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Forensics Report (20 Marks) In this major task assume you are a Digital Forensics Examiner. Considering a real or a hypothetical case you are required to produce a formal report consisting of facts from your findings to your attorney who has retained you. You are free to choose a forensics scenario which can be the examination of a storage media (HDD, USB Drive, etc), email or social media forensics, mobile device forensics, cloud forensics or any other appropriate scenario you can think of. 

This assessment task covers data validation, e-discovery, steganography, reporting and presenting, and has been designed to ensure that you are engaging with the subject content on a regular basis. More specifically it seeks to assess your ability to:

  • determine the legal and ethical considerations for investigating and prosecuting digital crimes
  • analyse data on storage media and various file systems 
  • collect electronic evidence without compromising the original data;
  • evaluate the functions and features of digital forensics equipment, the environment and the tools for a digital forensics lab;
  • compose technical tactics in digital crimes and assess the steps involved in a digital forensics investigation;
  • prepare and defend reports on the results of an investigation 
Cloud Computing

Cloud computing compromises usefulness based provisioning of the services of ICT also called as Information and Communications Technology to the clients of all domains and areas. The growth in this field is delivering the advantage of forming virtual service network through data center design. This feature has provided options to the users to execute the application wherever they want and at any time. This removes involvement of heavy system to run bug application as data is being stored in the cloud instead of local machine.

This is also one of the fast service provider as it has advantage of giving flexible infrastructure for ICT which includes both software and hardware platform.  This gives the business an opportunity to concentrate on the innovation rather than being dependent on the system configurations.

The digital forensics has been a technique which has shown the rapid growth in the past few years and all credit goes to the evolution of the crimes associated with the use of internet. Although scope of digital forensic keeps on changing or expanding due to various scenario. Nowadays agencies for law are not using much of the digital forensic methods which were being used in past based on the devices they have possession of from crime scene.

In case if infrastructure is based on the cloud then utilization of the traditional methods in investigation can lead to the loss of the valued material used for investigations.

The supplementary difficulty in case of the investigations involving digital forensic inside situations having Cloud based methods ascend out of the numerous kinds of models for Cloud. The augmented acceptance of skills for Cloud computing would influence on in what way ILEAs behavior for inquiries concern the environments based on Cloud. The popular investigation regarding Cloud computing is attentive to the making boundaries for the tests of execution of inquiries of digital forensic inside environments which is based  on physical Cloud.

These tests could be recorded like the legal, evidence documentation, data procurement and appropriateness of old-style implements of digital forensic to obtain data inside environments which is based on Cloud. These tests not solitary worsen the difficulties of methods of the digital forensics inside environments of the Cloud but generate a fresh area for the inquiries in digital forensic.

The supposed "law slack" is one of the fundamental legitimate difficulties digital criminology is confronting. Laws are continuously behind innovation, as officials neglect to stay aware of new headways. Moreover, the trouble and protracted procedure of making new laws does not help much. The nonappearance of worldwide participation, security concerns and the requirement of court orders are only a couple of more cases specialists need to manage. Besides, advanced crime scene investigation is a generally new teach in this way there is little consistency amongst industry and courtrooms, which has prompted an absence of institutionalized procedures, preparing and apparatuses.

Digital Forensics

Some work is being done to manage lawful cases. For instance, the European Union is pushing to blend evidential models through the formation of an European Area in Forensic in request to diminish cross-outskirt issues. Parallel things is being done by the International Association for Standardization, which have Information Security Administration System models. ISO/IEC 27.

                                           

This part examines the encounters elevated through cloud computing with admiration to present digital forensic inquiries models. The examination establishes that numerous conventions combined into present forensic examination models are not effective in the cloud computing.

The leading phase of DIP model is resolving that a latent unlawful or inappropriate entertainment has occurred connecting the system based on computer. These proceedings might be related to the old-style activity or crimes enlarged through utilization of Information Technology.

Identification might consequence out of, for instance, criticisms done by persons, irregularities noticed through Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS), observing or due to computer system audit.

The discovery of doubtful happenings in a cloud would be determined through the model of deployment accepted and the various types of the loud services like Pass, Iaas and Saas being utilized. The  orthodox IDS utilization in a cloud is also a possibility. These systems can be positioned through IaaS clouds users, or PaaS or SaaS clouds providers. Users could observe for doubtful actions happening in the utilizing services. Providers can screen the fundamental frame utilized for cloud hosting, and consequently notice much greater attacks which might disturb a greater audience.

An examination in digital forensic is apprehensive through gathering the statistics from computer systems which may in future be established as indication that a digital crime or additional illegal action has been triggered. Lawful agreement and values of forensic, like the Daubert principles, necessitate testable forensic confirmation, and which are the utilized approaches for creating evidence repeatable. Subsequently, DIP Model’s protection phase describes doings proceeding to the collection of data in order to guarantee the data integrity all over the life cycle of investigation that is declaration of accuracy of the evidence from the information retrieved on the system (computer).

The utilization of environments like cloud would probable worsens the data storage issue. An eye-catching cloud environments feature for the customers can be elastic ability to animatedly measure capabilities of any service in terms of the storage in accordance with the on-going necessities. Out of the prospective of the end user, a characteristic Iaas Cloud which is public seems to provide boundless capacity for the data storage by way of time when is required by the user.

Legal and Administrative Issues

An investigator might be confronted with very large data collection located into the cloud space through a user.Unique solution examining establishments could alternative to is the utilization of community clouds for accumulation of substantiation. This also would carry its individual tests, out of both prospective of the technical and legal. Investigators would have requirement to solve and make the regulations and rules concerning protection of the data and confidentiality matters, and their influence on cloud stored evidences.

The CFFTPM would probably not perform transmission of straight to the cloud environment context; meanwhile application in the prospect of user-centric data might be having storage in the cloud, hidden onto client PC of user or can have both the cases. Accepting a method of triage might necessitate an detective to manner data’s live inspection into the cloud situation though the connection of client is ON. The suggestions of a living examination are deliberated additional underneath in the background of procurement of data.

A correctly preserved term for custody consequently delivers the written past for the whole lifespan of learned evidence throughout an examination.

Because of the cloud’s remote nature indicates that this supposition has no validity if we talk about cloud. The reason being that service is retrieved through all the connected system inside a network which is hosted by cloud. Except if a detective is capable to get the service control and then disabling of the service, in this manner evidence can be demolished comparatively rapidly, whichever through a service user or through the provider of cloud. Contests in this situation comprise the investigator speed to obtain service control, and the suitable regulatory and legal outline that must be industrialized to allow this competence.

Presumptuous that we have found switch for cloud service, it’s essential to get an precise data copy detained through the given service which can be utilized for advanced examination. Together the DIP accept the utilization of method of ‘forensic imaging’ in order to get storage device’s copies insides deprived of source modification.

Characteristically, connection of the storage device is to computer through a blocker as given in below Figure.  A copy of image is being done using this as can be seen below.

                                         

The data collection for the evidence in case of the cloud is probably to posture a test for the detectives. Unstable, determined memory gaining software and Triage tools by way of utilization in conservative inquiries, onto computer of client will deliver negligible statistics. The concept of data virtualization in terms of the cloud storage types it multifaceted to classify and separate the more than one physical storage devices possessed through a cloud provider which signify the data of user which have to be collected for examination.

Case Study

Throughout the examination stage of an examination the meaning of evidence artefacts as indication is appraised. A story is industrialized, reinforced through the indication and a clarifying timeline the way in what way commitment of crime happened. Anywhere suitable, it might be likely to subordinate specific artefacts by operators or operator’s accounts.

Service providers have applied various logging mechanisms following utilizing inside their services:

Message Log Search – This forms a Google service log that lets managers to type enquiries on messages through the email. Investigators (Forensic) could also utilize this exploration if they could be given the account access of the administrator. By means of this instrument a detective could get logs covering evidence like: data specific emails sent, ID for account, Exact email identification, IP address etc.

Amazon S3 Logging - between another classification, Amazon delivers ‘buckets’ logging shaped by means of service of Amazon S3. Classification could be arranged to enter the demands made in contradiction of the bucket in a way that the type of the request and the reserve that the appeal functioned and the data and time of the request can be fetched.

To summarize

                                                 

Results Discussion and Conclusion

As examined present issues in the territory of cloud sciences examinations bolster the advancement of a prompt research motivation in the region of techniques, devices, philosophies, and particular conditions. These problems would be of worry to both people in general and private. This case study particularly looks at a few regions of research which lead to additionally comprehend advanced crime scene investigation examinations in the cloud that comprises: an examination of cloud administration use, the adequacy of obtaining techniques, a comprehension of business cloud situations, an examination of cloud legal administration, and the effect of the cloud on cell phones.

This is contended that ordinary strategies and rules proposed for leading advanced crime scene investigation could well be lacking in a cloud situation. In the event that present figures are right, more organizations and associations will move their information to cloud conditions. Together with a proceeded with development in digital wrongdoing, this move could mean there will be in near future be a request to lead crime scene investigation examinations in such situations. Such examinations would as of now be effected because of the absence of direction concerning strategies and software instruments to recover evidences in a forensically solid way.

There is likewise the requirement for legitimate issues with respect to mists including information maintenance and protection laws to be reevaluated, taking after the across the board appropriation of cloud advancements. At long last, there is additionally the requirement for the computerized crime scene investigation group to start setting up standard exact systems to assess structures, techniques and programming devices for utilization in a cloud domain.

As there are expanding distributed computing utilizes, there is a developing requirement for dependable cloud crime scene investigation. A few analysts have recognized and investigated the difficulties standing up to the computerized examiners when they lead measurable examinations in cloud-based cases. As needs be, a few specialists have proposed specialized answers for relieve these difficulties. Notwithstanding, there are as yet open issues that should be handled.

This work distinguished cloud legal difficulties, coordinated proposed answers for these difficulties, and decided open issues that need facilitate endeavors to be handled. With the current accomplishment of the regularly growing cloud, it is found that the worry encompassing the trustworthiness furthermore, procurement of information must be tended to. It is basic that associations hold control of information to guarantee that they can be forensically analyzed in an opportune way, and along these lines discharging the CSPs of that weight. The arrangement

sketched out above can help defeating the worries; nonetheless, additionally research would give a more noteworthy comprehension of the specialized ramifications of the day-today operations of a cloud framework and the money related suggestions emerging accordingly.

References

G. Noblett M.M. Pollitt L.A. Presley "Recovering and Examining Computer Forensic Evidence" Forensic Science Comm. vol. 2 no. 4 2000.

L. Garfinkel A. Shelat "Remembrance of Data Passed: A Study of Disk Sanitization Practices" IEEE Security & Privacy vol. 1 no. 1 pp. 17-27 2003.

Casey "Practical Approaches to Recovering Encrypted Digital Evidence" Int'l J. Digital Evidence vol. 1 no. 3 2002.

Oppliger R. Rytz "Does Trusted Computing Remedy Computer Security Problems?" IEEE Security & Privacy vol. 3 no. 2 pp. 16-19 Mar./Apr. 2005.

Sommer "Directors and Corporate Advisors' Guide to Digital Investigations and Evidence" in Information Assurance Advisory Council 2005.

Sommer "Intrusion Detection Systems as Evidence" Computer Networks: The International Journal of Computer and Telecommunications Networking 1999 vol. 31 no. 123–24 pp. 2477-2487 December 1999.

Clark Are you ready for Forensics? 2006.

leong H. Leung "Deriving Cse-specific Live Forensics Investigation Procedures from FORZA" Symposium on Applied Computing archive Proceedings of the 2007 ACM symposium on Applied computing 2007.

Ren H. Jin "Honeynet Based Distributed Adaptive Network Forensics and Active Real Time Investigation" 2005 ACM Symposium on Applied Computing 2005.

M Foster W.J. "Process Forensics: A pilot study on the use of checkpointing technology in computer forensics" International Journal of Digital Evidence vol. 3 no. 1 2004.

Payer "Realtime Intrusion-Forensiscs A proptotype implementation" Terena Networking conference 2004.

Carrier E. Spafford "Getting physical with the digital investigation process" International journal of Digital Evidence vol. 2 no. 2 2003.

Rowlingson "A ten step Process for Forensic Readiness" International journal of Digital Evidence vol. 2 no. 3 2004.

CP Louwrens et al. "A control Framework for Digital Forensics" IFIP11.9 International Conference on Digital Forensics 2006.

Beebe J. Clark "A hierarchical objectives-based framework for the digital investigations process" in Digital Investigation Elsevier vol. 2 pp. 147-167 2005.

Casey "Digital Evidence and Computer Crime" in Elsevier Academic Press 2004.

Barayumureeba F. Tushabe "The enhanced digital investigation process model" DFRWS 2004 2004.

O. Ciardhuain "AN extended model of cybercrime investigations" International journal of Digital Evidence vol. 3 no. 1 2004.

Forrester B. Irwin "A Digital Forensic investigative model for business organisations" IFIPSec 2007 2007.

C Soanes H.S. "Oxford Dictionary" in Compact Oxford English Dictionary of Current English Oxford University press 2005.

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