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Question:
Describe the Collecting, manipulating and preparing data for statistical inference

Introduction:

The report discusses about the volatility and risk of stock market, return and market return. Usually, it is observed that stock market is volatile and unsteady (Berenson et al. 2012). Therefore, it is hard for evaluating the market performance. The report focuses to indicate the method of evaluating the company’s Price indexes through its market price movements. The price indexes for Boeing and International Business Machines (IBM) has been chosen for demonstrating (Freed, Bergquist and Jones 2014). However, the historical price movements of the individual price indexes from 1st December 2010 and 31st May 2016 cannot depict the appropriate outputs. Therefore, the historical index prices of S&P500 index and the 10 years’ US Treasury Bill are involved in the evaluation method for computing the effective outcomes. S&P500 index represents the summarisation of the market and the 10 years’ US Treasury Bill refers the risk-free return of the market.

The method of price index evaluation is divided in some parts. They are the compared and their market returns are calculated in the first part. In the next part, hypotheses are tested and CAPM is calculated using linear regression model. The whole evaluation is incorporated based on Capital Asset Pricing Model.

Discussion and Data Analysis:
Line Charts of Close prices:

The movement of the price indexes for a defined time-period depicts trends of price indexes. The first line chart involves all the three types of trend lines of price indexes. The second, third and fourth line charts involve the line charts individually. The price indexes of IBM and BA in the line charts are shown below:

It could be inferred from the above line charts that the price indexes of both S&P500 and BA have increased from 01/12/2010 to 31/05/2016. The IBM price index has increased and then decreased within this period. It has better stationary trend in case of IBM price index than BA price index.

Calculation with return prices:
Calculation of returns:
 Price Indexes Price Returns Date S& P 500 price Boeing (BA) price IBM price T-Bill price S&P 500 price return Boeing (BA) price return IBM Price return 12/1/2010 1257.64 65.26 146.76 3.305 S&P 500 price return Boeing (BA) price return IBM Price return 1/1/2011 1286.12 69.48 162 3.378 2.239296944 6.265966274 9.879776981 2/1/2011 1327.22 72.01 161.88 3.414 3.145657708 3.576604148 -0.074098434 3/1/2011 1325.83 73.93 163.07 3.454 -0.104786202 2.631367353 0.73242485 4/1/2011 1363.61 79.78 170.58 3.296 2.809693855 7.615413437 4.502480722 5/1/2011 1345.2 78.03 168.93 3.05 -1.359291933 -2.217947863 -0.972002012 6/1/2011 1320.64 73.93 171.55 3.158 -1.842618552 -5.397465574 1.539040029 7/1/2011 1292.28 70.47 181.85 2.805 -2.170835635 -4.793159804 5.830741764 8/1/2011 1218.89 66.86 171.91 2.218 -5.846750175 -5.258620558 -5.621109711 9/1/2011 1131.42 60.51 174.87 1.924 -7.446710096 -9.979228837 1.707170481 10/1/2011 1253.3 65.79 184.63 2.175 10.23065919 8.365925872 5.431103736 11/1/2011 1246.96 68.69 188 2.068 -0.507155381 4.313579104 1.808811334 12/1/2011 1257.6 73.35 183.88 1.871 0.849656569 6.563881998 -2.21585647 1/1/2012 1312.41 74.18 192.6 1.799 4.2660044 1.125209474 4.633213239 2/1/2012 1365.68 74.95 196.73 1.977 3.978734502 1.032661246 2.121667944 3/1/2012 1408.47 74.37 208.65 2.216 3.085147563 -0.776850947 5.882596833 4/1/2012 1397.91 76.8 207.08 1.915 -0.752569988 3.215200416 -0.755297659 5/1/2012 1310.33 69.61 192.9 1.581 -6.469930807 -9.829642967 -7.093331288 6/1/2012 1362.16 74.3 195.58 1.659 3.879271978 6.520274255 1.37976243 7/1/2012 1379.32 73.91 195.98 1.492 1.251888486 -0.526280118 0.204307969 8/1/2012 1406.58 71.4 194.85 1.562 1.957060987 -3.455029356 -0.578253022 9/1/2012 1440.67 69.6 207.45 1.637 2.394711887 -2.553335875 6.266026974 10/1/2012 1412.16 70.44 194.53 1.686 -1.998784252 1.199677342 -6.430394465 11/1/2012 1416.18 74.28 190.07 1.606 0.284267279 5.3080411 -2.319392548 12/1/2012 1426.19 75.36 191.55 1.756 0.704336761 1.443492052 0.775642462 1/1/2013 1498.11 73.87 203.07 1.985 4.919779205 -1.996981139 5.840189485 2/1/2013 1514.68 76.9 200.83 1.888 1.099992755 4.019907037 -1.109199265 3/1/2013 1569.19 85.85 213.3 1.852 3.535529388 11.00956615 6.024085053 4/1/2013 1597.57 91.41 202.54 1.675 1.792416591 6.275336138 -5.17622762 5/1/2013 1630.74 99.02 208.02 2.164 2.055020242 7.996689421 2.669688481 6/1/2013 1606.28 102.44 191.11 2.478 -1.511292881 3.395546122 -8.478506442 7/1/2013 1685.73 105.1 195.04 2.593 4.827772796 2.5634978 2.035544611 8/1/2013 1632.97 103.92 182.27 2.749 -3.179826758 -1.129090574 -6.771550366 9/1/2013 1681.55 117.5 185.18 2.615 2.931559129 12.28169805 1.583916104 10/1/2013 1756.54 130.5 179.21 2.542 4.362997098 10.49348932 -3.27699456 11/1/2013 1805.81 134.25 179.68 2.741 2.766329003 2.833050663 0.261911042 12/1/2013 1848.36 136.49 187.57 3.026 2.328947407 1.654765511 4.297469436 1/1/2014 1782.59 125.26 176.68 2.668 -3.623140749 -8.585979544 -5.981199928 2/1/2014 1859.45 128.92 185.17 2.658 4.221337488 2.880044837 4.693416414 3/1/2014 1872.34 125.49 192.49 2.723 0.690824862 -2.696598325 3.876991905 4/1/2014 1883.95 129.02 196.47 2.648 0.618164318 2.774140392 2.046552269 5/1/2014 1923.57 135.25 184.36 2.457 2.081219595 4.715745562 -6.361937971 6/1/2014 1960.23 127.23 181.27 2.516 1.887899662 -6.112842199 -1.690271874 7/1/2014 1930.67 120.48 191.67 2.556 -1.519468737 -5.451270678 5.578747831 8/1/2014 2003.37 126.8 192.3 2.343 3.696364432 5.112727671 0.328153535 9/1/2014 1972.29 127.38 189.83 2.508 -1.563543608 0.456365573 -1.292772286 10/1/2014 2018.05 124.91 164.4 2.335 2.293639895 -1.958121139 -14.38264992 11/1/2014 2067.56 134.36 162.17 2.194 2.423747367 7.292926219 -1.365729073 12/1/2014 2058.9 129.98 160.44 2.17 -0.419738458 -3.314221049 -1.072510203 1/1/2015 1994.99 145.37 153.31 1.675 -3.153277922 11.19016204 -4.545805109 2/1/2015 2104.5 150.85 161.94 2.002 5.343887644 3.700382334 5.476390633 3/1/2015 2067.89 150.08 160.5 1.934 -1.754919723 -0.51175068 -0.893196604 4/1/2015 2085.51 143.34 171.29 2.046 0.848472245 -4.594909592 6.506404307 5/1/2015 2107.39 140.52 169.65 2.095 1.043672976 -1.98695468 -0.962052978 6/1/2015 2063.11 138.72 162.66 2.335 -2.123555928 -1.289233562 -4.207529853 7/1/2015 2103.84 144.17 161.99 2.205 1.954968325 3.853562471 -0.412752153 8/1/2015 1972.18 130.68 147.89 2.2 -6.46247309 -9.824161178 -9.106588838 9/1/2015 1920.03 130.95 144.97 2.06 -2.679873126 0.206401488 -1.994191606 10/1/2015 2079.36 148.07 140.08 2.151 7.97193795 12.28696342 -3.431312911 11/1/2015 2080.41 145.45 139.42 2.218 0.050474186 -1.785281788 -0.472275654 12/1/2015 2043.94 144.59 137.62 2.269 -1.768565854 -0.593024094 -1.299471827 1/1/2016 1940.24 120.13 124.79 1.931 -5.206761723 -18.53276586 -9.786389491 2/1/2016 1932.23 118.18 131.03 1.74 -0.413690564 -1.636557884 4.879396445 3/1/2016 2059.74 126.94 151.45 1.786 6.390499042 7.150566372 14.48292207 4/1/2016 2065.3 134.8 145.94 1.819 0.269576165 6.00776711 -3.705992562 5/1/2016 2096.95 126.15 153.74 1.834 1.520836665 -6.632052979 5.20673044

Summary Statistics:

 Boeing (BA) Price return IBM Price return Mean 1.0139883 Mean 0.071483586 Standard Error 0.7426766 Standard Error 0.626657713 Median 1.1996773 Median -0.074098434 Standard Deviation 5.9876504 Standard Deviation 5.052276003 Sample Variance 35.851957 Sample Variance 25.52549281 Kurtosis 0.6987056 Kurtosis 0.655346526 Skewness -0.4699036 Skewness -0.136800306 Range 30.819729 Range 28.86557199 Minimum -18.532766 Minimum -14.38264992 Maximum 12.286963 Maximum 14.48292207 Sum 65.909237 Sum 4.646433103 Count 65 Count 65 Confidence Level (95.0%) 1.4836671 Confidence Level (95.0%) 1.251892683

The average return of Boeing (BA) is greater than average returns of IBM (1.0139883>0.071483586). The risk is determined by standard deviation of returns of close rates of price index. The risk in terms of standard deviation shows that Boeing return is more volatile than IBM return (5.9876504>5.052276003).

The risk is relatively greater for Boeing price return for its greater variability in terms of standard deviation.

Jarque - Bera test of normality:

Jerque-Bera test is carried out for testing the normality of price indexes that are Boeing and IBM.

The Jerque-Bera test statistic (JB) is given as-

JB = n *

 Jarque-Bera test Skewness Kurtosis n JB α χ2 (0.05,2) Decision Boeing (BA) -0.469903619 0.698706 65 16.7353157 0.05 5.991464547 Normality is Rejected IBM -0.136800306 0.655347 65 15.0915299 0.05 5.991464547 Normality is Rejected

Firstly, the JB test statistics of both the price indexes are calculated. For BA price return and IBM price return, they are 16.7353157 and 15.0915299. Then applying significant test statistic, we have tested Chi-square tests at 5% level of significance (χ2 (0.05, 2) = 5.99). For both one and two-tail Chi-square tests, Boeing and IBM price returns failed to attain normality. Hence, none of the price returns is normally distributed at 95% confidence limit.

Testing of average return price of Boeing (BA):
 One sample t-test Boeing Close return (BA) Average (X-bar) = 1.01398826 hypothetical mean (μ) = 3% (X-bar - μ) = 0.98398826 Standard deviation = 5.987650369 sample size (n) = 65 degrees of freedom= 64 Standard error = 0.742676624 t-statistic = 1.324921544 T(critical) = 1.997729633 Decision making = Null hypothesis rejected

A one-sample t-test determines whether the average price return of Boeing Close return (BA) is at least 3%.   The t-statistic is - . The t-statistic is 1.324921544. At 5% level of significance, we reject the null hypothesis of average price return greater than or equal to 0.03 as T0.05 < Tcric.

Therefore, the average price return of Boeing is not at least 3%.

Comparison of risk associated to each of the BA and IBM price returns:
 Boeing (BA) return IBM return Variance 35.85195694 25.52549281 Degrees of freedom 64 64 F-statistic 1.404554937 p-value of F-statistic 0.088449703 level of significance 0.05 decision making Null hypothesis accepted

The riskiness of returns of two price returns could be more effectively compared by F-test of two samples variances. The F-test for comparing the riskiness of the price returns of IBM and GE are conducted here.

Hypotheses:

Null hypothesis (H0): σ12 = σ22

Alternative hypothesis (HA): σ12 ≠ σ22

The F value for two-tail test is computed as F = F1-α/2, N1-1, N2-1

Here, α=0.05, N1-1=64 and N2-1=64.

The risk associated with each of the two price returns is compared with the help of F-statistic. The calculated F-statistics (F = is 1.404554937.

For Boeing and IBM price returns, p-value of the F-statistic is 0.088449703. It is greater than 0.05. The null hypothesis is accepted at 5% level of significance.

Hence, it could be depicted that level of volatility of the two price returns for the given period are almost equal to each other (Groebner et al. 2008).

Comparison of average returns of each of the two investing price returns:

The average return is indicated by the mean of returns of the price returns. Hence, for comparing the average return of Boeing (BA) and IBM price returns, two sample z-test (for unequal samples) and two sample t-test (for equal samples) can be conducted on the calculated returns of the two price returns.

Hypotheses:

Null hypothesis (H0): μBA = μIBM

Alternative hypothesis (HA): μBA ≠ μIBM

The z-statistic is given as z and t-statistic is given as .

Z-test of equality of means of two samples:

 z-Test: Two Sample for Means Boeing (BA) returns IBM returns Mean 1.01398826 0.071483586 Known Variance 35.8519 25.5254 Observations 65 65 Hypothesized Mean Difference 0 z 0.969920863 P(Z<=z) one-tail 0.16604297 z Critical one-tail 1.644853627 P(Z<=z) two-tail 0.33208594 z Critical two-tail 1.959963985 decision making Null hypothesis accepted

For comparing the average returns of each of the two investing price returns, a z-test is applied. The variances are known for each of the price returns. The calculated z-statistic is 0.9699. The p-value for two-tail z-statistic is 0.332 (>0.05). Therefore, we can reject the null hypothesis of equality of averages of returns of two price returns at 5% level of significance.

Two-sample t-test of equality of means for unequal variances:

 t-Test: Two-Sample Assuming Unequal Variances Boeing (BA) return IBM return Mean 1.01398826 0.07148359 Variance 35.85195694 25.5254928 Observations 65 65 Hypothesized Mean Difference 0 df 124 t Stat 0.96991968 P(T<=t) one-tail 0.166987311 t Critical one-tail 1.657234971 P(T<=t) two-tail 0.333974621 t Critical two-tail 1.979280091 decision making Null hypothesis accepted

The t-test assuming equal variances of BA and IBM price returns gives the t-statistic 0.96991968. The p-value of the two-tail t-test is found to be 0.333974621. The level of significance is 5%, which is lesser than calculated p-value. Therefore, we cannot reject the null hypothesis of equality of averages of both the price returns.

Inference:

According to the price return averages and price return standard deviations (risk), an equality is established. Hence, we cannot draw firm decision to choose any one price returns between BA and IBM. Hence, we further proceed with both of them. Next, we are willing to excess price return, excess market return and CAPM of both the price returns. With the help of these, we can find the volatility of both the price returns. The preferable price return would be distinguished after that.

Calculation of Excess Return and Excess Return:
 Excess Return Excess Return Excess Market Return Boeing Excess return (BA) IBM Excess return BA IBM ytBA ytIBM xt 2.887966274 6.501776981 -1.138703056 0.162604148 -3.488098434 -0.268342292 -0.822632647 -2.72157515 -3.558786202 4.319413437 1.206480722 -0.486306145 -5.267947863 -4.022002012 -4.409291933 -8.555465574 -1.618959971 -5.000618552 -7.598159804 3.025741764 -4.975835635 -7.476620558 -7.839109711 -8.064750175 -11.90322884 -0.216829519 -9.370710096 6.190925872 3.256103736 8.055659186 2.245579104 -0.259188666 -2.575155381 4.692881998 -4.08685647 -1.021343431 -0.673790526 2.834213239 2.4670044 -0.944338754 0.144667944 2.001734502 -2.992850947 3.666596833 0.869147563 1.300200416 -2.670297659 -2.667569988 -11.41064297 -8.674331288 -8.050930807 4.861274255 -0.27923757 2.220271978 -2.018280118 -1.287692031 -0.240111514 -5.017029356 -2.140253022 0.395060987 -4.190335875 4.629026974 0.757711887 -0.486322658 -8.116394465 -3.684784252 3.7020411 -3.925392548 -1.321732721 -0.312507948 -0.980357538 -1.051663239 -3.981981139 3.855189485 2.934779205 2.131907037 -2.997199265 -0.788007245 9.157566153 4.172085053 1.683529388 4.600336138 -6.85122762 0.117416591 5.832689421 0.505688481 -0.108979758 0.917546122 -10.95650644 -3.989292881 -0.0295022 -0.557455389 2.234772796 -3.878090574 -9.520550366 -5.928826758 9.666698047 -1.031083896 0.316559129 7.951489318 -5.81899456 1.820997098 0.092050663 -2.479088958 0.025329003 -1.371234489 1.271469436 -0.697052593 -11.25397954 -8.649199928 -6.291140749 0.222044837 2.035416414 1.563337488 -5.419598325 1.153991905 -2.032175138 0.126140392 -0.601447731 -2.029835682 2.258745562 -8.818937971 -0.375780405 -8.628842199 -4.206271874 -0.628100338 -8.007270678 3.022747831 -4.075468737 2.769727671 -2.014846465 1.353364432 -2.051634427 -3.800772286 -4.071543608 -4.293121139 -16.71764992 -0.041360105 5.098926219 -3.559729073 0.229747367 -5.484221049 -3.242510203 -2.589738458 9.515162035 -6.220805109 -4.828277922 1.698382334 3.474390633 3.341887644 -2.44575068 -2.827196604 -3.688919723 -6.640909592 4.460404307 -1.197527755 -4.08195468 -3.057052978 -1.051327024 -3.624233562 -6.542529853 -4.458555928 1.648562471 -2.617752153 -0.250031675 -12.02416118 -11.30658884 -8.66247309 -1.853598512 -4.054191606 -4.739873126 10.13596342 -5.582312911 5.82093795 -4.003281788 -2.690275654 -2.167525814 -2.862024094 -3.568471827 -4.037565854 -20.46376586 -11.71738949 -7.137761723 -3.376557884 3.139396445 -2.153690564 5.364566372 12.69692207 4.604499042 4.18876711 -5.524992562 -1.549423835 -8.466052979 3.37273044 -0.313163335
CAPM calculation by linear regression method:

The Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM) is known as CAPM, which is one of the fundamental models in the financial field. The CAPM elaborates variability in the rate of return (rt) as a function of the rate of return on a market portfolio (rM,t) consisting all publicly traded price returns. Usually, the rate of return of any price return can be measured using opportunity cost that is the return on a risk free asset (rf,t). The difference between the return and risk free rate is known as “risk premium” as it is the reward or punishment for performing a risky investment (Peirson et al. 2014). In accordance to CAPM, the risk premium on a security (rt –rf,t) is proportional to the risk premium on the market portfolio (rM,t – rf,t). According to CAPM,

(rt –rf,t) = βM*(rM,t – rf,t)   ……………….(1)

Equation (1) is called economic model as it describes association between excess price returns and excess market return.

The CAPM beta is crucial from the viewpoints of investors as it discloses the volatility of market price returns. Particularly, the bête (slope) measures the sensitivity of variation of given return of security in the whole price market. Value of beta defines whether the price return is a defensive, a neutral price index or an aggressive price index. Including an intercept (β0) and an error term (ut) in the model, we have a simple linear regression model –

(rt - rf,t) = β+ βM (rM,t - rf,t) +ut    ………………..(2)

Estimation of CAPM using linear regression:

Boeing (BA) Excess return:

 SUMMARY OUTPUT Regression Statistics Multiple R 0.63626059 R Square 0.40482754 Adjusted R Square 0.39538036 Standard Error 4.65767923 Observations 65 ANOVA df SS MS F Significance F Regression 1 929.6231383 929.6231 42.85167 1.22694E-08 Residual 63 1366.720475 21.69398 Total 64 2296.343613 Coefficients Standard Error t Stat P-value Lower 95% Upper 95% Intercept 0.4017602 0.629404328 0.638318 0.52558 -0.856003975 1.659524372 xt 1.11931665 0.170989356 6.546119 1.23E-08 0.777621689 1.461011607

IBM Excess return:

 SUMMARY OUTPUT Regression Statistics Multiple R 0.487837632 R Square 0.237985555 Adjusted R Square 0.225890087 Standard Error 4.424020742 Observations 65 ANOVA df SS MS F Significance F Regression 1 385.0900093 385.09 19.6756 3.757E-05 Residual 63 1233.03345 19.57196 Total 64 1618.123459 Coefficients Standard Error t Stat P-value Lower 95% Upper 95% Intercept -1.12349158 0.597829448 -1.87928 0.064833 -2.3181584 0.07117523 xt 0.720411483 0.162411454 4.435718 3.76E-05 0.3958581 1.04496487
Interpretation of Coefficients:

The calculated β-value for Boeing excess return and Excess market return is 1.11931665. The calculated β-value for IBM excess return and Excess market return is 0.720411483. The calculated β-values define that BA price indexes are 111.93% less volatile than the market, whereas the volatility level of IBM compared to the market is 72.04%. Therefore, it can be stated that Boeing (BA) is highly volatile than IBM. Therefore, Boeing (BA) is considered to be more profitable than IBM price returns.

Interpretation of R2:

The linear regression tables describe that the values of R2 of BA and IBM are 0.40482754 and 0.237985555. The R2 indicates the relationship of the dependent variable with the independent variable. Hence, from the values of multiple R2 of the two price returns it could be stated that Boeing (BA) excess return (40.48%) is more associated than the association of IBM (23.80%).

Construction of 95% confidence interval for Slope Efficient:

Confidence Interval of IBM Price Return:

1. For Boeing (BA) price return, slope (β1) = 1.11931665, Standard Error = 170989356, d.f. = 64, t-value = 6.546119. Hence, the 95% confidence interval for the slope coefficient would be (0.777621689, 1.461011607).
2. For IBM price return, slope (β1) = 0.720411483, Standard Error = 162411454, d.f. = 64, t-value = 4.435718. Hence, the 95% confidence interval for the slope coefficient would be (0.3958581, 1.04496487).

Preferable neutral Price Return:

The testing of aggressiveness of the excess price returns needs the following hypothesis:

Null hypothesis (H0): β1 = 1

Alternative hypothesis (H1): β1 < 1

For BA price returns, β1 is 1.11931665 along with the standard error (SE) 0.170989356. The “residual degrees of freedom” is 63 and calculated p-value is 0.0. Hence, t = β1/ SE = 6.546119.

For IBM price indexes, β1 is 0.720411483 along with the standard error (SE) 0.162411454. The “residual degrees of freedom” is 63 and calculated p-value is 0.0. Hence, t = β1/ SE = 4.435718.

For both the excess price returns, the p-values are positive t-value and equal degrees of freedom 64. The 95% confidence intervals for beta values of both BA and IBM price returns are (0.777621689, 1.461011607) and (0.3958581, 1.04496487). The confidence intervals near to 0 refers more neutral nature for price excess return. The confidence intervals of t-statistics indicate that IBM price return is more neutral (Moffett, Stonehill and Eiteman 2014).

Normal Probability Plot in OLS:

IBM Ecess Price return residual plot:

The method of ordinary least squares (OLS) helps to establish the normality with diagram. The error terms in the model are graphically shown in normal probability plot. It shows that the error terms are not following normal distributions for IBM price indexes. The distributions of residual values are not symmetric for both the market return values.

 Jarque-Bera test Skewness Kurtosis n JB α χ2 (0.05,2) Decision IBM -0.039955804 0.40782718 65 18.21556 0.05 5.99146455 Normality is Rejected

Besides, we perform a Jarque-Bera test for examining the normality of the residual values. The JB statistic of IBM (18.21) refers that normality of residual values of the regression is rejected at 5% level of significance.

Annotated Bibliography:

Berenson, M., Levine, D., Szabat, K. A., & Krehbiel, T. C. (2012). Basic business statistics: Concepts and applications. Pearson Higher Education AU.

Freed, N., Bergquist, T., & Jones, S. (2014). Understanding business statistics. John Wiley & Sons.

Groebner, D.F., Shannon, P.W., Fry, P.C. and Smith, K.D., 2008. Business statistics. Pearson Education.

Moffett, M. H., Stonehill, A. I., & Eiteman, D. K. (2014). Fundamentals of multinational finance. Pearson.

Peirson, G., Brown, R., Easton, S., & Howard, P. (2014). Business finance. McGraw-Hill Education Australia.

Cite This Work

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[Accessed 21 May 2024].

My Assignment Help. 'Collecting, Manipulating, And Preparing Data For Statistical Inference' (My Assignment Help, 2020) <https://myassignmenthelp.com/free-samples/bus5sbf-statistics-for-business-and-finance-for-international-business-machines> accessed 21 May 2024.

My Assignment Help. Collecting, Manipulating, And Preparing Data For Statistical Inference [Internet]. My Assignment Help. 2020 [cited 21 May 2024]. Available from: https://myassignmenthelp.com/free-samples/bus5sbf-statistics-for-business-and-finance-for-international-business-machines.

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