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Statement of Purpose

Discuss about the Business Capstone Project for Society and National Economy.

Generally, it is understood that international migration has a potential to have a considerable effect in the areas of politics, society and national economy for any countries. Hence, the migration between New Zealand and Australia does affect the political environment, society and national economy of the both countries. According to Sanderson (2009, p. 293), the improved transports and advanced communications technologies have made it accessible and affordable for majorities of us in establishing contacts along with broadened knowledge of opportunities and circumstances elsewhere. It was reported by Australian Bureau of Statistics (2014) that, 6.6 million (28.1%) of the total population were estimated to be born overseas and New Zealand born people were among the second largest group of residents born overseas at 2.6%. This research proposal will utilise secondary data to analyse the trend and impact of mobility from New Zealand to Australia. The aim is to explore prior researches and suggest the findings in regards to the reason for the mobility and possible impacts.

The two countries, Australia and New Zealand, have an exclusive relationship fostered by many factors such as geographic nearness and common histories as a part of the Commonwealth and the ANZAC tradition. Hence, their relationship has made it easier for the citizens of the both countries to migrate without restrictions between the two countries. (Australian Bureau of Statistics 2010) Significantly, it has been reported that the movement of New Zealanders to Australia has soared in recent decades due to the economic optimism in Australia comparative to New Zealand. The existing literatures also suggest that, mobility and migration decision is influenced by economic considerations, lifestyle benefits, culture, environment and other various factors. (Green, Power and Jang, n.d.).

Furthermore, the migration trends have been suggested to be highly inclined towards temporary stays instead of permanent settlement. Globalization has also played an effective role in enhanced integration between New Zealand and Australia. For this reason, the existing literatures suggest the increased chances of work-related mobility and internationalised labour markets to be contributing the migration trend (Sanderson 2009, p. 293).

However, regardless of the implications for both countries, the motivating factors and impact of the trans-Tasman movement for migrants travelling from New Zealand to Australia still need more significance for extensive research studies. Thus, the objective of this additional research is to determine what attracts New Zealanders to move to Australia and identify the kind of existing migration trend on the basis of age, work, gender, residency and citizenship.

Aim of the research

Objectives of the research

The prime aim of the research is to identify and analyze the factors that are creating positive impact over the emerging migration trends from New Zealand to Australia.

As per the article by Heckscher, Halley and Stampul (2015, p. 288) selection of research objective is an important factor that the researcher will have to consider in order to complete the research study successfully. The research objectives are as follows:

1. To identify the factors those are responsible for determining the trend of migration from New Zealand to Australia

2. To evaluate the ways by which the migration trend is impacted on the basis of age, work, gender, residency and citizenship

3. To analyze the kind of impact that the migration trend can have on the economical condition of Australia

4. To identify the best possible way for Australia to handle the emerging migration trend

According to Brettell and Hollifield (2014, p. 23) migration reflects the movement of people from one economy to another economy. Thus, migration is a complex problem that many dimensions associated with it. As mentions by Greenwood (2016, pp. 34 & 36) the problem associated with migration can vary, as it is a multidimensional problem. On the other hand, Favell (2015, p. 38) highlights that migration can be describe as an outcome of multifaceted interaction of factors, which is difficult to be defined rationally by a single theory. However, the theories related to the migration can be analaysed from two different perspectives: macro-level structural issues and micro-level structural issues where the first focuses on economic differences, political differences and the latter focuses on individual decision making, individual motivating factors for the migration etc. (Green 2006, p. 102-105).

According to Todaro and Smith (2006, p. 342), neo-classical theory is the current dominant theory on migration, which explains that the stimulation of migration is significantly dependent on the reasonable economic considerations of comparative benefits and costs. This theory focuses on differences in wage returns to labour across global markets. As describes by Skeldon (2012, p. 159) this theory explains both micro and macro aspects of migration. This theory elaborates that unbalance distribution of labor and capital at the macro level can cause huge inequalities living conditions and wages that can have huge amount of impact on the number of migration. On the other hand, the micro approach of this theory not only focuses on the labor market but also on other markets like unemployment insurance market or capital market as well. The theory highlighted that major household strategy for migration is focuses on changing the source of income rather than increasing the income level. Hence, the migration of New Zealanders to Australia can be analysed in relation to the geographic differences between two countries. As labor supply and demand and wage differentials between labor-rich versus capital-rich countries (Kurekova 2011, p. 5).

Theoretical framework

On the other hand, World Systems theory views migration to be influenced by structural changes of markets, globalization, rising economical interdependency and establishment of innovative production. This theory focuses on the strong relationship and dependency of capital markets and labour mobility. Similarly, there are other theories such as Network theory and Dual labor market theory, which respectively explains demand perspective of migration and factors influencing migration on a time and space basis (Kurekova 2011, pp. 8, 9 & 10). This theory highlights that the root cause for migration is the unequal development between the peripheral agricultural countries and central developed countries. Since, this unequal development enforces the people from peripheral countries to move towards the developed prime countries. Moreover, the world system theory illustrates that migration will help the central countries, as they can be able to exploit the peripheral countries. This theory also highlighted that migration is an obvious consequences of globalization. Since, globalization enables frequent interaction among people from several countries. As a result, people are becoming well aware about the kind of benefits they might able to receive by shifting to another country. This definitely enhances the number of immigrants all over the world.

As per the article by Wright and Ellis (2016, pp. 16, 17 & 18) the dual labor market theory can also be considered as one of the significant theory for evaluating the migration issue. It highlights that the industrialized countries labor market have a dualistic structure. It includes unskilled workers and skilled workers. The skilled workers are often provided with greater allowances. On the other hand, unskilled workers have to suffer consequences of low wages. As opined by Sykes (2013, p. 321) employers in industrialized countries are determined to keep this wage difference between skilled workers and unskilled workers. As a result, many unskilled workers force to move to another place in search of a better opportunity. On the other side, industrialized countries will have to face the shortage of bottom of hierarchy labors. Thus, they are forced to employ unskilled labor from different countries, which also create positive impact on the number of immigrants entering in the developed economy. Therefore, Heckscher, Halley and Stampul (2015, p. 287) mentions that every economies will have to be extremely careful regarding the number of population leaving the country and number of foreign people entering in to the new economy so that it can able to create a balance between these two. This might help the economy to minimize the negative consequences of migration trends.      

From the analysis of all above theories, it can be understood that study and analysis of migration can be an intricate, varied and multifaceted experience as it involves an interaction between micro and macro levels. Hence, it makes the research activities to be conducted at varied levels involving multiple methodological resources and approaches. In brief, it can be ascertained that migration research can be challenging in terms of empirical evidence and concepts.

The above discussion highlights the fact that migration has emerged as one of the prime concern of the economy that they have to deal with. Since, the more number of people will come into an economy the greater will be the chances of creating negative impact on the political, economical and cultural aspect of the economy. The above discussion highlights that people enter into new economy in search of better quality of life and when they enter into the economy, they started to consume all the available resources of the economy like any other residents. Furthermore, increase number of immigrants forces the economy to feel the consequences of cultural differences (Guha 2014, p. 46). Thus, the emerging migration trends have forces Australia to look at several factors. In this study, the focus will be on these factors and the kind of impact it can made on the overall developmental process of the Australian economy.

After considering the existing literatures, data and reports, this research proposal aims to guide the further research on the basis of the following research questions:

1. What factors are responsible for determining the trend of migration from New   Zealand to Australia?

2. In what ways the migration trend is impacted on the basis of age, work, gender, residency and citizenship?

3. How the migration trend can make impact on the economical condition of Australia?

4. What are the best possible ways for Australia to react to this emerging migration trend?

Research Outline

As per the article by Taylor, Bogdan and DeVault (2015, pp. 27 & 29) research methodology has the potential to in evaluating variety of research methods, philosophies and designs, which will help the researcher to fulfill the objective of the study in an effective way. Research outline include several methodologies and measures that the researcher might chose to implement to assure that the research study is going in the right direction. In addition, research outline helps the researcher to maintain proper flow of the research process. Traditionally, outline of the research provides various types of philosophies, approach and designs. As per the research outline is concerned, proper justification will have to provide by the researcher for the selected approach and processes for the completion of the research study. Thus, if the researcher can able to maintain the selected outline for the completion of the study, it will assist to fulfill the goal of the research study. To identify the migration trend, the research will chose deductive research approach, positivism research philosophy. For this study, the researcher will follow the processes below to collect and analyse various data to meet the research objective.

As per the article by Mackey and Gass (2015, p. 87) researcher philosophy is a significant factor that the researcher will have to focus in order to complete the research study successfully. The article highlights three types of research philosophies namely interpretivism, positivism and realism that researchers utilize to fulfill the objective of the research study. It is significant to note that selection of research philosophy can be able to guide the researcher to the valuable outcome of the entire research process. With the assistance of positivism research philosophy, research studies can utilize evidence base logical investigation. On the other hand, interpretivism research philosophy can conduct a research study by emphasizing on the overview of the entire population in order to understand the significance of the research study. Furthermore, realism research philosophy focuses on conducting the research study by evaluating every situation simply as they seem to occur. For analyzing the migration trend, the research will focus on the positivism research philosophy.

Out of the available three research philosophies, the researcher has chosen positivism research philosophy, as it has the potential to provide a gateway for the research study. The positivism research philosophy also has the potential to develop a specific outcome by considering different variables related to factual evidence and real evidence regarding the topic of the research study. For this particular research topic, the researcher has chosen this research philosophy as it will assist the researcher in evaluating all the factors related to the migration trends (Silverman 2016, p. 112). Furthermore, positivism philosophy allows the researcher to crosscheck all the factors so that the outcome of the study can be able to depict actual situation of the research topic.

Research approach

Research approach is another significant factor that the researcher has to focus in order to accomplish the research goals. Since, research approach can guide the researcher to identify critical factors related to the research study. As mentions by Panneerselvam (2014, p. 13) research approach has two types inductive research approach and deductive research approach. Inductive approach helps in capturing required information about the research topic. On the other hand, deductive approach can be utilized to cultivate numerous data related to the research process. For the identification of the migration trend, the researcher will focus on to consider deductive research approach.

Justification for the selected research approach

For this particular research topic, the researcher will select deductive research approach, as it will assist the study to include previous study and theories related to the research topic. Thus, it will help the study to capture in-depth information, which will in turn create positive impact on the outcome of the study. Furthermore, this research approach can help the researcher in understanding the effectiveness of implementing several theories that has the potential to enhance the outcome of the study (Gast and Ledford 2014, p. 71).  The researcher selected deductive approach, as migration trend is broad topic. On the other hand, the researcher has not considered other research approach as it will increase the length of the research study. Furthermore, inductive research approach, as it is based on specific incidental and observational researches.

Research purpose:

As per the article by Pickard (2012, p. 23) research purpose can provide a great help in understanding the proper nature of the research topic. It also helps the researcher to have in-depth information about various factors relevant to the research topic. According to Miller et al. (2012, p. 32) research purpose has three parts namely explanatory, exploratory and analytical research purpose. Thus, the researcher selects any research purpose regarding the true nature of the research study so that it can able to fulfill its aim and goals. Explanatory research purpose assists the researcher in answering all the necessary questions rather problem solving. On the other hand, exploratory research purpose help the researcher in evaluating real problems and issues related to the topic of the study. Analytical research purpose can help the researcher to analyze real time data. For this particular study, the researcher will focus on the analytical research purpose.

Selection of research purpose highly depends on the nature of the research. Since, the focus of this study will be on the identification of trend. Analytical research approach can provide cutting edge to the outcome of the research study. In addition, it will help the researcher analyze all the captured information related to the researcher topic. Moreover, it will help the researcher to recognize different groups, parts and factors related to the researcher study.

Research strategy

As per the article by Anfara Jr and Mertz (2014, p. 26) for the successful completion of the research process, it is very important gather all the relevant information regarding the topic of the study. Thus, the researcher will have to implement effective research strategy so that the study can be able to meet its objectives. Gale et al. (2013, p. 117) mentions that effective research strategy represent a strategy by which a researcher can be able to capture all the necessary information from the respondents. Hence, as per the research strategy is concerned the researcher may select different types of individual interaction process to collect information from the selected respondents. For this particular study, the researcher will select both primary and secondary research strategy.

The researcher will choose both primary and secondary research strategy, as it will help the researcher to analyze all the factors related to the researcher topic. For the collection of primary information, the researcher will utilize survey technique as well as one to one interaction process that will provide help to the researcher in generating valuable information regarding to the migration trends. For effective utilization of the survey process, the researcher will formulate questionnaires that will contain only quantitative closed-end questions. The researcher will formulate quantitative questionnaires in order to identify the current migration trend.

Target Population

As per the article by Novikov and Novikov (2013, p. 28) research population refers to a large group of individuals that may have relevant knowledge related to the research topic. The research population refers to those individuals whom will get benefits from the outcome of the research study. However, most of the time research population refers to a huge amount of population, which cannot be covered for the successful completion of the research study. As a result, the researcher will have to target a particular group of the entire research population to ensure that the research study can be able to complete within the given timeframe. As the focus of the research study is to analyze the emerging trends of New Zealanders migrating to Australia, the target population for this research will be all the identified New Zealand migrants. Since, they are migrating to Australia for better economic opportunities and lifestyle benefits. Therefore, the researcher will try to cover all the areas within the Australia where most of the immigrants are taking shelter. The researcher to focus on the target population to generate an idea about the total numbers immigrants that are coming to Australian economy for the better future.

Sampling technique

As opined by Riley et al. (2014, p. 42) successful completion of any research study requires an effecting sampling strategy. Since, it can assist the researcher to select right respondents regarding to the topic of the topic of the study. According to Levy and Lemeshow (2013, pp. 31 & 32) selecting right respondents for capturing information is crucial for the successful completion of the research topic. Otherwise, it can mislead the outcome of the research. For this particular research study, the researcher will utilize the records of New Zealand migrants to Australia collected by Australian Government and New Zealand Government. Now, there are two types of sampling method namely probability and non-probability sampling method that are used by the researchers for fulfilling the aim and objectives of the research study.

For this particular research study, the researcher will focus on the non-probability sampling method, as the research population is extremely large. In addition, the researcher chooses non-probability sampling method, as it will assist the research study to capture relevant information regarding the research topic. The researcher also will choose this sampling method so that it can be able to depict actual perspective regarding the migration trends. For this particular study, the researcher will select 70 respondents whom are migrating to Australia to collect quantitative information..   

Variables

It is hypothesized that, as economic stability and employment opportunities in Australia becomes better or worse, the number of people migrating to Australia from New Zealand also increases or decreases. Since, people always look to have a better life where they were provided with better opportunities. Therefore, when they are getting better opportunity in a particular economy, it is influencing them to shift from New Zealand to Australia. Similarly, the trend of New Zealand migrants travelling to and back to Australia frequently affects the number of the migrants taking up the citizenship. To undertake this research, the following dependent and independent migration variables have been identified:

Dependent Variable

To identify what factors induce the mobility of New Zealand migrants to Australia, the population of people migrating to Australia is identified as dependent variable.

Independent Variable

Similarly, the identified independent variables in regards to our research are economic stability, employment opportunities, age, gender, education and citizenship.

Data Sources

As mentioned earlier, both primary and secondary data will be collected for the successful evaluation of this particular study. Thus, this research will use the already collected and existing secondary data from several different sources. However, an extensive analysis would be presented by interpreting the data related to migration, housing, employment, education, departure and arrival etc. collected and recorded by statistical departments such as Australian Bureau of Statistics and Statistics New Zealand.

Primary Mentor:

This research project will be carried out under the regular consultations and mentorship of Holmes Institute, Brisbane’s Capstone Project Unit’s Lecturer Mr. Sergeui Mikhailitchencko. In order to ensure that the research is conducted within a standard framework and ensure a proper collection and analysis of data, information and resources within a suitable research methodology, the mentorship from the Lecturer is deemed to be essential and significant.

Expected Outcome:

Upon considering the literature review, it is expected that the research on ‘Discovering an ongoing mobility trend and impact of New Zealanders migrating to Australia’ will provide evidence of the positive relationship between Australian economic opportunities and New Zealand migrants. On the other hand, it can be ascertained that other variables such as age, gender, work, education and citizenship are expected to directly impact on the migration decision and settlement of New Zealand migrants.

Gantt Chart:

The Gantt chart for this research proposal is given below:

                                                              Gantt Chart

Final Research Proposal: Discovering an Ongoing Mobility Trend and Impact of New Zealanders Migrating to Australia

      Activities

March

April

May

June

Choose Research Topic

Discussion & Research on topic

Methodology Decision

Write Initial Proposal

Submit Initial Proposal

Literatures’ research

Write Literature review

Finalise research process & data collections

Submit Final Proposal

          Figure 1: Gantt chart Research Proposal Activities

(Source: As created by the author)

Data analysis

Quantitative questions (for 70 migrants that shifted from New Zealand to Australia):

How long have you been staying in Australia?

Option

Frequency (in %)

Frequency

Total responses

Less than 2 months

34

24

70

2 months to 4 months

14

10

70

5 months to 9 months

9

6

70

10 months to 1 year

29

20

70

More than 1 year

14

10

70

Table 1: Total amount of time that the migrants from New Zealand is staying in Australia

Total amount of time that the migrants from New Zealand is staying in Australia

Figure 2: Total amount of time that the migrants from New Zealand is staying in Australia

Findings and analysis:

From the above analysis, the researcher has concluded that most of the migrants are very new in the Australian economy. Therefore, it will create a certain level of shock in the Australian economy. However, the study also highlighted that there is a fare share of people are present who are living for almost 1year in Australia. Therefore, it indicates that the Australia has the potential to cope up with the emerging migration trend from New Zealand to Australia.

How far do you agree that the current migration trend will create adverse impact on the Australian economy?

Options

Frequency (in %)

Frequency (in number)

Total responses

Strongly agree

29

20

70

Agree

17

12

70

Neutral

14

10

70

Disagree

29

20

70

Strongly disagree

11

8

70

Table 2: Current migration trend impact on the Australian economy

Current migration trend impact on the Australian economy

Figure 3: Current migration trend impact on the Australian economy

Findings and analysis:

The analysis highlighted that the responses of the respondents are not able to depict a clear trend. Since almost 30% of the respondents disagree with the fact that migration trend can have negative impact on the Australian economy. On the other hand, 29% of the people have strongly agreed that the migration trend can have huge amount of adverse impact on the Australian economy. Since, Australia will have to face additional pressure regarding the increasing population.  

How far do you think that the current migration trend will affect the cultural diversity of Australia?

Options

Frequency (in %)

Frequency (in number)

Total responses

Strongly agree

54

38

70

Agree

17

12

70

Neutral

3

2

70

Disagree

22

15

70

Strongly disagree

4

3

70

Table 3: Current migration trend affect on the cultural diversity of Australia

Current migration trend affect on the cultural diversity of Australia

Figure 4: Current migration trend affect on the cultural diversity of Australia

Finding and analysis:

In order to analyze the current migration trend and its impact on the cultural diversity of Australia, the researcher has implemented this question. Now the above analysis suggested that inclusion of migrants would create huge amount of impact on the Australian cultural diversity. The above analysis highlights that almost 54% of the respondents reflected that migrants would have impact on the cultural diversity. Therefore, Australia will have to be extremely careful regarding the current migration trends.

What types of issue that people of Australia will have to face due to the excessive migration from New Zealand to Australia?

Options

Frequency (in %)

Frequency (in number)

Total responses

Communication issue

36

25

70

Cultural issue

17

12

70

Economical issue

11

8

70

Social issue

29

20

70

Security issue

7

5

70

Table 4: Types of issue that Australia will have to face due to excessive migration

Types of issue that Australia will have to face due to excessive migration

Figure 5: Types of issue that Australia will have to face due to excessive migration

Findings and analysis:

The analysis focuses on the major issues that Australia might have to face due to the excessive migration from New Zealand to Australia. From the above analysis, it can be identified that 36% of the respondents have represented communication as the major issue that Australia will have to face regarding the emerging migration trends.  Since, migration reflects people from different culture lives in the same community. Thus, it is expected that local people will face difficulties in sharing their thoughts and believes. However, the analysis highlighted that social issue is also a major issue that Australia will have to consider in order to identify the prime issue.

What types of changes are needed to manage the current migration trend in Australia?

Options

Frequency (in %)

Frequency (in number)

Total responses

Limiting the number of migrants in the country

12

8

70

Provide proper shelter

41

29

70

Develop rule and regulations

19

13

70

Maintain privacy

7

5

70

Others

21

15

70

Table 5: Types of changes are needed to manage the current migration trend in Australia

Types of changes are needed to manage the current migration trend in Australia

Figure 6: Types of changes are needed to manage the current migration trend in Australia

Findings and analysis:

In this analysis, the focus will be on the kind of changes that Australia will have to enforce in order to handle the challenges of current migration trend. The above analysis highlights the change that Australia will have to make is providing proper shelter to the migrants. Since, providing proper shelter will help the migrants to adjust to the new economy in an effective way.

Conclusion

This research proposal proposes to study the ongoing mobility trend and impact of New Zealanders migrating to Australia and the comparative analysis of economic considerations, lifestyle benefits, culture, environment etc. are deemed significant for the research.  This research proposal also discussed the existing literature review on migration theories and further outlined the research questions, research methodology, data sources, Gantt chart and expected outcomes as well. Upon following the research methodologies and approaches, it is expected that relevant data and information would be collected and further analysed within timeframe.

References

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Riley, W., Hays, R.D., Kaplan, R.M. and Cella, D., 2014. Sources of comparability between probability sample estimates and nonprobability web samples estimates. In Proceedings of the 2013 Federal Committee on Statistical Methodology (FCSM) Research Conference.

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Yonjan, A. (2015). Final Research Proposal (assignment 3). Holmes Institute, Brisbane.

Yonjan, A. (2015). Initial Research Proposal (assignment 1). Holmes Institute, Brisbane.

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