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Model of Living

The present paper aims to analyze the concept of Model of Living as propounded by Roper, Logan and Tierney. The paper also focuses on the stages of nursing framework and analyzes the concept of sensory deprivation condition. The main goal of the paper is to evaluate the level of assistance that is required for a patient who suffers from a diverse set of sensory deprivation condition. The paper performs a thorough analysis of the levels of assistance and recommends the levels that required. It also discusses the importance of communication among patient and their care givers as well as the employees of multidisciplinary committee and discusses the ways in which the environment of the patients can be kept entirely hygienic as well as safe in order for the patient to feel comfortable (Tierney, et al., 2020).

The theory propounded in the Roper-Logan-Tierney model of nursing care is based on the activities that encompass the daily lifestyle of individuals. The model was developed by Nancy Roper, Winifred W. Logan and Alison J. Tierney. The model was initially developed in the year 1980 and it was based on the 1976 work of Nancy Roper. The workings of the model are loosely derived from the works of Virginia Henderson. The original motive regarding the aims of the model was to create a structured framework that an be used while taking care of patients, but, with time, it has become used in the United Kingdom merely in order to check the patients before their admission in the care facilities. The concept of Activities of Learning (AL) performs a major factor in the present model. This concept essentially means a sense of independence in an individual regarding their health as well as physical well-being. According to this model, the five factors that affect the activities of living are that of, biological, psychological, sociocultural, environmental and politicoeconomic (Williams, 2015).

The 1958 nursing process models of Ida Jean Orlando have been prevalent in the field of nursing throughout ages and they still are as much prevalent. This process basically functions as a guide which is entirely systematic towards its approach to client centered care, the model functions under five sequential steps (Guerrero, 2019). These steps are:

  • Assessment: this step involves crucial critical thinking skills as well as an elaborate data collection. The data can be either subjective (verbal statements of patients) or objective (measurable data)
  • Diagnosis: this is a clinical judgement regarding responses to the potential or actual health problems on the part of patients, family members or community members.
  • Planning: this stage involves a formulation of goals and outcomes that can impact the patient care process directly. These plans hep in providing a course of action that could be followed in order to make the experience easier for the patients as well as the nursing fraternity. These plans help in creating an atmosphere of easy communication, reimbursement and documentation throughout the entire healthcare system.
  • Implementation: this step involves taking action and carrying out the activities as per the plan care developed in the process of nursing care. It specifically requires nursing interventions which ca include actions such as applying a cardiac monitor, administration of medication of the patient, standard treatment protocol and direct as well as indirect care of the patient.
  • Evaluation: this is the final step of the entire process and it involves a thorough evaluation of the entire process in order to analyze the overall affect of the process and understand the positive or negative influence that the process had over the patient(Toney-Butler & Thayer, 2021).

Sensory deprivation condition signifies the lack of an individual’s ability to sense. This can either be because of the natural causes, for instance, the unfortunate cases of blindness or deafness or it could be caused due to the presence of experimental settings. Sensory deprivation conditions include a variety of disorders that affect the individuals who are suffering through sensory deprivation (Leigh-Hunt, et al., 2017). These conditions and disorders are:

  • Psychiatric Conditions
  1. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): this disorder occurs due to the impaired form of information processing as well as the faulty perceptual capacity of an individual(Cortese, et al., 2016).
  2. Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD): sensory symptoms associated with autism are due to the altercations in the sensory dedicated neural circuits which may include significant changes which are neuro-molecular as well as anatomical(Lord, et al., 2018).
  3. Schizophrenia: Symptoms of schizophrenia include altered sensory processing as well as perceptual interface.
  • Sleep disorder: lack of sleep or sleep deprivation can cause delirium in the patient that can lead the patient to perceptual or sensory alterations.
  • Delirium in Intensive Care: It has been revealed in reports that the patients who are in in intensive care unit (ICU) are found to be most at frisk of developing the symptoms of delirium.
  • Neurological Disorders: as behavioral changes take place in patients through the time period, neurological disorders or the symptoms of the disorders start developing the patients over the time(Mirza & Zahid, 2018).
  • Visual Dysfunction: the visual dysfunctions lead to color discrimination temporal sensitivity, peripheral vision field sensitivity and contrast sensitivity.
  • Hearing Problems
  • Chronic Medical Problems

Stages of Nursing Process Framework

The present paper deals with a patient who suffers from neurological disorders, hearing problems as well as vision impairment. Researchers have stated that old age can contribute to varying disorders that can be due to sensory deprivation conditions. Taking into consideration a hypothetical situation of a patient who suffers from a number of these disorders, the question of the level of assistance that must be required for one such patient becomes essential to answer as it evaluates how the patients who suffer from such diseases can carry on living a life that is not entirely painful through the help of professional who know how to deal with their existence of such disorders (Case-Smith, et al., 2015).

Senses allow an individual to interact the world. The five senses prevalent in human beings can face some issues as they start aging. Studies have shown that while treating a person who has become a permanent patient who needs constant care and nursing, it is imperative to establish therapeutic behavioral patterns as well as a healthy relationship with that particular individual. Individuals who are new to this concept of nursing and care as well as taking help of professionals in the activities of daily living might turn out to be hesitant initially and they might not feel comfortable with the entire process. They might consider the presence of a professional all over their life, in essence, bothersome. Thus, it becomes vital to establish a relationship with the patient wherein the patient feels comfortable enough with the professional to communicate their feelings regarding their disorders and are able to share their thoughts regarding the level of assistance that they need by the professional.

Another factor that determines the level of assistance that the patient needs in the activities of daily living is the acquiring of the patient’s perception of their sensory depravation and the disorders that consume them. With that, the professional also need to acquire an acute understanding of the patterns of behavior that the patient elicits as well as the change that has occurred in their behavioral patterns over the course of the time. In the case of the hypothetical patient, here the patient elicits behavioral patterns of vison dysfunction, hearing impairment and neurological disorders. With patients that have hearing impairment, it is important to use assistive devices such as hearing aids, their behavior regarding their herding disability should also be documented by the professional but it does not necessarily demand any more level of assistance than this. But, the level of assistance in dealing with this particular disorder may arise if the patient is hospitalized for some reason, they are at a greater risk to develop delirium because of their hearing impairment (Roland, et al., 2016).

Sensory Deprivation Condition

A 2021 World Health Organization report establishes that globally, over 2.2 billion people suffer from having a near or distance vision impairment. The problem of vision impairment affects an individual’s perspective severely, both personally as well as economically. The WHO report stated that while eye diseases an be prevented on an average scale, still, not every eye disease can be cured. The level of assistance required for a person with severe vision impairment is excessive as they need personal support throughout their daily activities and the personal ordeal that they partake in. (World Health Organization, 2021) 

Individuals who suffer from neurological disorders live a life that requires a constant level of assistance in their activities of daily livings. They are born into such conditions that do not allow them the ability to comprehend their surroundings and their environments. However, reports have stated that patients who acquire a space in community living mostly receive care from informal as well as unprofessional care givers, these care givers are most of the times the community members who develop empathy towards the individual and decide to support them. But, with time, this process starts getting distressful for the caregivers. Thus, it is recommended that the present patient in question, who also suffers from neurological disorders be provided with professional assistance in order to continue a life where they are not a bothersome presence to anyone. Through the report that states that caregivers may over time develop stress if they continue taking care of patients with neurological disorders, it can be evaluated that these patients require excessive level of assistance in carrying out their activities of daily living (Mitchell, et al., 2015).

A 2014 study shows that the range of factors that influence an individual’s ability to carry out activities of daily living are comprised of varying disorders that affect their lives in an unreversible way. Reports have suggested that a form of multidisciplinary programme should be developed in order to deal with the issue (RN, 2014). Activities of Daily Living or ADLs are the basic functions that individuals perform on the daily basis in order to function through life. These activities include fundamental skills that carter to the physical needs of a human body. These activities require the ability to be dependent on one’s cognitive, motor and perceptual abilities. The range of factors are the cognitive ability to comprehend environmental structures, the physical ability to function through the social notions of human beings and the perceptual ability to understand the prevailing norms of the society and prepare a behavioral framework underlining those factors (Mlinac & Feng, 2016).

Level of Assistance required

While dealing with patients who suffer from sensory deprivation disorders, it is imperative that one maintains a safe environment and creates a healthy surrounding for the patient to inhabit. This environment can be created by firstly making sure that the patient is comfortable with the care giver. After establishing a comforting relationship, it also becomes vital to make sure that the immediate surroundings of the patient are safe as well as hygienic. The goal, here, becomes the emotional as well as the physical well-being of the patient (Cathro, 2016).

While taking care of a patient with sensory disorders, it is extremely crucial to have an astute understanding of the importance of effective communication. Communication is the core component of a healthy patient-healthcare worker relationship. If there is lack of ability to communicate effectively on any end, the entire situation might derail and the process of assisting and taking care of the patient might become bothersome. The quality of communication as well as the interaction has massive impact on the process of influencing the results of patient regarding their disorder.

Additionally, effective communication amidst the staff in a multidisciplinary team also massively contributes to the growth of the patient care team, it promotes a healthy relationship among peers and enables peers to initiate conversations that can contribute towards their growth (Housley, 2017).  

The present report explains the various effects that sensory deprivation conditions have on patients. It presents a concrete understanding of the model of living with the descriptions of the various disorders that contribute to development of the sensory conditions. The key learning that can be understood from the present paper are that there should be an established framework of communication while interacting with patients who have sensory disorders.

Conclusion

In conclusion, it can be stated that the present report performs a thoroughly researched evaluation of the varying sensory deprivation conditions along with propounding a brief understanding of the model of living. The report then takes into consideration the hypothetical condition of a patient who is suffering from various sensory deprivation condition and then performs a thorough evaluation of the level of assistance that can be required by such patients. The report then recommends the levels of assistance that can be provided to the patients. The focus is then shifts to the ranges that influence an individual’s ability to carry out activities of living. Towards the end, the report takes into consideration the factors of maintain a safe environment for patients as well as the importance of establishing healthy communication between the patient and the care-giver.

References

Case-Smith, J., Weaver, L. L. & Fristad, M. A., 2015. A systematic review of sensory processing interventions for children with autism spectrum disorders. Autism, 19(2), pp. 133-148.

Cathro, H., 2016. Navigating through chaos: Charge nurses and patient safety. JONA: The Journal of Nursing Administration, 46(4), pp. 208-214.

Cortese, S. et al., 2016. Association between ADHD and obesity: a systematic review and meta-analysis. American journal of psychiatry, 173(1), pp. 34-43.

Guerrero, J. G., 2019. Practice rationale care model: The art and science of clinical reasoning, decision making and judgment in the nursing process. Open Journal of Nursing, 9(2), pp. 79-88.

Housley, W., 2017. Interaction in multidisciplinary teams. s.l.:Routledge.

Leigh-Hunt, N. et al., 2017. An overview of systematic reviews on the public health consequences of social isolation and loneliness. Public health, Volume 152, pp. 157-171.

Lord, C., Elsabbagh, M., Baird, G. & Veenstra-Vanderweele, J., 2018. Autism spectrum disorder. The lancet, 392(10146), pp. 508-520.

Mirza, F. J. & Zahid, S., 2018. The role of synapsins in neurological disorders. Neuroscience Bulletin, 34(2), pp. 349-358.

Mitchell, L. A. et al., 2015. Informal caregivers of clients with neurological conditions: profiles, patterns and risk factors for distress from a home care prevalence study. BMC Health Services Research, Volume 15.

Mlinac, M. E. & Feng, M. C., 2016. Assessment of Activities of Daily Living, Self-Care, and Independence. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 30 August, 31(6), p. 506–516.

RN, E. H., 2014. Factors that influence activities of daily living in the elderly with probable dementia. Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing, 21(5).

Roland, L. et al., 2016. Quality of life in children with hearing impairment: systematic review and meta-analysis. Otolaryngology–Head and Neck Surgery, 155(2), pp. 208-219.

Tierney, A. J., Henderson, J., Rogers, O. & Neuman, R., 2020. Shifting the paradigm. Advancing the Science and Practice of Nursing, Volume 27.

Toney-Butler, T. J. & Thayer, J. M., 2021. Nursing Process. s.l.:StatPearls.

Williams, B. C., 2015. The Roper-Logan-Tierney model of nursing: A framework to complement the nursing process. Nursing2020, 45(3), pp. 24-26.

World Health Organization, 2021. Blindness and vision impairment. [Online]
Available at: https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/blindness-and-visual-impairment#:~:text=Moderate%20%E2%80%93visual%20acuity%20worse%20than,acuity%20worse%20than%203%2F60
[Accessed 5 March 2022].

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