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Reasonable adjustment for assessment tasks for a unit may be requested by the student for consideration by the facilitator for the methods by which evidence is collected. However, the evidence criteria for making competent/not yet competent decisions must be the same irrespective of the group and/or individual being assessed.
Reasonable adjustment usually involves varying:
– the processes for conducting the assessment (eg: allowing additional time, varying the venue)
– the evidence gathering techniques (eg: oral rather than written questioning, use of a scribe, modifications to equipment).

Reasonable Adjustment for Assessment Tasks

Nature of links between projects and critical strategies:

One single project can have links with another project. This can be affected by other projects. For instance, any project needs to be completed before any task on the first project can start. Any resource working on another project initiative needed to be present before any activity on the project can begin. Hence, two project requires to do a similar task. The sponsors must be involved as he is aware of the dependencies between the projects (Kendrick 2015).

As far as organizational key strategies are concerned, two examples can be taken. The first one is Porter’s three generic strategy. This includes cost leadership, differentiation and focus. The next one is a growth strategy. This include a rise in sales, range of services and products and the geographical area served.

1.0. b. Description of certain terms:

Project objectives:

These are measurable and containing primary performance indicators used for analyzing the success of projects. For instance, implementing e-commerce is a compelling example here. It is related with the customers through online shopping facility.

Project outcomes:

These include events, changes in conditions, occurrences, behaviours, attitudes indicating progress toward project goals. For example, a rise in revenue can be taken here. This is also related to clients through improving customer service (Kerzner and Kerzner 2017).

project benefits:

This includes initiating, planning, controlling, executing, supporting, transitioning the change in organizations and outcomes. These are incurred through the mechanism of project management. For example, productivity can be considered here. This is helpful for business investors. By reducing cost by improving efficiency (Nicholas and Steyn 2017).

1.0. c. describing how the structure of project governance is found out:

Project governance entails various primary elements. It requires to be tailored to the specific needs of organizations. The components considered here influence how the governance framework is created, implemented and controlled and monitored on the project. The stakeholder communication and reporting and meeting can be viewed here (Hornstein 2015). As the communication plan is determined, the project manager requires to assure that there is a proper balance of reporting and meetings. It requires to be defined to assure that every stakeholder makes senses of contents and mode of decision gates, communication milestones, owner and receiver, frequency and communications. Moreover, the communication requires to be to the point, precise and crisp.

1.0. d. Ways in which project charter and similar project initiation document can be formulated:

The project charter or similar project initiation document must be formulated to anybody new to project management. This is also helpful to those to the project managers. This is because the project charter is the most essential PM deliverable and as approved this provides the blueprint for the further phase and the complete project.

The charter document should be deployed in such a way that the boundaries, goals and coats are understood better. This is before the project gets approved and the activities are commenced. This also provides a single and consolidated source of data regarding projects as far as planning and initiation are considered. Moreover, it delivers data and information about project issues, risks, deliverables, objectives and scopes (Teller, Kock and Gemünden 2014).

Description of Certain Terms

This formulation must determine the importance of planning, communication and the role of a charter as the primary communication tool. This should also provide the advantages of a project charter and various elements and components of the project charter. The documentation is helpful to develop effective scope management and results of efficient scope management. It must help the stakeholders and sponsors to reach an agreement. Next, it is useful to get aligned with every aspect of the project.

Moreover, it is helpful to obtain approval such that the project managers can process with planning out the projects in details (Tam et al. 2018). Further, it must assure clear communication regarding primary information of the project. This is a reference for team members to move for the future. As approved the charter must provide the formal authority to project managers for performing the tasks. It must be reminded that without any charter the priorities get unnecessary and confused and out of scope.

1.1. Project planning:

1.1. a. Two methods to develop two level Work Breakdown Structure:

To create any two level of WBS or work breakdown structure, where it represents he achievable project deliverable, the methods are demonstrated below. The first one is the pictorial method. Here, it looks like an organization chart. This looks like a reverse tree-like structure. Here, all the descending modes of WBS highlights the elements of the higher level node. This pictorial node is helpful in various cases. It is an effective way to show a presentation to senior management, sponsor and customers (Walker 2015). It also helps in gaining formal approval of the definition of project scope. Further, it is useful to get commitments from different stakeholders and to analyze product and project scopes at higher levels. Moreover, it helps in assigning multiple accountabilities.

The next one is outlined method. Here the WBS looks like a list of item. It also consists of items and sub-items. Here, every smaller item of WBS denotes components of the different higher level item. It is helpful to various cases (Marchewka 2014). First of all, it helps to gain commitments from project teams. Here, the tasks can be decomposed to various tasks. The project components at lower levels can be analyzed. Here individual responsibilities can also be assigned to members of project teams. Lastly, there are constant controlling and monitoring.

1.1. b. Key milestone quality criteria, for every level in WBS:

Here, the initial example is high-priority task and decisions vital to complete the project. For instance, as children are participating in any project, one required to get parental consent forms signed. On can also research to legal and ethical considerations in having those minors participating in the project. Here another instance is the percentage and checkpoints of completion. As one is designing any advertising campaign, retrieving images and sketches are regarded as project checkpoints. When anyone retrieves that on scheduling halfway across the project, one can understand that is the project is half completed.

Moreover, the deliverables meeting deadlines are also in the milestones. As ones are designing the latest computer software. The real software here is the deliverable (Heagney 2016). Thus one can calculate the project progress as the software or deliverable is completed. Here, another instance of a milestone of using resources and time. It indicates to a particular amount of materials or time allotted to any project. Here, for instance, as the project is intended to consider 10 hours and expense of 10,000 dollars for finishing, the finishing off five of activities and spending 4 thousand dollars are seen as a milestone.

Describing How the Structure of Project Governance is Found Out

1.1. c. Describing typical project interdependencies:

Various interdependencies happening between different project management functions are demonstrated below. This has been taking place between scope and time, risk, quality, contracting and procurement, human resources, costs and communications.

These interdependencies incorporate complexity toward decision-making. However, overlooking the cross effects are vital setbacks to outcomes. Some of the interdependencies are linkages that determine the relationship between projects in considerations. Then there is the sign that is the possible extent of cross effects. Then there are actual decision makers who are the primary players needed to engage. Next, there is an open dialogue. This is helpful to articulate essential elements for getting aligned (Lundin et al. 2015). Furthermore, there is a plan of attack. These options facilitate secure execution and minimizing cross effects. Further, there are risks and mitigations. Here the practicality and efficiency of strategies are to be determined.

Moreover, there are worst and best scenarios and buffers. Besides, there are backup plans that deal with potential causes. Further, there are supports. Here the possibility to count on the support, manpower and finance of people are to be counted.

To manage interdependencies, it is vital to define what is needed to be done with clarity and focus.  As it is not done in that way, losing lots of time in beating across the bush would never solve problems promptly.

1.1. d. Description of the process used to control and monitor projects:

The first process is verification of scopes and control scopes. As the project deliverable is accepted from quality control, it moves to verify stages of scopes. Then there is controlling schedule and control cost. With the help of earned value management, one can control the schedule and expense of the project. Next, there is a performance of quality control. Before delivering the product to customers, one requires to cross-check as they are delivering products with the quality needed by customers (Schwalbe 2015).

Thus prior delivering product to the clients, one requires to cross-check whether one needs to deliver the product with the quality needed by those customers. Next, there is reporting of performances. As one manages huge products with various kinds of stakeholders, one requires to upgrade status of projects to all type of stakeholders. Further, there are controlling of risks. This can take place anywhere and anytime. Further, there are administer procurement. As one is sub-contracting any process to any other party, one requires to monitor with performances on time. From that performances, the fate of project can be decided. This is the sole responsibility of project manager to control and monitor the task of sub-contractors.

1.1. e. Describing how project management plans can be approved and which stakeholders are included:

The customers or senior management never approve the document of project management plan. The customer signs the contract and leaving internal workings to deliver the project. In this way, a project plan is approved by project managers, sponsors and functional managers providing resources for the project. This is less difficult for managers to get their plan approves. Here, every stakeholder is determined with the objectives and requirements (Heldman 2018). Here, project managers also control various priorities of conflicting for advancements. As activities proceeds, a performance of the project is measured against various baselines of performance measurements that ate involved in project management plans. The project managers must spend a huge amount of time for assuring that ate baselines are achieved and ensure that the organization and sponsors get full advantages of the projects.

Ways in Which Project Charter and Similar Project Initiation Document can be formulated

1.2. Project Execution:

1.2. a. The ways plan and corporate objectives are aligned to the project life-cycle:

At first, the purpose of the project must be stated explicitly. Thinking according to business purpose needs to spend huge time concentrating on receiving actual data about projects will are weighing as possible. Next, various epical considerations are to be implemented that play with project, clients, organizations.

Hence, it is vital to identify the cases as that are happening to have scopes for reorienting the projects in such a way that works with considerations. Next, various iterations can be considered that the project can achieve in advancements (Le Roy and Fernandez 2015). As the project moves on, one must gain latest information on project, market and likelihood that projects can be successful against those strategic goals. Since, one is not making decisions in a vacuum, it is vital to develop and plan for ideas that cannot be changed and requires to adapt proactively.

1.2. b. Scenarios needing resolutions of stakeholder conflict:

Here, two typical scenarios need the resolution of stakeholder conflict. This demonstrates how the achievement of project objectives can be threatened. This should also include how the conflicts can be solved.

The first one is rethinking of requirements. This includes going back to origins of conflicting requirements. It tries to study and understand the project in a different manner (Fleming and Koppelman 2016).

Next, there is getting every stakeholder in one place and making them analyze and discuss the various trade-offs taking place among different conflicting requirements. This also includes coming up with the process of prioritisation as per the time, cost and projects.

1.3. Project control:

1.3. a. Various variation requested by stakeholders:

The nature of variation is requested by stakeholders that are demonstrated hereafter. First of all it the commissioning time can be shortened through real-time emulation. It is a sensitive method where perfect interactions of every control functions and connected components are testes. Here the vital optimization potentials are apparent.

 Besides, there is the testing phase. This is to find out whether the electronic application and system software and additional IT solution can be acquired or developed. This must be tested preliminarily as the phase of development is ready for deployment. As it goes on, focused or formally controlled it is done to uncover various bugs and errors on IT solutions that are require to be solved. Here, a various number of particular validation tests are done as the test phase goes on. This includes user acceptance, usability, stress, performance, security, regression, interface, integration (Kerzner 2018).

Various potential effects of the project variation are a delay in payment, productivity degradation, quality degradation, demolition and rework. Besides, there are logistic delays, poor safety relations. Poor professional relations and Tarnish of firm’s reputations. Moreover, there are additional payments for contractors, disputes among various professionals and completion of schedule delays.

The baselines to be updated are change requests leading top adjustments of a project baseline. The changes in the baseline have been typically affecting new baselines also. As the baselines are not adjusted, further monitoring and controlling is to be skewed (Marcelino-Sádaba, González-Jaen and Pérez-Ezcurdia 2015). Further, baselines can also be increased or decreased.

Project Planning

1.4. Project finalization:

1.4. a. Project finalization activities:

The project finalizing activities needs to be fortuitously made by comprehensive planning making closeout phase instead of being straightforward. This includes performing project closeout, client closeout, and organizational closeouts. Then there is conducting of subcontractor closeouts, performing final risk analysis, documenting and final project report and consulting team closeout (Webb 2017). For example in business financial obligations are useful for the company to use the employment of others money for a finance. This is in the business-related activities for some time lasting as the disability is due. Besides, extra-economic liabilities put a dent to balance sheet and can take organizations of the verge of bankruptcy.

As far as legal obligations are considered, insurance for small business has been coming in wide ranges is a good example. This can extend from professional indemnity to public liability, business contents insurances and tool insurances (Davies and Brady 2016). Besides, an instance of contract obligations is with product sales. As any party fails to perform those contractual obligations as per contract terms, it becomes the result of a breach in contract.

Regarding project products, quality expectation can be taken as an example. This includes various characteristics of primary quality requirements and elements of the quality management system of a customer. Here contract closure is an associated document that should be provided to clients during project completion. It is concerned with a settlement and concerning contracts for the project. This has been supporting completion of project process. The reason is the contract closure has been finding the task described in contracts to be finished satisfactorily and accurately.

Besides, there are various ways where timeliness of documentation and products can be assured. This includes avoiding informal agreements. Besides, no agreements can be made and everybody requires to pull their weight. These deliverables also consist of dependencies and extra factors of project deliverables (Locatelli, Mancini and Romano 2014).

1.4c. Types of integrated lessons learnt:

At a glance, various lessons leant includes the ways to organize complex data to understand the methods to make relevant easily.  First of all, it is helpful to ensure that various groups of stakeholders are aware of the available information and they understand where to find that. Next, it is useful to present the data in such a manner that people can extract that and change that to useful activities. Making efficient use of different lesson learnt is a form of the cultural trait.

However, this trigger to invest in understanding from various mistakes is based on individual experiences. Further, this helps to avoid similar mistakes like others (Martinsuo, Korhonen and Laine 2014). Apart from this, it is helpful to develop existing standards if delivery through adopting various proven good practice. Besides, it has been reacting to various changes in programme and environment of project management. This includes strategies and initiatives and government priorities.

References:

Davies, A. and Brady, T., 2016. Explicating the dynamics of project capabilities. International Journal of Project Management, 34(2), pp.314-327.

Fleming, Q.W. and Koppelman, J.M., 2016, December. Earned value project management. Project Management Institute.

Heagney, J., 2016. Fundamentals of project management. Amacom.

Heldman, K., 2018. PMP: project management professional exam study guide. John Wiley & Sons.

Hornstein, H.A., 2015. The integration of project management and organizational change management is now a necessity. International Journal of Project Management, 33(2), pp.291-298.

Kendrick, T., 2015. Identifying and managing project risk: essential tools for failure-proofing your project. Amacom.

Kerzner, H. and Kerzner, H.R., 2017. Project management: a systems approach to planning, scheduling, and controlling. John Wiley & Sons.

Kerzner, H., 2018. Project management best practices: Achieving global excellence. John Wiley & Sons.

Le Roy, F. and Fernandez, A.S., 2015. Managing coopetitive tensions at the working?group level: The rise of the coopetitive project team. British Journal of Management, 26(4), pp.671-688.

Locatelli, G., Mancini, M. and Romano, E., 2014. Systems engineering to improve the governance in complex project environments. International Journal of Project Management, 32(8), pp.1395-1410.

Lundin, R.A., Arvidsson, N., Brady, T., Ekstedt, E. and Midler, C., 2015. Managing and working in project society. Cambridge University Press.

Marcelino-Sádaba, S., González-Jaen, L.F. and Pérez-Ezcurdia, A., 2015. Using project management as a way to sustainability. From a comprehensive review to a framework definition. Journal of cleaner production, 99, pp.1-16.

Marchewka, J.T., 2014. Information technology project management. John Wiley & Sons.

Martinsuo, M., Korhonen, T. and Laine, T., 2014. Identifying, framing and managing uncertainties in project portfolios. International Journal of Project Management, 32(5), pp.732-746.

Nicholas, J.M. and Steyn, H., 2017. Project management for engineering, business and technology. Routledge.

Schwalbe, K., 2015. Information technology project management. Cengage Learning.

Tam, V.C., Chan, J.W., Li, S.C. and Pow, J., 2018. Developing and managing school human capital for information and communication technology integration: a case study of a school-based e-learning project in Hong Kong. International Journal of Leadership in Education, 21(4), pp.447-461.

Teller, J., Kock, A. and Gemünden, H.G., 2014. Risk management in project portfolios is more than managing project risks: A contingency perspective on risk management. Project Management Journal, 45(4), pp.67-80.

Walker, A., 2015. Project management in construction. John Wiley & Sons.

Webb, A., 2017. Using earned value: a project manager's guide. Routledge.

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