Analyse the current scale, scope and diversity of the hospitality industry.
Discuss the organisational structure of different hospitality organisations.
Assess the role of hospitality related organisations and professional bodies.
Assess the staffing requirements of different hospitality industries.
Discuss the roles, responsibilities and qualification requirements for hospitality staff.
The hospitality industry is one of the fastest growing sectors in most nations across the globe. The industry which basically depends on the clients’ need for leisure continues to scale great heights in terms of financial returns on investment. This is because the huge number of consumers affiliated to the various hospitality sectors ensures a stable market for the products and services (Ayto, 2012). The industry remains full of economic value to the society and has continuously influenced regional economies in most countries where management has been effectively done. The industry has offered employment opportunities for millions of individuals in the United Kingdom has playing a crucial role in changing the living standards of these people. The variety of opportunities offered by the hospitality industry equally ensures that individuals have varied avenues where they can showcase and hence gain from their talents (Bernhard, 2008). Despite the fact that a degree in hospitality is a crucial requirement for consideration, the industry offers opportunities to individuals from across all disciplines provided they have experience in the area of service. This explains why the industry has remained popular especially with the middle aged entrepreneurs as well as the youthful scholars. The hospitality industry comprises various sub industries which include hotels, restaurants, bars, event planning, theme parks, tourism and transportation just to mention but few (Brotherton and Wood, 2008). This report focuses on the hotel industry in the UK. The report shall comprise an analysis of the scale, scope as well as the diversity of the hotel industry. Through review of relevant literature and reports on the industry, the paper shall also management structure of the chosen hospitality organization in addition to the roles played by different hospitality related organizations. Finally, the staffing requirements and the roles and qualifications requirements of the hotel industry staff shall also be highlighted.
Current Scale, Scope and Diversity of the UK Hotel Industry
As already hinted, the hospitality industry is considerable one of the largest in the world. This could be attributed to its wide scope of operation and a huge following from a stable base of clientele (Carliss, 2000). The industry comprises various sectors each of which satisfy specific client needs. For instance the services offered within the tourism industry are different from those offered in transportation. However, it can be noted that the later fulfills a more basic need since it aids in the movement of people from place to another which is a vital daily need. In addition, the various industries under hospitality effectively complement each other as the services missed in one industry are often readily offered in another hospitality industry next door. This strategy in operation has played a crucial role in enhancing the scope of the industry (Cohen, 2008). Through corporate engagement between the industries in addition to networking enhanced by the rise in technology, the hospitality industry has managed to cover a wide area of operation. The current scale, scope and diversity of the industry can be further highlighted with a specific reference to the hotel industry.
The hotel industry in the UK is characterized by numerous outlets which are distributed across the region depending on the economic level and population of the location. In order to widen the scope of operation, the UK hotel industry has established hotels to serve different levels of consumers. For instance, most luxurious and high class hotels are located in major Cities and specific target locations in London. This is due to the nature of clients expected to seek services in these areas (Collings and Wood, 2009). As one moves away from the busy and highly populated urban centers, there are the average class hotels which cater for the needs of clients at this level. The size and distribution of these hotels, which range from small and independent local hotels to large international five star brands, is such that the location enables the easiest access especially for the target customers. By 2015, statistical records indicated that there are about 48,000 hotels in the UK. Each of these hotels operates at different levels which imply that they are spread within specific locations in order to capture a given set of consumers. The different scales of the hotels also involve differences in prices. As a result, the local independent hotels offer services and products at relatively lower prices in a bid to capture the local consumers (Connell and Page, 2010). This is however not the case with the international five star hotels. The prices are high due to the high level of investment in such hotels. In order to achieve an effective return on investment, the luxurious hotels have to work with such price levels. Despite the different scales and levels of operations, it is however a fact worth noting that the hotel industry in the UK has over the past influenced the economy of the nations as well as the surrounding regions (Daft and Armstrong, 2009).
In order to achieve diverse objectives, the hotels are divided and spread across the United Kingdom such that each category deals with a specific line of service. The strategy is aimed at ensuring effective customer relations and satisfaction. When the services are adequately defined, it is possible for consumers to make informed choices on the right hotels from which they expect the right services. For instance, there are upscale luxury hotels which offer full scale luxury amenities as well as accommodation services (Giddens, 2008). The services in such hotels are not only offered at the highest personalized levels but the workers are also very professional in their approaches for instance the Intercontinental Hotel. There are also the historic inns as well as the boutique hotels. They fall among the next level down the order. Although they are non-branded the hotels contain full service facilities still offered at professional levels but at relatively lower costs. The next category is the focused or select service hotels which are small or medium sized hotels basically focused on offering on-site services and amenities (Domine, 2008). The hotel target specific consumers within the populations for a traveller on a single day business. Such hotels do not offer other luxurious amenities like the swimming pool or an on-site restaurant. The other examples falling within this category include the economy and limited service and extended stay hotels. The lowest category comprises the timeshare, destination clubs and motels. These are small sized lodging establishments which involve direct services mostly to local consumers at relatively low costs. As noted by the Travel Industry Association (2006), hotels can also be used by travellers depending on their financial abilities and are always established in accessible locations for instance by road sides or small towns for instance the Hilton Grand Vacations and Westgate Resorts.
The discussion above reveals that each of the hotels within the United Kingdom is governed by a structure which enables them to capture as many clients as possible. By establishing hotels at different scales and level, those which run alongside the economic levels of the target consumers, it becomes possible to maintain a stable market for the products and services. This strategy plays a crucial role in widening the scope of the industry. Consequently, spreading hotels, with different levels across the United Kingdom has been pivotal in enhancing diversity. For instance, by varying the services offered in different hotels, it is possible to cater for the needs of consumers from diverse backgrounds which increase the market scope and eventually the return on investment.
Hospitality organizations like any other business organization are governed by a specific structure. The design of a hotel’s organizational structure largely depends on the size of the organization. For instance, the structure of leadership in the upscale luxurious hotels is way more complex and involves more individuals as compared to the independent medium sized hotels (Edmondson, 2006). The success of any business organization is always hinged on the stability of the leadership and management structure instituted to spearhead the achievement of the key organizational goals and objectives. The current economic performance in the hotel industry is an achievement which could be associated with effective leadership patterns in these organizations. Due to the fact that the organizational structure takes a common trend in all the hospitality related industries, we could give more vivid outline by focusing on the hotel industry.
The United Kingdom has hotels spread in each of the major cities, towns and specific locations. While some of these hotels are large chains, others are privately owned facilities or franchises. Despite the fact that each of these entities may be upheld by an overall organizational structure, most of the hotels in the UK are governed by a functional organizational structure. In large organizations, the hierarchy starts with a board of directors which is led by an executive director or the CEO. Such structures are used in upscale entities such as the International hotels (Edwards and Edwards 2007). In a normal organization, the hierarchy starts with a general manager who oversees the operations within the hotel with the help of supervisors and other department operating below him. Since the hotel industry is a 24-hour industry, the helm of the hierarchy may be made up of two executives where one handles the day shift while the other deals with the night shift responsibilities.
From the executive level, the hotel’s organizational structure is then disseminated into various functional groups also referred to as departments. The departments are either categorized as functional or administrative. Some of the functional groups within a hotel’s organizational structure include; concierge and front desk departments, housekeeping as well the department concerned with foods and beverage services. The administrative groups within the structure comprise the human resource, sales, marketing and accounting departments (Grey, 2013). In addition, there are other groups within the structure charged with responsibilities like the general hotel maintenance, grounds keeping and security. These groups make up the subordinate staff as defined by the structure. Consequently, all the operations as well as the financial budgets within the organization are often overseen by the general manager. Each of the departments below the executive has a leader often referred to as the supervisor or the head of department. Then departmental heads answer to the manager on a periodical basis which may be daily or twice in a day (Harper, 2009). Depending on the size of the organization, each supervisor is required to oversee a particular number of workers. This organizational structure is effective since each department or group is allowed to concentrate on a specific line of responsibility. The idea of specialization increases the productity of workers. In addition, due to the fact that each group/department within the structure is able to accomplish its own goals, it is easier to coordinate activities through these groups. The organizational structure used in these organizations is largely characterized by sharing of responsibilities. When this strategy is implemented, it becomes easier and faster to achieve the core organizational goals and objectives (Johnson and Robinson, 2007).
Roles of Hospitality Related Organizations and Professional Bodies
In order to sustain the popularity of the brand and ensure the continued stability of the hotel industry, various professional bodies have been established. These bodies include the Restaurants Association and the British Hospitality Association which is one of the leading hospitality related bodies in the United Kingdom. The association for instance, has played a crucial role in settling various agenda associated with the well-being of hotel and restaurant owners across the United Kingdom. One of the key roles of the professional bodies is to promote the interests of brands, operators, restaurants and food services, visitors’ attractions as well as owners across hotels. The BHA, for instance, acts as a crucial link between the hotel industry and the government (Katz, 2003). By communicating the needs of the industry to the government, the professional bodies influence the government policies and rules constituted to govern the operations within the industry. These efforts ensure that the introduced policies are conducive for operations and are neither confining nor intimidating.
In addition, the professional bodies like the BHA organize extensive avenues for exposure which may include conferences, exhibitions and other official gatherings. These meeting target the top leaders and various stakeholders within the hotel industry. These events are used to educate the various stakeholders with the main objective of shaping the industry to remain competitive and hence the best across the globe. The associations may also secure funds and government grants which can in turn be used to empower the upcoming sectors within the hospitality industry through marketing, branding and addition of resources. In addition to the reliable advice, the British Hospitality Association which represents over 40,000 hotels aids in creating strategic connections between the industry and other entities in a bid to enhance support of business. Through liaison with the government, the association remains keen on creating more opportunities for growth within the hospitality industry with the aim of creating more jobs within the industry in future (Medlik, 2003).
Furthermore, the BHA together with other professional bodies has remained on the government’s neck on the aspect of visa access to the United Kingdom. This strategy is aimed at enhancing the international market of the hotel industry. For instance if more individuals are allowed access into the UK, various hotels and other hospitality related organizations like restaurant, transport and tourism industries are likely to gain. The bodies also ensure that the hotels across the UK experience considerable taxation as opposed to the overly high rates charged in some cases (Norman, 2013). With the low rates, the industry can be more competitive as the resources can be diverted to enhance the brand popularity and awareness within the market. Finally, the professional bodies have remained vocal in enhancing environmental conservation. The BHA empowers both the hotel industry workers and the general community on the benefits of good waste management and conservation of the environment. Through partnership with the government and other bodies, the association ensures that the industry serves healthy foods and observes appropriate standards with regards to health and environmental factors. The professional bodies therefore offer a special link between the hospitality industry and the government which ensures a conducive environment for business operations. At the same time, the Hospitality related organizations play a pivotal role in linking the industry with the community which in turn enhances the client base and eventually the industry’s market depth (Pizam, 2010)
The staffing requirements tend to vary as one moves from one hotel to another. A degree in hospitality is always one major requirement. However, the number of degree holders in this particular field is declining as days go by. Most of the holders are already in the field either as private practitioners or managers in various entities. As a result, the requirements have been lagged to accommodate people from across other disciplines as long as they have a prior experience in the field of hospitality especially in hotel management (Pilcher, 2012). However, for the post of a manager, one is required to have at least a Bachelor’s Degree in hospitality and hotel management. Apart from these requirements, individuals are also required to complete coursework in nutrition, management, accounting, sanitation as well as food planning. For the managerial position in a hotel, the individuals are required to have completed a coursework in accounting, marketing, food service, housekeeping, maintenance as well as marketing. Each of these coursework are offered in the degree program. For the applicants intending to serve in the lower levels within the organization, their academic requirements may include a diploma in hotel management or any other related discipline. The individual must also show proof of experience in the field of hospitality.
A part from the academic requirements, there are other intrapersonal and interpersonal skills which are necessary considerations before employment. For instance, individuals are required to have good communication skills as this would be crucial asset during interaction with colleagues as well as the clients who actually form the basic unit of the industry. For employees in large international hotels, ability to speak fluently in more than one international language would be an added advantage. This is because such hotels target international clients from diverse cultural backgrounds. According to PKF Hospitality Research (2011), the other requirement includes good grooming and present ability. The hospitality industry for instance the hotel and restaurants industry deal with the serving of foods and drinks. It would therefore be appropriate to maintain the highest standards of cleanliness. In addition, an individual will be required to exhibit good interpersonal relations when handling both the colleagues and the clients. Good relations do not only increase staff cohesion but also goes a long way in enhancing ties between the industry and the clients.
From the discussion above, it can be summarized that one of the basic requirements for employment in the hotel industry is a good measure of experience in the field. Secondly, especially for the managerial post, a degree is inevitable and in addition, the manager may be required to obtain certification after a given period of time. These requirements offer effective guidelines to individuals intending to join the industry. Through the requirements, one is able to identify the areas where they need to sharpen their skills and hence ensure a productive output once they are incorporated into the industry.
Roles and Responsibilities
The leader at the helm of the hierarchy is the manager who is charged with then responsibility of supervising and overseeing the operations within the hotel industry. The manager also directs the staffs in the various areas of operation. These areas may include the room service, housekeeping and the front desk just to mention but few. It therefore implies that the leaders in each of these departments report to the manager after a given period of time to establish the progress of operations in their departments. The manager also accounts for financial activities within an industry (Plunkett, 2012). In the hotel industry, the manager together with the accounting department prepares a report detailing the flow of finances and how the expenditures have been done. The manager also empowers the members of staff through elaborate reward program, training and exposure of the staff which in turn improves the motivational levels. The manager, through then help of the departmental heads identifies the areas in need of adjustment, for instance a machine which may require maintenance, before making the necessary counter measures.
Below the managers are supervisors or departmental heads. Due to the nature of the organizational structure, each departmental head sticks to their lines of operation. The head of the marketing department works together with the management to ensure that the popularity of the brand is maintained through various strategies like advertising and other promotional services. The human resource departmental head is required to create a healthy link between the management and the employees. The supervisor in this case communicates the workers’ grievances to the admin and in return communicates to the workers crucial information from the top of the hierarchy (Zabel, 2003). The supervisor in charge of sanitation ensures the general cleanliness of the hotel environment which encompasses both the workers and the surrounding. Furthermore, the supervisor in charge of nutrition ensures that the foods served in the hotels are of the right nutritional value and the cuisines used are in accordance with the nutritional standards.
The hotel industry remains one of the fastest growing hospitality industry in the United Kingdom. Due to its crucial place in the economic development of UK it would be important to put in place the right strategies that would ensure the industry is not only competitive but also one of the best in the world. The BHA has played a crucial role in enhancing an appropriate environment for the business which has attracted an immense government support. In addition, the nature of organizational structure in the hotel industry has proved effective and is likely to spearhead the industry to higher heights if fresh ideas, innovation and creativity are incorporated into the system of management.
Ayto, J. (2012) Diner’s Dictionary: Word Origins of Food & Drink. United Kingdom: Oxford UniversityPress.
Bernhard, H. (2008) ‘Six lessons for the corporate classroom’. Harvard Business Review, 66(5), pp. 12-56.
Brotherton, B. and Wood, C. (2008) SAGE Handbook of Hospitality Management. Los Angeles: Sage.
Carliss Y. (2000) Design Rules: The Power of Modularity. Boston: Harvard Business School Press.
Cohen, M. (2008) ‘Productivity and Efficiency in Human Service Organizations as related to Structure, size and Age’. The Academy of Management Journal, 23(1), pp. 21-37.
Collings, D. and Wood, G. (2009) Human resource management: London: Routledge.
Connell, J. and Page, S. (2010), Event Tourism: Critical Concepts in Tourism, Routledge, New York, NY.
Daft, R. and Armstrong, G. (2009) Organization Theory and Design. Toronto: Nelson.
Giddens, M. (2008) ‘Determining Organizational Effectiveness - another look, and an agenda for research’. Management Science, 32 (5), pp. 514 --538.
Domine, A. (2008) Ultimate Guide to Spirits & Cocktails, Konigswinter: Ullmann.
Edmondson, B. (2006) Hospitality Leadership: The Cornell Hotel School. Ithaca, NY: Cornell Society of Hotelmen.
Edwards, G. and Edwards, S. (2007) Dictionary of Drink: A Guide to Every Type ofBeverage, Sutton, UK: Stroud,
Grey, H. (2013) Food and Beverage Market Place. Amenia, NY: Grey House.
Harper, S. (2009) ‘Configurations of Organizational Effectiveness and Efficiency’. TheAcademy of Management Journal, 36(6), pp. 1345—1361.
Johnson, H. and Robinson, J. (2007) World Atlas of Wine. London, UK: Mitchell Beazley
Katz, S.H. (2003) Encyclopedia of Food and Culture. New York: Scribner.
Medlik, S. (2003) Dictionary of Travel, Tourism, & Hospitality, Boston, MA: Butterworth-Heinemann.
Norman, T. (2013) ‘Personnel training and development’, Annual Review of Psychology,22(1), pp. 565–602.
Pizam, A. (2010) International Encyclopedia of Hospitality Management. Boston, MA: Elsevier/Butterworth-Heinemann.
Pilcher, J.M. (2012) Oxford Handbook of Food History. New York: Oxford University Press.
PKF Hospitality Research (2011), Trends in the Hotel Industry. New York, NY: PKF Hospitality Research.
Plunkett, R (2012) Plunkett’s Airline, Hotel, & Travel Industry Almanac. Houston, TX: Plunkett.
Travel Industry Association (2006) Economic Impact of the Attractions Industry. Washington, D.C: TIA,
Zabel, D. (2003) ‘The best of the web: hospitality and tourism web sites’. Journal ofBusiness & Finance Librarianship, 8(4), pp. 167-179.