason why Existentialism find philosophical systems and technology threat full to the meaning of human life

This is because technology has resulted in adverse impacts on various aspects of human life; socially, spiritually and emotionally.

Existentialism has been an obstacle to human knowledge because it also states that the fact that there is God does not matter but what matters God exists.

There are five elements of an insight. An insight:

Comes as a released intention of inquiry.

Comes suddenly and unexpectedly.

Takes a person where he or she has never been before

Is usually like a revelation

Makes everything different after you experience it.

Through interaction with various aspects of science, human beings can learn and the knowledge incorporated from different areas can be used to enhance the understanding of man.

References:

Ballantine, J., Kelly, M., & Larres, P. (2018). Banking for the common good: A Lonerganian perspective. Critical Perspectives on Accounting.

Ball, T., Dagger, R., & O'Neill, D. I. (2016). Ideals and ideologies: A reader. Routledge.

Jandric, P. (2017). Knowledge Commons and Activist Pedagogies: From Idealist Positions to Collective Actions. In Learning in the Age of Digital Reason (pp. 243-269). SensePublishers, Rotterdam.

Helminiak, D. A. (2016). The problem of "God" in the psychology of religion: Lonergan's Method, "common sense" versus "theory," religion versus theology. Manuscript submitted for publication.

Lonergan, B. (2017). Method in theology (Vol. 14). University of Toronto Press.

Walker, M. (2016). Externalism, Skepticism, and Skeptical Dogmatism. The Journal of Philosophy, 113(1), 27-57.

Williams, M. (2017). Skepticism. The Blackwell guide to epistemology, 33-69.

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"Bernard Lonergan's Method For Cognitive Learning And Transcendental Precepts For Authenticity." My Assignment Help, 2021, https://myassignmenthelp.com/free-samples/v500-philosophy-of-knowledge/bernard-lonergans-transcendental-method.html.

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[Accessed 15 July 2024].

My Assignment Help. 'Bernard Lonergan's Method For Cognitive Learning And Transcendental Precepts For Authenticity' (My Assignment Help, 2021) <https://myassignmenthelp.com/free-samples/v500-philosophy-of-knowledge/bernard-lonergans-transcendental-method.html> accessed 15 July 2024.

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