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Factors and Critical Incidents in the Restaurant

The study discusses the issues and difficulties faced by restaurant employees and managers and how this will impact consumer perceptions and choices. This reflective study will discuss different stages, the first part describing the situation and what factors and critical incidents appeared in the restaurant. The second part, how these restaurant issues affect the consumer perceptions and the next part describes how the incidents confirm the theoretical support, as well as in the last part recommendations will be provided as per the issues faced by restaurants.

Last week, I visited a restaurant where I observed one incident about the restaurant's atmospheric situation that impacts customer satisfaction as well as their behavioral intentions. I also observed that management of revenue has become an essential strategic tool mainly capacity- control service sectors whose overall revenue often relies on the capabilities of the company to utilize capacity efficiently. Moreover, the business of restaurants is similar almost too conventional revenue management sectors like airlines and hotels, yet restaurants have distinctive characteristics that arise special problems and threats to the operators of the restaurant. Among the distinctive restaurants characteristic is the comparative resilience of service capability as well as the flexible time of every meal of restaurant, which is crucial themes are considered to the revenue management practices implementation, Moreover, when operator practices in a restaurant a "demand-based variable costing policy to mainly adjust requirement, the enormity of the cost differences may impact fairness and directness perceptions of the organization policy.

Capacity utilization is perceived as the main concern for companies when trying to increase revenue because companies have, by essence, relatively restricted space, comparatively high fixed price, as well as no inventory options. Even though the company is unconcerned with restricted space, like takeout restaurants service that mainly markets the food item without the connected time and also space, may have little interest mainly in applying this revenue management to increase revenues (Heo et al. 2013). The revenue management principles can also apply to restaurants provided that the amount of sale is the estimated time needed for service instead of the meal. In addition, revenue management is mainly applicable to hospitality sectors enjoying demand more than seating space in the high peak times. These restaurant types can enhance revenue by controlling demand as well as managing the seating duration of the consumers. From this restaurant, I identify that they struggle with the problem of the restaurant "revenue management". Even they establish a strategic structure for applying the process of revenue management to restaurants to grow revenues by efficiently maintaining the seating capacity, demand-based pricing, and duration. The Restaurant's senior management department proposed utilizing the revenue from each available seat hour. "RevPASH” specifies the level at which capability utilization creates revenue, as well as it enhances as the amount of table turnover grows as well as the seating duration length is reduced. The senior department manages customer arrival and also seating duration as a technique for demand arrangement. The duration of seating per customer, eventually the meal duration is the period that a consumer engages in a seating area in the dining, its significance arises from controlling the availability of the seat. By decreasing variation in food's duration, the operators of the restaurant can supervise reservation as well as seating decisions of customers more efficiently.

Impact of Restaurant Issues on Consumer Perceptions

I identified another is that the manager was not able to effectively and appropriately manage the duration of each meal. For instance, the manager should find that the duration of seating in a "midscale restaurant" differs based on the characteristics and features of the tables like table location and type of table. The average time of restaurant meal of any party’s size as well as the day of the month for “midscale restaurant”. The duration of a meal grows with the size of the party among different restaurant contexts. I also look around the other customers of the restaurant the European s mostly preferred a remarkably longer mealtime while other Asian and North Americans share the same mealtime expectation. The impacts of deceased durations on the consumer's satisfaction as well as their purpose to return towards the restaurant as well as also found duration decreasing strategies can negatively and highly influence consumer's fulfillment. It is observed that the extremely rapid pace in the time of meal decreases the consumer's satisfaction. I also observed that the link between a discerned service of a restaurant encounter's speed and fulfillment follows a transposed U-shaped. The revenue bump of restaurants is generally experienced by reducing dining or seating time is minimum than a single-quarter of the proportion forecasted by the general presumption that a decrease in seating duration capitulates a proportional growth in revenue.

Presume that cost impacts the consumer’s choice and decision because cost serves as a measure of buying cost, cost is perceived as the effective variable in the hospitality sector that companies can manipulate or change to discourage and encourage demand and need in the short-haul. Specifically, need-based variable pricing policies of restaurants have had repeated application in conventional revenue management sectors, like hotels and airlines. The "demand-based pricing policy" guides an organization in expanding revenue, mainly by charging the minimum cost-sensitive market segments installment prices as well as concurrently charging discounted costs to the cost-sensitive market segment; this promotes increased sales and profits, which also off-set the disease in cost. Even though restaurants might be more restricted than airlines as well as hotels in differing costs as per the actual demand, options remain for companies to mainly implement such applications based on foreseeable demand. The restaurants can use demand-based distinctive pricing to manage the demands of consumers with existing space or capacities. Moreover, the restaurant may foist full rates in the time of high demand and also give discounts or offers in the time of low demand. Restaurants can mainly target consumers by bearable prices and give seats to those inclined to take on higher costs when the demand of consumers transcends capacity. Whether cost-sensitive consumers are concerned with the restaurant pricing policy, a requirement-based distinctive cost policy must enable cost-sensitive consumers to adopt benefits from the weekend's offer and discounts. Therefore the restaurants can anticipate reducing the number of consumers in the peak time and growing number of clients in the lean time. A large number of restaurants experience increasing demand on every weekend rather than a day in a week evening, yet because of the potential mainly for encouraging client's dissatisfaction, the operators of the restaurants are unwilling to raise the cost in regards to that particular high demand. Even though, if clients discern demand-based costing to be inequitable, the restaurant might struggle with business losses. In addition, the enormity of the cost distinction among low and high demand times may impact the consumer responses to cost variations as well as patronage decisions. From my viewpoint, the impact of a perceived shortage of capacity or space and the cost variations on the perceived value of consumers for an offering of a restaurant and their transparent and clear perceptions about the revenue management practices of the restaurants.

Confirmation of Theoretical Support

The critical learning event that I observed in my experience is that restaurants employees excessively relate their increasing stress level to consumers exhibiting unpleasant and also rude behavior, mainly about circumstances in which the organization service provider and management could not manage and control. In addition, this stressful organization ambiance would be associated with high range worker distress, job-specific and psychological strain, emotional depletion as well as further related to the high turnover rate of employees. From my point of view, this is a serious critical problem for the restaurant sector of the United State, which must constantly invent capital to hire, select as well as train new candidates that are mainly replacing those previous workers having discontinued their company frontline work positions. The negative organizational behavior and culture have been addressed mainly in the restaurant organizational behavior. Incivility is generally defined as the "lower extremity deviant behavior and attitude with ambiguous aim to hurt the target, in breach of workplace standard for mutual approbation. This critical learning situation presents consumer incivility that involves circumstances where workers perceive consumer misbehave and rudeness like when clients ignore workers and speak to workers in an insulting and disrespectful manner. I analyze the workplace in each situation. This situation suggests that impolite consumer behavior leads to workers who may depict the most consistently experienced type of organization mistreatment.

Also, I found a moderating part of support mainly on the connection between burnout and consumer incivility. The support and motivation provided by the workplace are important factors for enhancing positive worker behavior and also attitudes. Because emotional loss and issues caused by work pressure can be controlled through resources like perceived support. In my opinion, interpersonal and organizational support enables workers to decrease their job pressure. Support and motivation are mainly provided by the leaders and organization contribute to improving the emotional bond of employees, which is perceived as being a vital determinant of workplace commitment as well as dedication. The supportive work ambiance plays a crucial part in reducing different workplace aggravations and stressors and upgrading job performance. Thus, organizational support and motivation may be the potential to interceding burnout and consumer incivility by preventing a strain appraisal response.

Employee burnout at the workplace plays a significant mediating part in the connection between turnover intention and consumer incivility. The past consumer incivility analysis shows that emotional depletion plays a moderating part in the connection between consumer-oriented behavior and consumer incivility. I analyze that workers have positively assessed support given by their supervisors and also organizations are more plausible to overcome as well as manage negative effects of consumer incivility. There are some implications or recommendations that managers and supervisors of restaurants start to mainly have frontline restaurant service workers classify the critical events representing problems concerning ti consumer incivility. In addition, utilizing these details, scenarios or incidents can be formed to educate and understand every frontline service v workers on methods that might be engaged to disable as well as better address particular consumer incivility circumstances. Additionally, details must be reported by frontline service workers illustrating methods appearing to perform or work more productively than others. Continuously monitoring and observing the results of the program can be coordinated mainly by the "rotating nucleus" of the restaurant frontline service workforce, be continuously discussed at workers' meetings.

Recommendations for Addressing Restaurant Issues

Consumer incivility is observed as a widespread phenomenon or situation that labor-intensive hospitality sector which is well known for a high turnover rate of employee and retain issues, determining an effective and efficient approach that could decrease the negative effect of consumer incivility toward workers must be an important part for the long-run organization business strategy. "Consumer incivility" has been presumed to be pessimistically connected to employee organization behaviors and attitudes. From this certain incident, we better comprehend that "consumer incivility" was applied particularly to the circumstances regarding consumer incivility mainly experienced by organization frontline service workers.

Service-oriented businesses, involving restaurants, constantly train and guide the frontline employees under the exaggerated philosophical and analytical position mainly that "the customers are always right" and " the customer is King" as well as service providers should "always provide service with a smile". Even uncivil consumer behavior is regularly reported in different hospitality business circumstances the senior management of the organization mainly concentrated on enhancing consumer satisfaction level and operating generally under the presumption that consumer behaves reasonably. The frontline service sector workers are needed to follow and maintain extremely strict organizational rules or regulations and policies about how the employee’s emotions and perceptions are expressed, though in circumstances including consumers who are discerned to behave in an impolite manner. I concentrated upon incivility mainly from viewpoints of worker-to-worker interaction and communication within the restaurant. While present attention and awareness that has been dedicated to consumer incivility (Han, Bonn & Cho, 2016). Even consumer behavior associated with incivility could be innocuous or harmless; such uncivil and impolite consumer behavior may describe overwhelming circumstances to a worker included with experiencing perceived consumer incivility. Moreover, consumer incivility can be mainly looked upon by workers as being an everyday inconvenience and difficulty. In reality, one incivility incident may not be discerned as stressful and tough, yet an aggregation of perceived indicators related to incivility may present negative results. Incivility of consumers has been approximately exclusively restricted to the restaurant organizational behavior sphere. Consumer incivility enhances the retail worker’s emotional exhaustion as well as increases the bank teller's stress level. Remarkable impacts of consumer incivility were mainly found to expand the engineering firm worker and sales employee's stress level as well as being accountable for contributing mainly to the absenteeism of bank tellers. In the restaurant, I observed that workers who experience consumer incivility may highly feel exhausted as well as therefore misbehave with their associates.

The critical incident that I found in this restaurant is that consumer incivility could be mainly considered as a "social stressor" and aggravation that can mainly drain both cognitive and emotional employee resources. Moreover, another incivility incident that I observed in the restaurant environment could enhance the job demand of employees, requiring the endeavor to correct mainly psychological resource exhaustion. Usually, worker experience involving the exhaustion of physical as well as emotional resources depicts job burnout. In supporting this particular reason, it can be plausible that consumer incivility generally applied in the hospitality sector may result in “psychological resource depletion” that can be regarded as the directing factor involving employee burnout. Due to the restaurant frontline workers having frequent connection or contact with consumers in contrast with other sectors, it mainly makes them extremely susceptible to “emotional burnout”. Burnout is perceived as a complex concept consisting of three elements: decreased accompaniment, depersonalization, and also emotional exhaustion.

 I would like to recommend a crucial sub-strategy suggested for the organization management to scrupulously log workers include with consumer incivility problems to make decisions if specific workers are mainly in requirement of more detailed experimental meetings by management, maybe also merging these training discussions with frontline restaurant service group leaders. An outcome of this can be the formation of a "buddy system" depicting frontline service workers having experienced less number consumer civility encounters mainly with those workers reported as having been included with various consumer incivility circumstances. Another suggestion will be for restaurant managers to be generally present every day in the dining section so that managerial presence is completely visible to workers as well as consumers alike.  Secondly, increasing revenue by improving the restaurant operation efficiency, the restaurant also utilizes "capacity management science" as a methodical approach to assess the process efficiency as well as the capacity potential of a restaurant. Moreover, "Capacity management science" involves monitoring each component of service as well as the process of product delivery with assessable measurement to improve consumer satisfaction, increase worker satisfaction level, as well as enhance profitability. I also determined that managerial factors and elements that may upgrade restaurant efficiency include defining dispersing demand, decreasing operation hours, profit centers, and reducing service time mainly by developing efficiency and restaurant operations.

Correspondingly, recommended implications for the use of restaurant “Revenue management” liked improving the standard operating process, developing table and seating management to enhance the restaurant operation efficiency, and training employees. Moreover, concentrate on restaurants that mainly do not authorize reservation as well as observed that having competently sized tables and seating in positions to generally to reorganization with other restaurant tables to provide service big parties can capitulate extra revenue at virtually no additional price. Another recommendation is to use incentive strategies and planning with a restaurant reservation process that can control shifting demand and requirements so that the new visitor aligns capacities. Demand-based restaurant menu pricing strategy as a way of balancing revenue, at least one percent increases in cost can capitulate twenty percent growth in profits. This demand-based approach of the restaurant to menu pricing is foreseeable from consumer perception on a value of a restaurant because consumers concentrate more on restaurant value instead of price.

Recommendation for the future “menu-pricing” strategies and methods, restaurants must consider the consumer demand fluctuation. Distinctive pricing strategies and planning for restaurants as well as assumed that a certain potential exists mainly for the growing use of different revenue-increasing strategies like peak-load pricing, bundling, and price discrimination strategy. When a customer discerns a product as valuable and unique, insufficiency will evoke a positive sense of the service or product. As per the positive viewpoint of scarcity as well the commodity theory must forecast growth in the scarce capacity of the restaurant and also consumer perceived value mainly for the restaurant dining experience. Revenue management strategy is perceived as the application of certain analytics that forecast customer behavior and perception at the small market level to increase product availability as well as the cost to increase revenue growth. The main objective of this tactic is mainly selling the appropriate product and service to the accurate consumer at the appropriate time for the accurate price. The last recommendation for the restaurant revenue manager is to improve the use of revenue management in the restaurant by implementing cross-selling and upselling, managing routine effectively, understanding the channels and booking curve of the restaurant, and managers must change the method they think about data.

Conclusion

 It is concluded that restaurant managers must focus on team communication which improves team performance and team collaboration. The ongoing training for employees is required for all the employees who struggle with consumer incivility and in the training, managers are trained on how to tackle these situations positively without affecting the customer perception. Sometimes it is critical for the manager to manage everything positively but they use some effective measures to reduce these issues. These critical events present to understand the serious issues faced by the hospitality sector. In this critical event, I find that the increase in employee turnover is not because of restaurant atmospheric reasons, it sometimes happens because of consumer incivility issues. In this particular situation, supervisors must encourage their employees and create a pleasant environment and culture of work to decrease employee turnover.

References

Han, S. J., Bonn, M. A., & Cho, M. (2016). The relationship between customer incivility, restaurant frontline service employee burnout, and turnover intention. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 52, 97-106.

Heo, C. Y., Lee, S., Mattila, A., & Hu, C. (2013). Restaurant revenue management: do perceive capacity scarcity and price differences matter?. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 35, 316-326.

Alrawadieh, Z., Alrawadieh, Z., & Cetin, G. (2021). Digital transformation and revenue management: Evidence from the hotel industry. Tourism Economics, 27(2), 328-345.

Beck, J. A., Kim, M., & Schmidgall, R. S. (2018). The pricing for same-day arrival guests in the hotel industry. International Journal of Business and Applied Social Science (IJBASS) VOL, 4.

Bi, Y., Choi, S., Yin, J., & Kim, I. (2021). Stress on frontline employees from customer aggression in the restaurant industry: The moderating effect of empowerment. Sustainability, 13(3), 1433.

Chehab, O., Ilkhanizadeh, S., & Bouzari, M. (2021). Impacts of Job Standardisation on Restaurant Frontline Employees: Mediating Effect of Emotional Labour. Sustainability 2021, 13, 1525.

Chen, J., Wang, X., & Chu, Z. (2020). Capacity sharing, product differentiation and welfare. Economic research-Ekonomska istraživanja, 33(1), 107-123.

Etemad-Sajadi, R. (2018). Are customers ready to accept revenue management practices in the restaurant industry?. International journal of quality & reliability management.

Etemad-Sajadi, R. (2018). Are customers ready to accept revenue management practices in the restaurant industry?. International journal of quality & reliability management.

 Hashim, S., Ghazali, H., Mohamad, S. F., Rasdi, R. M., & Othman, M. (2019). The Effect of Distress and Social Support on Workplace Incivility and Turnover Intention among Malaysian Casual Dining Restaurant Employees: A Proposed Framework. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ACADEMIC RESEARCH IN BUSINESS AND SOCIAL SCIENCES, 9(6).

Hayes, D. K., Hayes, J. D., & Hayes, P. A. (2021). Revenue management for the hospitality industry. John Wiley & Sons.

Kim, K., Kim, M. J., & Jun, J. K. (2020). Small queuing restaurant sustainable revenue management. Sustainability, 12(8), 3477.

Kimes, S. E., & Ho, J. (2019). Implementing Revenue Management in Your Restaurants: A Case Study with Fairmont Raffles Hotels International.

Klein, R., Koch, S., Steinhardt, C., & Strauss, A. K. (2020). A review of revenue management: Recent generalizations and advances in industry applications. European journal of operational research, 284(2), 397-412.

Murimi, M., & Wadongo, B. (2021). Application of revenue management practices in star-rated hotels in Kenya.

Schiffinger, M., & Braun, S. M. (2020). The impact of social and temporal job demands and resources on emotional exhaustion and turnover intention among flight attendants. Journal of Human Resources in Hospitality & Tourism, 19(2), 196-219.

Tyagi, M., & Bolia, N. B. (2021). Approaches for restaurant revenue management. Journal of Revenue and Pricing Management, 1-19.

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