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Question:
Introduce the plant used and each hormone and include how &/or where the hormone is made, the effect(s), movement within the plant and how site of application may change expected effects. Be sure to include references using the (name, year) within the text of your introduction.
Results:
Provide Null hypotheses for each statistical test (8 One-way ANOVA). Using any stats program, perform a statistical analysis on the increase in height and then increase in number of leaf pairs between the different treatments (for each of the hormones). The means and standard errors for increase in height and number of leaf pairs will be a part of the ANOVA output. 
Create 2 bar graphs, including standard error bars, with Treatment Type (x-axis) and Increase in Height of Pea seedlings in cm or Increase in number of leaf pairs (y-axis). 
Write a few paragraphs stating the trends seen in the graphs and visual observations made in the greenhouse.
Discussion:
Conclude on the significance of the data and state a decision on the Null (reject or fail to reject) for each test. Discuss your results, what they mean, what was expected and compare to other published peer reviewed findings. Include proper references (Author, year) within the text of your discussion.
Answer:
Introduction

The plant that has been used in this study is pea (Pisumsativum). This crop has been studied since the age of Gregor Mendel (Bateson, William and Gregor). The plant has green pods and those pods contain dry seeds inside. These seeds are in high demand as they are cooked both as a pulse as well as vegetables. This crop has a very high nutritious value and contains proteins, vitamins A and K, carbohydrates, phosphorus and calcium.

Three hormones are used to develop this pea crop. They are Gibberellic acid (GA), Indole Acetic Acid (IAA) and Kinetin. Gibberellic acid is a hormone which is usually found in plants and fungi. This acid helps in the growth and elongation of plant cells (Iqbal, Muhammad and Muhammad). Indole Acetic Acid is also a plant hormone which is usually produced in the tips of the leaves and in young leaves of a plant. IAA signals of essential molecules that are required for the growth and development coordination for the major components of plants (Tabatabaei et al.). One type of cytokinin is kinetin which is also a type of plant hormone. This hormone helps in promoting the cell division of plants (Bandivadekar et al.).

Results

To test the difference in the mean increase in heights of the pea seedlings after application of the three hormones Indole Acetic acid, Kinetin and Gibberellic acid, ANOVA test has to be done. Similarly, to test the difference in the standard error of the mean increase in heights of the pea seedlings after application of the three hormones Indole Acetic acid, Kinetin and Gibberellic acid, ANOVA test has to be performed. To perform these ANOVA tests, the following hypothesis can be framed:

Null Hypothesis (H01): The mean increase in height of plants has no difference on application of different types of hormones for leaf treatment.

Alternate Hypothesis (HA1): The mean increase in height of plants has significant differences on application of different types of hormones for leaf treatment.

The results of the ANOVA test for the hypothesis H01 is given in table 1 and 2.

Table 1: Summary for mean increase in heights after leaf treatment

Groups

Count

Sum

Average

Variance

Water

9

25.60

2.84

0.06

IAA

9

29.18

3.24

0.06

Kinetin

9

28.24

3.14

0.14

GA

9

84.60

9.40

0.61

Table 2: Results of ANOVA test for mean increase in heights after leaf treatment

Source of Variation

SS

df

MS

F

P-value

F crit

Between Groups

270.861

3

90.287

412.350

0.000

2.901

Within Groups

7.007

32

0.219

 

 

 

Total

277.868

35

 

 

 

 

From the graph in figure 1 it can be seen that the increase in height is maximum with the application of gibberellin to the leaf treatment of pea seedlings.

Null Hypothesis (H02): The mean increase in height of plants has no difference on application of different types of hormones for root treatment.  

Alternate Hypothesis (HA2): The mean increase in height of plants has significant differences on application of different types of hormones for root treatment.

The results of the ANOVA test for the hypothesis H02 is given in table 3 and 4.

Table 3: Summary for mean increase in heights after root treatment

Groups

Count

Sum

Average

Variance

Water

9

29.20

3.24

0.06

IAA

9

26.96

3.00

0.04

Kinetin

9

29.28

3.25

0.04

GA

9

28.99

3.22

0.06

Table 4: Results of ANOVA test for mean increase in heights after root treatment

Source of Variation

SS

df

MS

F

P-value

F crit

Between Groups

0.408

3

0.136

2.767

0.058

2.901

Within Groups

1.574

32

0.049

 

 

 

Total

1.982

35

 

 

 

 

Null Hypothesis (H03): The mean increase in the number of leaf pairs of plants has no difference on application of different types of hormones for leaf treatment.  

Alternate Hypothesis (HA3): The mean increase in the number of leaf pairs of plants has significant differences on application of different types of hormones for leaf treatment.  

The results of the ANOVA test for the hypothesis H03 is given in table 5 and 6.

Table 5: Summary for mean increase in number of leaf pairs after leaf treatment

Groups

Count

Sum

Average

Variance

Water

9

32.96

3.66

0.14

IAA

9

48.83

5.43

0.67

Kinetin

9

31.60

3.51

0.12

GA

9

37.17

4.13

0.19

Table 6: Results of ANOVA test for mean increase in number of leaf pairs after leaf treatment

Source of Variation

SS

df

MS

F

P-value

F crit

Between Groups

20.429

3

6.810

24.342

0.000

2.901

Within Groups

8.952

32

0.280

 

 

 

Total

29.381

35

 

 

 

 

Null Hypothesis (H04): There is no significant difference in the number of leaf pairs of the plants after root treatment on application of different types of hormones.  

Alternate Hypothesis (HA4): There is no significant difference in the number of leaf pairs of the plants after root treatment on application of different types of hormones.

The results of the ANOVA test for the hypothesis H04 is given in table 7 and 8.

Table 7: Summary for mean increase in number of leaf pairs after root treatment

Groups

Count

Sum

Average

Variance

Water

9

29.13

3.24

0.06

IAA

9

29.25

3.25

0.09

Kinetin

9

30.35

3.37

0.12

GA

9

27.17

3.02

0.37

Table 8: Results of ANOVA test for mean increase in number of leaf pairs after root treatment

Source of Variation

SS

df

MS

F

P-value

F crit

Between Groups

0.586

3

0.195

1.230

0.315

2.901

Within Groups

5.080

32

0.159

 

 

 

Total

5.665

35

 

 

 

 

From the figure 4, it can be seen that all the three hormones and water are equally important for the increase in the number of leaf pairs after root treatment. Importance cannot be given to any one of the hormones for this type of treatment.

Discussion

The ANOVA test has been run to test all the hypothesis that has been stated above. For the first hypothesis H01, the results of the ANOVA test are given in tables 1 and 2. It can be seen from table 2 that the p value is 0.000 which is less than the level of significance (0.05 at 95 percent confidence interval). Thus, the null hypothesis (H01) is rejected. Therefore, it can be said that the mean increase in heights do not differ on application of different hormones in leaf treatment.

It can be seen from table 4 that the p value is 0.058 which is more than the level of significance (0.05 at 95 percent confidence interval). Thus, the null hypothesis (H02) is accepted. Thus, it can be said that the mean increase in heights differs significantly on application of different types of hormones as well as water in case of root treatment.

It can be seen from table 6 that the p value is 0.000 which is less than the level of significance (0.05 at 95 percent confidence interval). Thus, the null hypothesis (H03) is rejected. Thus, it can be said that the mean increase in the number of leaf pairs of the plants on application of different types of hormones along with water does not differ in case of leaf treatment.

It can be seen from table 8 that the p value is 0.315 which is more than the level of significance (0.05 at 95 percent confidence interval). Thus, the null hypothesis (H04) is accepted. Thus, it can be said that the mean increase in the number of leaf pairs of the plants on application of different types of hormones along with water has significant differences in case of root treatment.

Hence, it can be said that selection of hormones along with water is important in case of root treatment as different hormones show different levels of growth. In case of leaf treatment, selection of hormones is not that important as application of different hormones do not show much difference in growth.

Method and Materials

In Cairn’s greenhouse, the three hormones Indole Acetic Acid, Gibberellic acid and Kinetin along with distilled water has been applied to 15-day old pea seedlings in 4 different lab sessions. The height and the number of leaf pairs were recorded before application of the hormones and also 1 week after the application of the hormones.

References

Bandivadekar, Kavita, et al. "Use of Plant Auxins Produced by Bacteria in Plant Tissue Culture and Seed Pre-treatment; A Possibility of Replacement of Synthetic Auxins." Int. J. Curr. Microbiol. App. Sci 5.11 (2016): 126-131.

Bateson, William, and Gregor Mendel. Mendel's principles of heredity. Courier Corporation, 2013.

Iqbal, Muhammad, and Muhammad Ashraf. "Gibberellic acid mediated induction of salt tolerance in wheat plants: growth, ionic partitioning, photosynthesis, yield and hormonal homeostasis." Environmental and Experimental Botany 86 (2013): 76-85.

Tabatabaei, Samira, et al. "Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) producing Pseudomonas isolates inhibit seed germination and α-amylase activity in durum wheat (Triticumturgidum L.)." Spanish Journal of Agricultural Research 14.1 (2016): 0802.

Cite This Work

To export a reference to this article please select a referencing stye below:

My Assignment Help (2021) Introduction [Online]. Available from: https://myassignmenthelp.com/free-samples/biol2p94-plant-biology/plant-growth-and-development.html
[Accessed 29 February 2024].

My Assignment Help. 'Introduction' (My Assignment Help, 2021) <https://myassignmenthelp.com/free-samples/biol2p94-plant-biology/plant-growth-and-development.html> accessed 29 February 2024.

My Assignment Help. Introduction [Internet]. My Assignment Help. 2021 [cited 29 February 2024]. Available from: https://myassignmenthelp.com/free-samples/biol2p94-plant-biology/plant-growth-and-development.html.

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