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For this assignment, you will undertake an analysis based on a self-designed fictitious study that utilizes statistical methodologies. You will first develop a fictitious problem to examine - it can be anything. For example, maybe you want to look at whether scores on a standardized college placement test (like the SAT) are related to the level of income a person makes 10 years after college; Or, whether those who participate in a Leadership Training program rated as better managers compared to those who do not; Or, whether ones political affiliation is related to gender. These are just a few examples; be creative and think about what piques your interest. You might also address a problem that you may want to look at in future research for a dissertation.

Your analysis report should include the following components:

Describe your research study.
State a hypothesis.
List and explain the variables you would collect in this study. There must be a minimum of three variables and two must meet the assumptions for a correlational analysis.
Create a fictitious data set that you will analyze. The data should have a minimum of 30 cases, but not more than 50 cases.
Conduct a descriptive data analysis that includes the following:
a measure of central tendency
a measure of dispersion
at least one graph
Briefly interpret the descriptive data analysis.
Conduct the appropriate statistical test that will answer your hypothesis. It must be a statistical test covered in this course such as regression analysis, single t-test, independent t-test, cross-tabulations, Chi-square, or One-Way ANOVA. Explain your justification for using the test based on the type of data and the level of measurement that the data lends to for the statistical analysis. 

Problem statement

Females frame about portion of the total populace and take around 66% of the considerable number of occupations on the planet. Notwithstanding, they acquire just 33% of the aggregate salary and possess scarcely a tenth of assets (Xu, 2014).Sexual orientation-based separation is an overall marvel as contended by (Anaman, 2007).The US work showcase is looked with innate gender imbalances inferable from the apparent nature of work (Choi, 2004).These disparities have stretched out to the construction industry because of the standard thought that this industry is male ruled (Ness, 2012). Ladies workers in the construction industry are seen to be untrained, incompetent and are thought to deserve low wages (Bates, 2006). Male workers in the US development industry are more capacity built than ladies (Emily Hoffnar, 2012).Albeit many work laws exist in the US development industry, none of these laws have guaranteed that sex equality is accomplished.

In spite of a scope of balance enactment and activities, the construction industry remains a standout amongst the most male overwhelmed areas. Ladies are under-spoken to in all development occupations and callings. A significant part of the present writing portrays the troubles experienced by ladies who work in this area including social and basic hindrances, for example, badgering and segregation, constrained systems administration openings and long and firm working hours which regularly result in poor vocation prospects and elevated amounts of worry for ladies. This paper suggests that Bourdieu's hypothetical system can be utilized to clarify the proceeding with homogeneity of the construction industry careers. Uniting subjective meeting discoveries from a few research ventures with construction industry understudies and experts, this paper contends that Bourdieu's reasoning instruments of representative viciousness and misrecognition can be utilized to comprehend ladies' industrious imbalance in the construction industry. The discoveries problematize existing arrangement proposals that contend ladies have distinctive aptitudes that can be conveyed to the part, (for example, participation). Such strategies strengthen the gendered idea of the development part's habitus and neglect to perceive how the basic structures and practices of the area duplicate gendered working practices.

In spite of the fact that the US has accomplished ideal economic development throughout the years, and has made advances in the construction industry, it encounters work sexual orientation imbalance in this segment (White, 2010)This industry has been assuming an essential role in the economic development of the nation however in any case no measures have been placed in play to guarantee that ladies are dealt with similarly with male representatives in the industry.

It is uncalled for, in the twenty first century to see separations in the work advertise as (Sewalk, 2010) contends that females are similarly prepared and gifted as their male collegues to go up against jobs in the labor market. This investigation was accordingly directed with the end goal to distinguish difficulties that ladies face in the US construction industry.

As per (GURA N., 2010) ladies in the development business are supplanted in the accompanying three dimensions;

  • Technical positions, for example, planners and architects. About 1.2 % of ladies in the US function as construction technical officers.
  • Administrative positions, for example, managers.
  • Construction laborers.

All inclusive, under 10% of construction laborers constitute ladies (Contemporary, 2013).Be that as it may, relentless increment of ladies who enter the construction has been seen over the previous decade. Demand for construction specialists has similarly gone high. Ladies accordingly think that its now less demanding to discover employments in the construction industry (Gad, 2014).This situation is seen in the US construction industry.

Literature review

In the twenty first century, fairness is a standard that ought to be seen in each area of economy. The US construction industry ought to expedite more ladies aboard with the rising interest for construction laborers (Committee on Advancing the Competitiveness and Productivity of the U.S. Construction Industry, Advancing the Competitiveness and Efficiency of the U.S. Construction Industry, 2009)as more ladies are preparing for occupations in the development industry.

(Frank Carr, 2009) has demonstrated that the numbers among male and female in classrooms preparing for occupations in the construction industry is starting to measure up.

However, there is constrained data on ladies workers' welfare in the US construction industry.

In the US, different investigations have demonstrated that ladies face heaps of difficulties in the construction industry (Administration, 2008). As indicated by the Occupational Safety and Health organization inquire about done in 1999, it was demonstrated that 88 % ladies in the US construction industry face sexual harassment.

Other than lewd behavior, there exist different difficulties that ladies face in the US construction industry as illustrated by (Coombes Davies, 2009). Segregation on essential pleasantries, for example, washrooms is one such test.

Another research conducted by ladies development specialists in the Indian development industry is imbalance concerning renumeration contrasted with their male colleague workers (Bridges, 2009). Females development specialists were discovered to be paid substantially less contrasted with male development laborers (Pamulu, 2014).

In addition, as indicated by (Abdel-Mohsen Onsy Mohamed, 2011)lesser ladies contrasted with men have ascended the positions to go up against administrative positions in the Indian development industry. Men command top positions while ladies possess junior positions. Ladies are not surveyed by their aptitudes, but rather by orientation of their gender (Committee on Advancing the Competitiveness and Productivity of the U.S. Construction Industry, Advancing the Competitiveness and Efficiency of the U.S. Construction Industry, 2009) and therefore along these lines separated.

As discovered by (Group, 2009)it has likewise been demonstrated that ladies workers in the US development industry are not equally motivated as men. Research has demonstrated that extraneous motivation affects worker execution. Females are ineffectively treated to this kind of inspiration, hence bringing down their work yield. Men will in general be spurred better regarding renumeration, work advancements and capacity building compared to women. Females are treated as the mediocre sex though men as the prevalent in this industry.

Past research has outlined that the US development industry is male predominant, and this could be ascribed to the accompanying factors;

Attitude: There is a solid trust that the development business is saved for men.

Hazard: Women are at more serious danger of musculoskeletal issue which could result from strenuous occupations with the development business.

Leave: Women here and there must be off for maternity leaves, hindering the development business which is in steady need of serious work.

Strength: Women are believed to be physically and rationally weaker contrasted with men. The construction industry requires physical quality, prompting oppression ladies

The essential aim of this investigation is to assess whether there is gender discrimination in the US construction industry.

Challenges faced by women in the construction industry

The accompanying general goals added to the investigation's primary goal;

  1. To recognize the wage contrast among ladies and men working in the US construction industry.
  2. To identify the proportion of female laborers in the US construction industry.
  3. To determine the methods for female specialists strengthening in the Indian development industry.
  4. To assess the distribution of administrative positions among male and female employees in the US Construction industry.

The following research questions were developed to achieve the research objectives.

  1. Do there exist wage differences among male and female employees in the Indian construction industry?
  2. What is the proportion of female workers in the Indian Construction industry?
  3. Are female employees equally empowered compared to their male counterparts in the Indian construction company?
  4. What is the distribution of female and male employees in managerial positions in the Indian construction industry?

Based on the above review of literature, research objectives and research questions the following hypotheses were formulated;

H0: Men construction workers are not paid better than women construction workers in the US construction industry.

H1: Men construction workers are paid better than women construction workers in the US construction industry.

H0: Women are employed in equal proportions with men in the US construction company.

H1: More men than women are employed in the US construction company.

H0: Women are equally empowered as men in the US construction industry.

H2: Women are less empowered than men in the US construction industry.

H0: There is no discrimination on job promotions between men and women in the US construction industry.

H1: There is discrimination on job promotions against women in the US construction company.

Both descriptive and correlational design was employed in this study as the challenges and victimization against women in the US construction industry are determined with an aim of empowering women. Descriptive studies involve describing the characteristics of a particular phenomenon, event or situation. Correlational studies involve investigating the association between variables. This study aims at describing the distribution of certain variables concerning women workers in the US construction industry and assessing the association between variables.

Both qualitative and quantitative data was collected for purposes of this study. Primary data was collected through administration of questionnaires.

A sample of 30 construction workers from Turner construction company Limited was sampled to provide responses to the questionnaires in order to find out their views on wage equality and motivation of women construction workers, 13 of whom were male and 17 of whom were female.  

Both descriptive and inferential tools were utilized for analyzing the data. Descriptive statistics, regression and correlation analyses were performed in order to draw meaningful inferences from the responses of the construction workers.

The Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS version 23) was used for analysis of the data.

Results obtained show that 12 of the 17 female respondents representing 70.6% interviewed were unsatisfied with the wages they received while 29.4% were satisfied.

46.2% of the surveyed male respondents were unsatisfied while 53.8% were satisfied with the wages they received.

Wage

sex

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Female

Valid

satisfied

5

29.4

29.4

29.4

unsatisfied

12

70.6

70.6

100.0

Total

17

100.0

100.0

Male

Valid

satisfied

7

53.8

53.8

53.8

unsatisfied

6

46.2

46.2

100.0

Total

13

100.0

100.0

 

Wage_discrimination

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

agree

8

26.7

26.7

26.7

disagree

5

16.7

16.7

43.3

strongly agree

14

46.7

46.7

90.0

strongly disagree

3

10.0

10.0

100.0

Total

30

100.0

100.0

Majority of the respondents were in agreement that there was gender wage discrimination in the US construction industry.

These results suggest that women workers in the construction industry are poorly remunerated compared to their male counterparts.

40 % of respondents strongly agreed that they felt women were discriminated against when it comes to motivation issues such as job promotions compared to men construction workers. 40% agreed, 16.7% disagreed while 3.3% strongly disagreed. These results therefore depict that women are discriminated motivation-wise.

The comparison between position occupied by the interviewed employees and their thoughts on whether or not they are satisfied with their wages, their thoughts on wage discrimination and motivation alienation are as shown in the tables below;

Post * Wage Crosstabulation

Count  

Wage

Total

satisfied

unsatisfied

Post

Administrative

2

7

9

Laborer

5

5

10

Technical

5

6

11

Total

12

18

30

 Majority of the interviewed administrative, laborer and technical women workers were unsatisfied with the wages they received.

Post * wageopinion Crosstabulation

Count  

wageopinion

Total

agree

disagree

stongly disagree

strongly agree

strongly disagree

Post

Administrative

2

1

0

6

0

9

Laborer

5

2

0

2

1

10

Technical

1

2

1

6

1

11

Total

8

5

1

14

2

30

Majority of the surveyed women workers felt that they were poorly remunerated compared to their male counterparts.

Post * Motivation_opinion Crosstabulation

Count  

Motivation_opinion

Total

agree

disagree

strongly agree

strongly disagree

Post

Administrative

2

2

3

2

9

Laborer

2

6

1

1

10

Technical

6

2

3

0

11

Total

10

10

7

3

30

Majority of the women construction workers interviewed agreed that they were poorly motivated compared to their male counterparts.

Correlations

sex

Post

Wage

Wage_discrimination

Motivation_discrimination

sex

Pearson Correlation

1

.011

-.247

.111

.089

Sig. (2-tailed)

.954

.188

.561

.638

N

30

30

30

30

30

Post

Pearson Correlation

.011

1

-.184

.094

-.343

Sig. (2-tailed)

.954

.331

.622

.063

N

30

30

30

30

30

Wage

Pearson Correlation

-.247

-.184

1

.331

.153

Sig. (2-tailed)

.188

.331

.074

.419

N

30

30

30

30

30

Wage_discrimination

Pearson Correlation

.111

.094

.331

1

-.017

Sig. (2-tailed)

.561

.622

.074

.929

N

30

30

30

30

30

Motivation_discrimination

Pearson Correlation

.089

-.343

.153

-.017

1

Sig. (2-tailed)

.638

.063

.419

.929

N

30

30

30

30

30

The analysis shows that gender is positively correlated with wage discrimination and motivational discrimination.

The discoveries delineate that there is gender discrimination in the US construction industry. Ladies, specifically, are oppressed as far as wages and inspiration contrasted with male development specialists.

Results likewise demonstrate that motivation and wage satisfaction are explained by gender wage fulfillment and position held. Specialists who are fulfilled by their wages and who hold average positions will differ on the way that ladies are oppressed in the Indian development organization. Then again, women construction specialists who are unsatisfied with their wages will concur on the fact that there is gender segregation in the US development industry.

Conclusion

Findings from the research have outlined innate sexual orientation inclinations in the US construction industry. This could be ascribed to a few factors, for example, the apparent thought that the construction industry ought to be saved to men and the apparent idea of work in the industry.

The wide sexual orientation hole in the US construction industry was prove from the outcomes acquired in this investigation. The current working conditions in the US development industry don't favor ladies. They don't get equivalent affirmation with men development specialists, however hard they work. Ladies were observed to be victimized in the construction industry. They are treated to poor administrations including low wages and low inspiration in the working environment contrasted with male construction workers.

In spite of the fact that few laws have been instituted to guarantee sex uniformity in all segments of the economy in the US, sadly reality does not generally conform to the law. Sexual orientation equity in the US construction industry is still a long way from being accomplished as the business is still to a great degree male overwhelming with ladies adding to just under 10% of the aggregate workforce in the industry.

In any case, it is unavoidable that ladies portrayal in the construction industry will increase. However, the industry will never be female dominant and will dependably remain emphatically male prevailing because of the industry’s nature of work.

Sampling of one company for responses might not be a representative of all construction companies in US.

Only 30 individuals were sampled. This number might not be a representative of all construction workers in the US.

In light of the discoveries of the investigation, the accompanying suggestions are made;

The legislature ought to institute laws independently particular to private and open organizations with the end goal to oversee sex separation in the two segments of the US development industry.

Ladies should be prepared, capacity built and prepared more in their particular positions in the development business with the end goal to be equipped, and gain regard from men.

Men should recognize that ladies also can perform given jobs in the development business. Ladies are as proficient as men, and where they miss the mark, they can generally make up in different regions.

Female researchers should be taught on the diverse professions in the development business with the end goal to guarantee that more ladies join the development business. The observation that all development laborers are manufacturers might be dispensed with through instructing researchers on the various development industry professions.

References

Abdel-Mohsen Onsy Mohamed, M. E.-g. (2011). A Sustainable Development Approach. Civil & Environmental Engineering, 8.

Administration, O. S. (2008). Construction Industry Digest: and All About OSHA. 8.

Anaman, K. A.?A. (2007). Analysis of the causality links between the growth of the construction industry and the growth of the macro?economy in Ghana. 11.

Bates, T. (2006). Discrimination in the Chicago-area construction industry handicaps minority-owned firms. 11.

Bridges, A. H. (2009). The construction net: online information sources for the construction industry. 13.

Choi, J. R. (2004). Economic gains around mergers and acquisitions in the construction industry of the United States of America. Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering, 13.

Committee on Advancing the Competitiveness and Productivity of the U.S. Construction Industry, N. R. (2009). Advancing the Competitiveness and Efficiency of the U.S. Construction Industry. 12.

Committee on Advancing the Competitiveness and Productivity of the U.S. Construction Industry, N. R. (2009). Advancing the Competitiveness and Efficiency of the U.S. Construction Industry. 14.

Contemporary, L. a. (2013). Construction Management and Design-Build/Fast Track Construction || Allocation of Risk in the Construction Industry: The Nonprofessional Owner and His Construction Manager. 4.

Coombes Davies, M. C. (2009). Avoiding Claims : A Practical Guide to Limiting Liability in the Construction Industry. 23.

Emily Hoffnar, M. G. (2012). Gender discrimination in the public and private sectors: A sample selectivity approach. 10.

Frank Carr, A. B. (2009). Partnering in construction: a practical guide to project success. 12.

Gad, G. M. (2014). [American Society of Civil Engineers Construction Research Congress 2014 - Atlanta, Georgia (May 19-21, 2014)] Construction Research Congress 2014 - Trust in the Construction Industry: A Literature Review. 10.

Group, G. I. (2009). Occupational Safety and Health Simplified for the Construction Industry. 11.

GURA N., R. K. (2010).? construction of management of enterprises charges is in chemical industry. 8.

Pamulu, M. S. (2014). Strategic Management Practices in the Construction Industry. 17.

Sewalk, S. C. (2010). [American Society of Civil Engineers Construction Research Congress 2010 - Banff, Alberta, Canada (May 8-10, 2010)] Construction Research Congress 2010 - Shale Oil-An Opportunity to Revive the Construction Industry and Economy while Increasing Energy and . 9.

White, J. S. (2010). Constructing Gender: Discrimination and the Law in the US. Agenda: Empowering Women for Gender Equity, 11.

Xu, H. W. (2014). [Intelligent Systems, Control and Automation: Science and Engineering] Optimization and Control Methods in Industrial Engineering and Construction Volume 72 || Lean and Agile Construction Project Management: As a Way of Reducing Environmental Footprint of. 18.

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