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ELearning Review

ELearning in Nigeria and developing economies, its challenges and future prospects

Examine and investigate the effect and potency of e learning upon strong emerging economy.

Challenges and benefits of e-learning

E learning is highly influencing the entire world because of the benefits, which the system is bringing to the educational system. It has enhanced the educational system. It took it to a different level, which has its governance under the hands of information and communication technology. It has helped in changing the style of learning by adding certain dimensions to the educational styles that had never been imagined before (Adesote & Fatoki, 2013). It has come up with a packaged of offerings and benefits to the students in schools. However, in most countries, there are still traditional form of studying is widely prevalent. This is because of many reasons such as the government actions or the poor infrastructure (Nwabufo, Umoru & Olukotun, 2012). Despite of all the advantages and disadvantages, it is still facing many challenges. Nevertheless, the challenges that have arisen have posed enormous pressure on the administration and the local government. In some countries, the local government has concerns for the growth and development of the e-learning platform. However, they have not yet succeeded in achieving the same. The growth of e learning is receiving an uneven growth in numerous countries (Olibie, Ezoem & Ekene, 2014). For example, the educational system in Australia is highly incrementing, which has contributed in its huge success and helped the country in attaining the top most position. The educational system of the country is only after the USA and Canada. This is mainly because of innovative thoughts of the local government of Australia, which is supporting the administration with utmost support for the betterment of educational standard in the country. However, some countries have also the thirst for the development of e learning in their school curriculum but they have fall short because of various reasons such as poor infrastructure. The technical development of ICT in Nigeria is less developed because of its unreliable phone lines and the internet connections, which is slow or not reliable because of narrow bandwidth. High number of users are using internet in different cyber cafes using the shared bandwidth, which is causing the connection to get slow. The availability of laptop and computer is very limited to the different people living in the country. The incapable bandwidth quality of the country has compelled the country forcibly go down with their poor connection. Nevertheless, this is also letting them down in big numbers, as the prosperous of e learning is not happening because of incapable or average ICT quality in the country. Nigeria is one of those countries, which is facing the same challenges though the country has realized the usefulness of the e learning educational system (Osang, Ngole & Tsuma, 2013). The main purpose of this research is to find the potentiality of e learning in developing countries. The research paper would also try to find the exact problems behind the less developed e learning in Nigeria.

The potential of e-learning in developing economies

E learning has influenced the important part of educational system in the most of the countries. It is grabbing its hold in most parts of the world. However, there are variations in the applicability and the usability. The prevalence of the learning is more in the developed countries such as the European countries, the United States and Australia. However, it is slowly but gradually holding its grip in some developing countries also, which are less reachable to the landed scope. E learning happens through the online media, which lets the tutor and the students interact at the common platform through the usage of video calling. The usability of video calling because of several applications such as Skype and Nimbuzz have made this possible to bring the tutors and the students closer to each other. It happens also with the help of virtual learning platform, which is enabled by some software applications that helps create the platform. This software helps provide a unique learning platform, which creates a unique learning process and allows quick access to thousands of inaccessible books.  Interestingly, it has narrowed down the distances in the learning (Onyenemezu, 2012).  In most of the cases, which is related to the learning of some contents or subjects, it has become a handy tool in the hands of both the tutors and the students. However, the development of e learning has not favoured the same success to all the countries. Some of the developing countries have shown their eagerness to adopt the e learning platform in their school curriculum. They have expressed their high gratitude over the same; however, they have so far failed to do so. This is because of many reasons such as poor infrastructure. Nigeria is one of those countries, which has shown its deep concern for the growth of e learning; however, they have so far not succeeded in achieving the same. The study would try to check the growth of e learning in Nigeria and the possible challenges, which the country is facing in accommodating the platform (Agariya & Singh, 2012).

The local government has identified the urgency of enhancing the level of e learning in the country and this is because of the fact that the government is allowing many conferences as well some visits of world’s most popular personalities to enhance the awareness for ICT and e learning in the country. The educational system of the country has geared for a good change. This is very much evident in some of the last visits of some popular personalities form different corner of the world. In this regard, Nigeria has witnessed a step further in the way to achieve a highly developed e learning and ICT platform in the country. Learning Nuggets Company (LNC), this is in UK and touted as one of the most pioneer and biggest consultancies for s learning and e business. LNC’s chief executive has shown its utmost faiths in the potentiality of the Nigerian people. This is also because of the fact that the Nigeria students are doing exceptionally well in the Australian universities. Moreover, the local government of Nigeria is also very positive towards the growth of ICT and e learning in the country. However, the chief has also expressed its deep concern for the development of technologies in the country. He further adds that the country has potentials in it; however, it just needs some serious repairing in their technological advancements (Ololube & Egbezor, 2012).

E-learning and Nigeria's educational system

The biggest achievement came in the form of British ex-prime minister, Mr. Gordon Brown who made some important announcements on his visit to Nigeria. He spoke a lot about the educational benefits and tried for raising the standard of education in Nigeria. The first step, which the ex prime minister had taken that he announced about some of his plans for the betterment of education in Nigeria. Mr, Gordon has plans to allocate some financial resources to uplift the educational infrastructure of the country such as school buildings, teacher recruitment, teacher training and online school courses with the help of new technologies. According to his thought, every child has its rights to attain a higher education. The process is doing well; however, some of the children are still left with the benefits because of some problems in the country such as child labour, child marriage and trafficking. These are some problems, which are opposing an actual implementation of the ex prime minister’s plans of Nigeria’ education development. The local government of Nigeria has now become considerable effective in communicating the importance of e learning and ICT development. The local people and the students have also some chances with them to know about the importance of e learning in the country. However, they are actually waiting for their days to come, which would look possible in the next five years, as there are numerous government projects for the development of educational infrastructure (Adu, Adelabu & Adjogri, 2014).

Several of factors are encouraging the students and the tutors to go for e learning. From the perspectives of tutors, it has now become their source of extra income. It has enabled them to earn a huge in their spare time. On a same note, it has enabled students to come in contact to those, which are subject expert and are hard to be contacted. The technology advancements have made these things possible. The usability of internet has perhaps encouraged the IT experts to think on bringing something that could benefit both to the students and to the teachers (Adedokun-Shittu et al., 2012). Some other factors are behind the growth of e learning in some countries such as high standard teaching modes and access to thousands of inaccessible books. A high number of books, which were initially far away from the access, have now become easily available because of e learning platform. It has sophisticated the study and reached it to a different level. It has eased some significant burden from the teachers whereas it has also helped students getting in contact to thousands of books, which is never available at the school library. It has now become a very good source of raising interest in students. They are now finding elevation in their interest level as because of the new educational system that gives access to thousands of books. In addition to this, they are also close to the internet services, which have now become an integral part of their life. Despite of all the benefits of e learning, it has found less flourish in some developing countries such as Nigeria (Anene, Imam & Odumuh, 2014). The study is thus intended to seek the reason behind the underdevelopment of the e learning growth in Nigeria. The study would also check the development of e learning in Nigeria by searching some secondary resources and by taking some interviews from the Nigerian students studying in Australia (Allen, 2016).

Factors contributing to the growth of e-learning

The aim of the study is to analyze the potentiality of the e learning, which is strongly gaining in popularity across the globe; application of e learning in the Nigerian Curriculumand the acceptance of it by the teachers of middle and high schools. The main discussion is to check the impact of the study format in the light of traditional mode of study. The traditional mode of study is still the primary form of education as higher studies are only possible in institutions and universities. However, e learning has become a huge source for some contents related studies of the subject. This can be anything such as maths, English or any other subjects. Therefore, the study aims to find out the potentiality of the e learning with respect to the offline form of learning (Bhargava, 2014).

The objectives of this research are:

  1. To find out the most suitable theory to relate to e-learning procedure
  2. To examine the acceptance of e-learning by the teachers in the middle schools
  • To legitimise the students’ growth and potential through e-learning
  1. To understand the potency of e-learning in emerging economies

The research has been conducted to find answer to the following questions:

  • What are effects of e learning on the economic growth?
  • How do the teachers exploit the potentials of e learning?
  • Which theory can be adopted while discussing the engagement of e learning?
  • How is e learning adopted in academic sectors?

The main issue of the study is to find out the potentiality level of the e learning form of education, which is holding its firm hold across the globe. The study would try to find out the relevant growth of e learning with respect to the offline mode of tutorial. The main problem of the study is to find the growth of e learning with respect to the offline form of tutorial. Of long, the offline form of tutorial has remained as the attractions for a large number of students. However, the trend is shifting to the e learning form of education. This has only created the necessity to have some analysis on the potentiality of the online tutorial in the developed countries (Bora & Ahmed, 2013).

High level of growth is important for a new concept, which helps it in sending the concept to the entire world. The performance of e learning in the developed countries needs to overcome whatever be the problem it has in such countries (Cakula & Salem, 2013). The study is to find the possible solutions for the scenario highlighted. However, the study also aims to check the potentiality of the concept against the established form tutorial such as offline mode.

H1: E-learning has a direct impact upon the growing change of economy that is driven through basic educational advancement

H0: E-learning does not have direct impact upon the emerging economy.

The first chapter of the study covers the introduction part on the topic. Introduction is followed by background of the study. It also highlights the rationale of the study, research aims, objectives and the research questions. Research questions are an integral part of the research as these help in the progress of the study.

Barriers to the growth of e-learning in developing economies

The second chapter highlights the topic in detail in the light of scholarly articles on the subject topic. It conducts a thorough analysis of the main study.

The third chapter is related to the methods of the research. It is followed by research approach, sampling, method for data collection, methods of survey such as primary or secondary and the analysis.

The fourth chapter include the research and discussion findings. The analysis has been done through descriptive method. The results generated have also been discussed in this chapter.

The last chapter has put forward the conclusion on the entire work of the current study. Recommendations have also been made for future changes.

Definition

Ozkan & Koseler, (2009) has defined it as a modern technology, which uses information and communication technology to deliver the educational contents to the distant students by using the CD-ROM, the intranet and the internet. This has enabled the conjunction of the modern form of technology with the advanced level of education. E learning is the way to learn the required contents on the internet by interacting with the available tutor through video calling or by seeing his or her recorded videos (Carliner & Shank, 2016).

There are two kinds of e learning, which is available now such as follows:

This is one of the most effective kinds of e learning, which facilitate the interaction of the students with the tutors. This is a live interaction in between the tutors and the students. This is very catchy and easily understandable. These kinds of e learning are now increasingly becoming a good source of income for the worldwide tutors (Clark & Mayer, 2016).

This is one of the widest popular of all the types of e learning as numerous of useful links are easily available on some of the online platforms such as YouTube. This is less expensive for the students as this only require internet connection to have access to the available contents on the chose subject. However, this is not very productive to the tutors. This does not involve any live interaction with the tutors (de Vries, 2013).

E learning is trying to change the perception of students and teachers towards the most developed form of conducting the education. However, based on a review of 150 distance learning education mode in sub-Saharan Africa do support the fact that the distance form of learning with the usage of paper is more reliable, widely used and sustainable (Seale, 2013). The e learning format does require an internet connection but that does not look feasible with the lives of every human being. According to a report published by the UNESCO, 42% of people in the developing countries have internet connection whereas the numbers fall drastically when it comes to the rural areas of sub Saharan Africa. Only 1.4% people have internet connection. The data published by the UNESCO does very well indicate towards a fact that e learning education is rarely acceptable in the developing countries. The concept is promising and charming; however, the required resources needed to take full use of the opportunities are hardly available to an mss number (Drago-Severson, 2012).

Impact of e-learning on traditional education

On contrary to this, the traditional form of education done with the help of paper is still widely used across the developing countries. This is because of the fact that these developing countries are still low in the part of internet accessibility. The highly incremented differences between the urban or the rural areas in terms of internet advancement are another problem. The internet connection in rural areas of sub Saharan Africa is comparatively costly too. These are some of the problems, which are opposing the high flow of e learning in some of the developing countries (Salmon, 2013). Despite of the fact that e learning is highly beneficial and easily accessible to the wide range of books and journals, it is taking a slow rift in the developing countries. Several countries do still prefer the paper or the traditional form of learning (Fakae, 2016).

E learning can provide several benefits to its learner and the tutor. Some of the benefits are mentioned as follows (Kaul, 2014):

  • Helps in saving time for the students who used to spent a long-time while being in some tutorial centre
  • Provides varieties of resources to have knowledge on the subject topic
  • E learning provides a list of high class tutors, which gives students a long list to select their choice of tutors
  • Provides a high earring scheme to the tutors as the e learning concept is growing in its popularity in some of the most developed countries
  • Provides imaginative quality in the students as they gets chance to interact with some high class tutors that also give some motivational thoughts to the students

Following are some of the limitations of the e learning (Mahanta & Ahmed, 2012):

  • Requires some extra bit of understanding quality from the students, which is never the same with all kinds of students
  • Good for those, which have good analytical skills and the knowledge grasping power
  • Requires a good sum of money especially in case of synchronous mode of e learning, which facilitates the live interaction with the tutors
  • Expensive also for those, which opts for asynchronous mode of e learning as it requires some good usage of internet

It is very tough to understand the main reason behind the success of e learning in the developed countries. However, it is always handful to understand some of the most critical factors, which are contributing to its success. The critical factors that are contributing in the success of e learning are as follows (McCloskey, 2012):

Characteristics of learners

This is one of the most vital factors behind the success of e learning in the developed countries. The perception of the students and their behaviours are encouraging the tutors from all around the world and the technology expert to enlarge the area of success of e learning. The addiction to the computers and the Smartphones has probably helped in shaping the minds of youths towards the e learning format. Nothing can be better for them than the one, which is very close to their feelings (McIntosh, 2014).

Nature of instructors

The nature of instructors is also another factor that is contributing well in the success of the e learning in the developed countries. The nature to provide sufficient time to the students to enlarge their expressiveness has also motivated the beliefs of students towards the online form of education (Nawaz, 2012).

Offline tutorial quality

This is another important factor, which is contributing in the growth of e learning. This is because if the fact that the quality of private tutorial are declining with the declining class of tutors. Another factor behind this is the limitation of tutors at the offline tutorial centre, which is never the same in the online tutorial. It rather has a list of qualified tutors from where students can pick their choice of tutors. Moreover, the offline tutorial format is also lesser in imparting quality of knowledge as in such centres students are forced to rely on single tutor (Puri, 2012).

The role of government in promoting e-learning

Motivation

Motivation is another factor that is less encouraged in the offline form of tutorial. This is one of such reasons, which are contributing hugely in the reducing rates of private tutorials. On contrary to this, online tutorial apart from giving knowledge related information, they also tends to motivate the students by giving some useful examples of motivations. This is because of the fact that students in the developed countries are less focussed on the offline form of tutorial (Rennie & Morrison, 2013).

The acceptance of e learning in academic schools in developing countries ranges from neutral to positive. On one hand, it is understood as an ineffective medium of learning and the traditional format is supported highly. On contrary to this, some are very positive in favour of the e learning form of education. The tutors who are not in favour of the e learning format, they are opposing the concept because of many negative outcomes of the online mode of studying. Several researches have shown that the e learning is imparting negative results because of the highly incremented reliance of students on the e learning platform (Stodd, 2012). They have found that students were not disciplined while being on the online mode of learning. This is because of the fact that many of the tutors in developing countries are not in favour to the online mode of studying. On contrary to this, to some tutors, the e learning format is extensively opportunistic towards the varied range of inaccessible books and journals. They believe that the online mode of studying is a good option to interact with the varied kinds of resources, which are no possible in the school library (Xaymoungkhoun et al., 2012). The e learning form of education has evolved as a subject of debates, which is attracting few in its favour.  

 The usage of information and communication technology is important for it to nourish even further with the increasing demands of students across the globe. Without the presence of information and communication technology, it would not be possible to convey the exact and correct detailing of the subject matter (Shanmugam, Srinivas & Reddy, 2014). The concept of e learning is now expanding with the expectations of students, which is making this important to depend on the ICT to create, maintain and deliver the required information. The usage of technology just for the sake of imparting knowledge to the students and educating them on the chosen subject would have less impact on the educational system. This is because of the fact that the inception of ICT in the e learning format would only benefit a portion of educational sector. However, if the school curriculum in developing countries such as Nigeria does give way to the e learning technology in schools, it would certainly be highly beneficial for the students and for the teachers (Stafford et al., 2012).

E-learning and access to resources

The developing countries such as Nigeria have limited advancements in terms of Information and Communication Technology (Nwabufo, Umoru & Olukotun, 2012). The morality or the beliefs of the Nigerian tutors are rapidly changing and heading towards the e learning kind of education. Tutors believe that the usage of phones, internet for sharing information is very pleasing and time saving. Tutors are also aware of the fact that internet accessibility rate is different in rural or urban areas. The number of users in urban areas is higher than the number of users in rural areas. However, tutors are still optimistic for the e learning form of education. They believe that for the developing countries like Nigeria needs to take full advantage of the online mode of studying. They believe that the traditional format of learning needs to be innovative in order to facilitate a high end of learning and defining a new dimension for the students. This is because of such reasons that the Nigerian government is taking every possible step to incept the new technology in the study curriculum of the academic schools (Anene, Imam & Odumuh, 2014). This was the reason, which encouraged the Nigerian government for a conference focussing on the rising benefits of e learning. The highlight of such conference was to initiate the opportunistic progress towards the implementation of e learning format in schools. It was believed in such conference that e learning is highly useful and provides enormous opportunities to the students for a progressive career and to the tutors for an advanced approach towards the medium of study. Following were the part of the conference, which is useful in many ways (Nebeolisa, 2017):

  • Popularization of e learning technologies, tools and solutions
  • Modern corporate and enterprise training
  • Setting up distance, open and virtual universities
  • Establishing Virtual Classrooms, Mobile Learning, Digital Libraries, Cloud Based learning and Social Learning
  • Conduction of exhibitions by E learning service providers

The origin of e learning can be related to the development of telecommunications in Nigeria, which has happened in the year 1886 when it was made e cable connections in between Lagos and London. The establishment had happened for transmitting the information and receiving the feedback. By the end of 1893, all the government offices in Lagos were provided with the telephone connections, which then further got expanded to other parts of the country. The first form of e learning was initiated in Nigeria with help of CD-ROM, which the tutors used to record their desired tasks and pay those CD-ROM when it was required the most. The CD-ROM was used to store the lectures, which was challenging for the tutors, as students had to rely on a single computer for a lecture (Adu, Adelabu & Adjogri, 2014). This is indeed very challenging as it is tough to accommodate high numbers if students on just a single computer. The government had then realized the importance of e learning in the school study and this is why it shown its utmost trust in the ICT department. The effort was given to introduce the e learning in the educational system with the help of both the public and the private educational centres (Danner & Pessu, 2013). This was the reason, which encouraged the Nigerian government for a conference focussing on the rising benefits of e learning. The highlight of such conference was to initiate the opportunistic progress towards the implementation of e learning format in schools. It was believed in such conference that e learning is highly useful and provides enormous opportunities to the students for a progressive career and to the tutors for an advanced approach towards the medium of study. Following were the part of the conference, which is useful in many ways. 

E-learning and the role of teachers

The Federal Government of Nigeria had then sensed the urgency of incepting the e learning platform in the school study curriculum. This is because of the fact that the Federal Committed had then produced some policies on the e learning, which was further approved by the National Council of Education. The policy was approved by thinking that it would be highly made public in the near future. However, the policy could not succeed in posing some serious response to the created urgency (Aluede, Idogho & Imonikhe, 2012).

The country has shown its utmost desire to enhance its capabilities in the e learning development; however, the lack of ICT development in the country has kept him deprived of the success, which they have thought of. Students and even the professors are not equipped with the high knowledge of computers. Some even do not know about how to access the emails. Some even do not know about how to draft a mail. A less development of ICT in the country has contributed in the underdevelopment of e learning in Nigeria (Osang, 2012). The underdevelopment of ICT in the country is accountable to some of the following factors:

  • Poor technical infrastructure: The technical development of ICT in Nigeria is less developed because of its unreliable phone lines and the internet connections, which is slow or not reliable because of narrow bandwidth. High number of users are using internet in different cyber cafes using the shared bandwidth, which is causing the connection to get slow. The availability of laptop and computer is very limited to the different people living in the country. The incapable bandwidth quality of the country has compelled the country forcibly go down with their poor connection. Nevertheless, this is also letting them down in big numbers, as the prosperous of e learning is not happening because of incapable or average ICT quality in the country (Awofala, Fatade & Ola-Oluwa, 2012).
  • Financial resources: This is another problem, which is preventing the growth of ICT in the country. The government is not capable of reaching to a wider customer and the network because of the expensiveness of the ICT equipments. This is one of such reason, which is preventing a high growth of ICT in Nigeria (Akpan, Effiong & Ele, 2012).
  • Lack of computer knowledge: This is limiting the growth of ICT in Nigeria. This is because of the fact that an inadequate awareness to the computer would lead to unfamiliarity to the ICT and e learning. The professors, the lecturers and the students are not well versed with how to handle and use the ICT. This is because of such reasons that the government has now become ineffective in developing the e learning study mode in the country. This kind of system would not be able to take help of the available advanced technologies. They have no such high understanding of the ICT and this is because of the fact that they are finding this difficult in establishing their sound relationships with the advanced ICT technology and the e learning mode (Ololube & Egbezor, 2012).
  • Insufficient training for the teachers: This is another major problem as it is adding to the pain of redundancy with the computer literacy. The teachers have no sufficient training in the country. Apart from that, it also has no such suitable training if any is there. This is very critical as because of the fact that teachers are the one who incept new things in their students. If they are not adequate with the importance and the package of e learning then there are very less chances for them making this familiar to the students. This is very traditional and contemporary that teachers are the mediator in between the knowledge and the success. This is why Nigeria is suffering of many challenges in their way to achieve glory in the field of e learning in the country (Okoye & Okwelle, 2014).
  • Internet connectivity: The cost of accessing to the internet is still high in Nigeria, which is because of such reason that most of the students are not able to connect themselves with the internet. Te government should take some initiatives to incept and spread the internet knowledge across the country. The local government of Nigeria can do something to make this happen. They can make this compulsory for the higher studies. This would enable higher students come closer to the internet. This would also move forward one-step ahead in the way of enhancing the ICT in the country. This would also help the education system advance to a next level. This indeed is very important for the development of e learning in Nigeria (Bhalalusesa, Lukwaro & Clemence, 2013).
  • Energy related issues: This is another potential issue, which is hampering the flourish of ICT in Nigeria. The problem is because of the poor power system in the country, which is not only hampering the educational system but also some other major industries. Students living in the rural areas have there no access to the national power system. In the urban areas, irregular power system has affected the connectivity to the internet in most of the cases. On a same note, in the rural areas, students are less connected to the internet because of extreme bad power system in such areas. Nevertheless, it is highly important that proper power system is available to a wide range of students. This is needed for the flourishing of ICT related knowledge in different kinds of students. Moreover, this is also necessary for generating the awareness of e learning benefits in education (Akpan, Effiong & Ele, 2012).
  • Less Expertise: There are limited numbers of technical staffs in some universities, which means that the required ratio is not available in those universities. This is never possible to educate a mass number of students on the technical advancement of ICT. The government has sensed the urgency for the growth of e learning in the country; they have inadequate infrastructure, which is highly opposing the growth of e commerce in this country (Aluede, Idogho & Imonikhe, 2012).

This is now an undeniable fact that the country seriously lacks in the development of its some major services, which is causing the students to loose on the advancement part. The extreme poor infrastructure especially of education has forced different students to go for some foreign locations for having higher studies. They have potentials in them but they have limited resources available to them to explore their credentials and prove their worth. Most of the Nigerian students are heading to the Australian Universities and their numbers have increased in the recent times. Australia is one of the most popular destinations in terms of studies, which is only third to USA and Canada when it comes to for the choice of countries for studies. The Nigerian students need seriously some high-end infrastructure related improvement by its government, so that, the country could successfully resist the outward flow of its students to other countries such as Australia. This is also required for the betterment of ICT and e learning in Nigeria (Aluede, Idogho & Imonikhe, 2012).

The local government has identified the urgency of enhancing the level of e learning in the country and this is because of the fact that the government is allowing many conferences as well some visits of world’s most popular personalities to enhance the awareness for ICT and e learning in the country. The educational system of the country has geared for a good change. This is very much evident in some of the last visits of some popular personalities form different corner of the world. In this regard, Nigeria has witnessed a step further in the way to achieve a highly developed e learning and ICT platform in the country. Learning Nuggets Company (LNC), this is in UK and touted as one of the most pioneer and biggest consultancies for s learning and e business. LNC’s chief executive has shown its utmost faiths in the potentiality of the Nigerian people. This is also because of the fact that the Nigeria students are doing exceptionally well in the Australian universities. Moreover, the local government of Nigeria is also very positive towards the growth of ICT and e learning in the country. However, the chief has also expressed its deep concern for the development of technologies in the country. He further adds that the country has potentials in it; however, it just needs some serious repairing in their technological advancements (Ololube & Egbezor, 2012).

E-learning and improvements in infrastructure and technology

The biggest achievement came in the form of British ex-prime minister, Mr. Gordon Brown who made some important announcements on his visit to Nigeria. He spoke a lot about the educational benefits and tried for raising the standard of education in Nigeria. The first step, which the ex prime minister had taken that he announced about some of his plans for the betterment of education in Nigeria. Mr, Gordon has plans to allocate some financial resources to uplift the educational infrastructure of the country such as school buildings, teacher recruitment, teacher training and online school courses with the help of new technologies. According to his thought, every child has its rights to attain a higher education. The process is doing well; however, some of the children are still left with the benefits because of some problems in the country such as child labour, child marriage and trafficking. These are some problems, which are opposing an actual implementation of the ex prime minister’s plans of Nigeria’ education development. The local government of Nigeria has now become considerable effective in communicating the importance of e learning and ICT development. The local people and the students have also some chances with them to know about the importance of e learning in the country. However, they are actually waiting for their days to come, which would look possible in the next five years, as there are numerous government projects for the development of educational infrastructure (Adu, Adelabu & Adjogri, 2014).

Learning theories in education can be categorised into classical and non-conventional segments. The classical segment includes the Platonic theories of learning or the Theory of Recollection and the Blank Slate theory proposed by John Locke. On the other hand, the non-conventional theories are Behaviourism, Cognitivism, Constructivism and Transformative learning theory. The research aims at the establishment of one of these theories in association with the venture of e learning in the Australian schools. Plato assumed that the learning state of the students depends on the programming process of recollecting whatever they are taught in the previous section. Without firm recollection of the subject, the students are unable to store the knowledge they are taught about. On the other hand, John Locke has suggested Blank Slate theory constitutes the concept that no human is born with knowledge. It has to be filled up. E learning certainly does the job through much easier and concise manner. John Watson’s theory of behaviourism deals with the controlled state of behaviour during the learning process. Behavioural structure of a student helps him or her acquire the knowledge as per the need. Since, this theory open an option for the choice of study, it does not go along with the conventional theories. In the classical theories of learning, there is no scope for the selection of receiving education. Gestalts theory of Cognitivism is the advanced form of behaviourism. The theory is associated with the mode of human psychology and it emphasizes the on the knowledge procurement through human experience.

The future outlook for e-learning in developing economies

This chapter illustrates and analyses the research methods and the analysis of retrieved data. It also elucidates the research approach. The approach of the research decides whether the research has been conducted through quantitative or qualitative method.  Since the application of e learning in the schools has different approaches, the acceptance and implementation of it been varying in different levels. The research has been conducted by in order to find the potential use of e learning in under the circumstances of Nigerian Curriculumin the middle and high schools. The focus of the research has remained on the secondary school students where they are taught through digital pedagogy.   The current trend of e learning constitutes VLE (Virtual Learning Environment) and ICT (Information and Communication Technology).  However, there are many discrepancies in the mode of e learning in different countries. Since, the research is limited to the acceptance of e learning in the Australian secondary schools; the prime focus has remained in the students and the teachers who are the active participant in the schools. Different scholarly texts have been followed in the course of the research.

Allan Bryman and Emma Bell’s paper has been associated during the study.  According to the writer duo, e learning has facilitated many of the researchers while conducting research. Different research techniques are made easy. With the help of online resource centres, the entire method of research and investigations are eased. While doing the present research, direct participation has accelerated and strengthened the concept of the topic. For instance, visiting to the schools and colleges and following the pedagogical structures of the teachers have been followed and taken into consideration. As the research does not constitute interactive sessions or the questionnaires, only the literature and the scholarly journals have been the basic resource of the study. It has been found that the Nigerian Curriculum introduced e learning from the very basic level in the schools. Since the process of e learning is entirely technology oriented, the conventional teachers have been facing some troubles. In a specific way, the platonic theory of learning can be implemented to the e-learning process. However, the major theoretical framework can be improved and applied in need.  After regular visit to the schools and the colleges, it has been realised that the growing advancement of the technologies in academic aspect has putt direct effect upon the emerging economy. The platonic theory suggests that psychological interpretation of the reality needs strong hold over academic interpretation. Hence, present day situation of educational aspect, which driven by e-learning method, is directly oriented to the economic development of a state. On the other hand, the research found that the implementation of e-learning process has positive effect on the economic growth of the world, specifically the country.  Since the students enjoy smart study procedure, their practical understanding of the topics is concretised. It has been found that most of the students from the middle school level have grown the understanding and clear concept on practical issues thus developing their mind in much more realistic way. Adoption and implementation of e-learning tools such as ICT and VLE have been so far helpful in causing overall development of the students thus causing long-term effect upon the national and international economy.

Conclusion

Research method is a process that is followed by a researcher in order to collect relevant and contextual information about a particular and specific topic that is chosen for research purpose. An expanded definition of research method constitutes the process of data collection for making academic or business decision. Research method includes the process of collection, sampling, survey, interviewing and presentation of those retrieved data in a systematic and formative structure.  There are different theories pertaining to the understanding of research method, however, this particular research does not extensively follow any major theory while proceeding with the venture. According to Frey et al., (2014) research method is one or more particular strategies that are used by the researchers in order to retrieve evidence for building or testing theories or hypothesis.

Since the primary focus of the researcher lay on the understanding of the level of usage and acceptance of e learning in the schools, this specific research has used qualitative method so as to review different scholarly theories on the methods of the usage of e-learning. The research has been conducted in order to relate the conventional pedagogical theories and the modern pedagogies on teaching e learning.  There are two different research methods- quantitative and qualitative. This research has been conducted based on quantitative method.

Research approaches can be divided into three main categories. These are deductive, inductive and abductive. Deductive research approach is used to examine the validity and value of the collected data. The legitimacy of assumptions is examined through different research levels. On the other hand, inductive research approach for the analysis of data is instrumented when the researchers introduce new theories from the analysis of the entire research problem. On the contrary, abductive approach to research analysis is dependent on the fact and progress of the research. However, a superlative abductive research analysis acquaints the analysis of the retrieved facts and the data in the constant progress of the research.

This particular research is based on the deductive approach. The main purpose of the research is to authenticate the legitimacy of the research hypothesis. Authenticity of the projected hypothesis is based on the validity and legitimacy of the collected data. The researcher has not opted to development or introduction of new theory. Hence, the adoption and implementation of inductive method can be rejected and negated in the course of research. As the abductive approach to the research analysis needs to be developed on the hypothetical facts, the discussed research has not adopted the abductive approach. The research has followed the general facts and practices in the Australian schools and followed existing relevant theories on the pedagogy.

Research design is the structure or the frame for the entire research process. There are different components of research design. These are research questions, research hypothesis, data collection method, data analysis plan, framework, and relative structure of the theories. The research analysis strictly follows the descriptive method.

Research philosophy is nothing but a belief, which a researcher develops while conducting the research. This belief is associated with the data collection and data analysis method. According to Knobe & Nichols, (2013), research philosophy ensures the development of logical reasoning pertaining to the data retrieval and analysis method. It is the perspective of the researcher regarding the choice of the research philosophy i.e. which method is to be chose- quantitative or qualitative. According to Mary converse, (2012), there are three types of research philosophies. These are pragmatism, positivism and realism. Pragmatism in research philosophy refers to adoption of a mixed method of both the qualitative and quantitative approach to data analysis.  The philosophy of positivism is related to the fact of working with the large sample data.  In this case, a general quantitative method is taken into consideration. However, in special cases, as Tolman, (2012) suggested, qualitative approach can b1e used in need. When a researcher makes a choice between the qualitative and the quantitative research analysis, the philosophy of realism occurs. The choice of philosophy depends on the mode of entire research method and the researcher’s likeliness in proceeding with the research.

While conducting the present research, the philosophy of pragmatism has been chosen as the research has been carried out with the use of mixed method, i.e. both types of analysis method- quantitative and qualitative are adopted during the research process. In the due course of the research, the theories pertaining to the conventional learning and pedagogy have been dealt with.   It has covered the entire process of e learning in comparison with the learning method during the conventional teaching periods.

Data collection process can be of two types. The researcher can involve in following two data collection methods:

  1. Primary Data Collection
  2. Secondary Data Collection

 Primary data collection method involves data collection from the primary sources. This is done through interview, survey and questionnaires.  According to Palinkas et al., (2015), direct data collection helps the researchers blindly rely on the authenticity of the data. On the contrary, secondary data collection method includes the sources such as books, journals, blogs and other passive sources. However, the present research has been conducted based on the secondary data sources as the researcher has gone through different theories, government report on Nigerian academic curriculum and its acceptance of e-learning, international academic journals and other legitimate sources. The reports of the international organisations have also been relied upon. Moreover, the data collection method has also been primary as the students of Nigeria who have visited Australia for higher studies have been approach for their response. A set of questionnaires has been designed in order to conduct the survey.  It has already been discussed in the literature review that the Nigerian students have been visiting Australia for higher studies in order to get better facilities in terms of higher education with the help of e-learning.   The data collection method thus remained both primary and secondary in terms of understanding the actual scenario in Nigeria. The students who have come to receive promising education under Australian Curriculum, has been asked about the proper scenario of e-learning provision in the academic institutes in Nigeria.  Since both primary and secondary data sources have been followed during the research process, a comprehensive study for the authenticity of the secondary data has been followed.  However, there was no cross check of the respondents’ answers pertaining to the mode of e-learning method in the Nigerian middle and graduate schools.

On top of that, the set of checklist has also been made in order to follow the ongoing trend of e-learning practice in the schools. There was a visit to five different public schools, which enjoy e-learning benefits. However, the actual mode and process of implementation   and its orientation with the core study method have been judged. Hence, there was a need for the direct participation of the teachers and the students during the interview session and survey session. The questionnaires were mailed to the selected teaching personnel and the students. Hence, primary data is manly obtained through administering the questionnaires and the secondary sources have been obtained through the survey of the theoretical literature.

There are different data sampling techniques. It is the responsibility and choice of the researchers to choose the suitable data sampling method according to the set research objectives. According to Cohen, Manion & Morrison, (2013), data sampling methods can be categorised in to basic two segments. These are probability sampling and non-probability sampling.  In the current research, a very small proportion of classroom participants have been chose from the larger one. Hence, the researcher has chosen to opt for probability sampling technique. Probability sampling technique has been further categorised into five major types. These are simple random sampling, stratified sampling, cluster sampling, systematic sampling and multi-stage sampling. In this particular research, there has been no statistical data analysis. The data has been retrieved from different theoretical case studies and the conclusion of the research has been concretised based on the interpretation of the theories. This research has tended to relate the learning theories with e-learning process and assess whether the theories of learning could go hand in hand with the process of e learning.

The researcher has tried to reserve all the possible ethics of the organisations and the participating respondents during the research work. Since the investigation includes the process of thorough study of the practice of e learning under the Australian Curriculum, it has tried to maintain the ethics of the National Curriculum System of the country without adversely affecting or hampering the ongoing classes. The collected information and the study of different literatures have followed the ethical conscience without distorting the core value of the existing works. Moreover, the dignity- on the personal as well as social level- of the respondents and the survey participants has been taken care of.  In need of the maintenance of personal and organisational secrecy and confidentiality, they are justly taken into firm consideration. Most significantly, the researcher has conducted the research in an unbiased way without being influenced by others.

This chapter is going to analyse the retrieved data from both primary and secondary data sources. Both the data types have been collected in reference to the literature review. In this section a comprehensive idea has been developed to conceptualise the major problem discussed in the first chapter of this paper.  

While conducting this research a set of questionnaires has been set and 15 Nigerian students have been targeted as the respondents. Most of the students are from engineering and management background so that they could succinctly respond to the asked questions. This has been quite helpful for the entire research for developing a structural idea about the Nigerian curriculum and its acceptance of e learning in the country. The collected data have been represented through the usage of excel sheet in order to present a statistical viewpoint of the exact mode of the e learning curriculum. The data have been analysed in a descriptive method. While contacting to the respondents through emails, their age has been considered so as to confirm that they belong to Generation Y who have the highest percentage of exploiting the potential of e learning technique in educational sectors.  Hence, fifteen students from the age group of 18—25 have been selected as the respondents and they were shortlisted during the data presentation process. A set of ten (10) questionnaires has been designed and sent to the respondents via email.  The response of the targeted students has been considered unbiased and neutral without a partial inclination towards the growing economic stability of their country. Both qualitative and quantitative method of data analysis has been followed because of the consideration of open and close ended questions.

The secondary data sources have been the articles and the scholarly identified research papers. In this section, the articles from the Nigerian government pertaining to the practice of e learning in the academic institutions in the country have been taken into consideration. This is how the major data collection method has been processed throughout the research paper. While collecting the secondary data, there has been a process of rejection and acceptance as per the authenticity of the data. The chosen data have been considered authentic because of their recent publication by the most authentic source such as the government of Nigeria and the international organisation.

With the help of the retrieved data it can be stated whether the Nigerian government has been able to identify the urgency pf enhancing the level of e learning in the country.  53.33 % of the total respondents have agreed to the fact that the government of Nigeria has a positive approach to the advancement of e learning in the schools.  From the above data it can be made clear that the government is on the way to improve the condition of the schools so as to retain  the students in the country from going out to the other countries.

Conclusion:

With the retrieved data it has been found that the Nigerian curriculum has been effective in understanding the student need so as to drive them with the facility of global standard of education. As a matter of fact, the basic understanding of the student need has to be cleared with the effective need to study abroad. E learning has no doubt been effective in determining the fact how the students are being addressed and associated with the changing economy in the global aspect.

The basic limitation of the research has been the time factor. Due to lack of sufficient time, the research has not been fulfilled with its extreme potential. However, the literature analysis and constructional framework of the theories has helped the researcher develop basic idea regarding the work habit of e learning.

In the near future, the research shall try to overcome the shortcoming that the researcher faced during the process of data collection. The researcher shall try to investigate the details of the implementation of e learning and its effect on the national economy. In further investigation of the topic, it shall have to analyse the data in a statistical manner so that exact report can be produced.

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