Significance of the study
Discuss about the Cardiovascular Diseases of Hospitalization.
The proposal entails finding out the impact of cardiovascular diseases in older adults in Sydney, Australia. Deaths and cost associated expenses have been a significant problem to the cardiovascular community. The risk facts associated with the diseases are smoking, obesity, physical inactivity, poor diet and blood pressure. The research will be beneficial to the cardiovascular community because they will understand ways of reducing the impacts of cardiovascular diseases. The methods of data collection to be utilized are a review of books and journals, observation, interview, and questionnaires. The research will use descriptive analysis and tables to present the data.
The cardiovascular community in Sydney in Australia will benefit from the research. The city will clearly understand the effects of CVD on the individual as well as society.
Many deaths in Sydney Australia have occurred due to Cardiovascular Diseases (CVD). CVD is becoming burden such that a country has to budget for it. The expenses associated with the diseases are enormous both to the family and nation (Chow 2015, 1255). The burden is growing at a high rate than the ability the government of Sydney can combat it due to factors such as poor diet, diabetes, the obesity epidemic and high blood pressure. The effects directly affect the family members especially when a person who was the breadwinner dies (Sabatine et al 2017, 1713). The economy of the country is affected indirectly when the working group of people who were contributing to economic growth become sick or dies due to cardiovascular diseases.
The objective of the research proposal is examining the effects of cardiovascular diseases in old age in Sydney, Australia. Many old people in Sydney die of cardiovascular diseases, and both governmental and non-profit organization are spending a lot of money to curb the issue (Schmeltz 2015, 3). The CVD community faces a lot of challenges especially when suffers from a heart attack or stroke. Individuals are unable to do most of the activities on their own and need the assistance of the other people. People spend a lot of time taking care of their loved one who has suffered from CVD. The cost budget of the individual also rises because the patients receive only selective food. The study will be exploring the impact of these diseases on old people, their families and the general economy of the country. The study will also suggest some of the mitigation measures which can be put in place to reduce the impacts of the diseases. Prevention of CVD through adapting to recommendable lifestyle and changing the eating habits help to minimize the incident.
Risk factors of Cardiovascular Diseases
Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) is a situation that cause blocking or narrowing of the blood vessels leading to stroke, chest pain (angina) and heart attack (Boeddinghaus 2017, 1597). The condition can affect rhythm and valves of the heart muscles and cause heart diseases. Globally, cardiovascular disease is presenting a significant challenge to both young and old people. Low social economic group, those living in remote areas and poor are more likely to die due to cardiovascular diseases compared to other people. CVD is causing many deaths in Australia. A research which was done in 2016 revealed that 43,963 people die each year in Australia because cardiovascular diseases. Deaths according to research averaged 120 each day. The study showed that 29 percent of women and 28 percent men die yearly in Australia (Peters 2015, 36). One in six of the people in Australia suffer from cardiovascular disease which amounts to over 4.2 million people in Australia. There are risk factors which are associated with CVD such physical inactivity, obesity, and high blood pressure. People who have historical background of Cardiovascular Diseases and old age are at risk of suffering from cardiovascular disease s compared to young people. In Australia, Cardiovascular Diseases accounts for more than 15 percent of the total number of death burden (Li, Philip 2017, 35). A lot of money is spending to treat people who are suffering from cardiovascular diseases, and it has a significant impact on the economic status of a nation. If an individual was working, it becomes difficult to continue generating income from the same work after he or she suffers from CVD.
Moreover, most of the deaths which occur on daily basis are due to CVD and lose of people who are energetic and dependents to their families. The social and economic variables which may affect awareness of the CVD are employment, Job type and level of education. Women are at more risk of suffering from CVD due lack of exercise and the feeding habits after during breastfeeding period. There are many programs which have been initiated to help the CVD community and educate people about the risk factors (Colditz 2016, 1540). The programs are based on both non-profit organization and governmental organization. Lifestyle habits are exposing people to risk factors of cardiovascular diseases. The programs are aiming at creating steps which can minimize the disorders through weight management, healthy eating, food supplements and physical activities (Rabar 2014, 349). When an individual have one risk factor, the chance of developing CVD related disease are high. Lifestyle changes can lead to much improvement and reduce the chances of getting the disease.
Economic Burden of Cardiovascular Diseases
The study is significance because it will create awareness to people living in Sydney and other locations on the effects linked to cardiovascular diseases. Most of the causes of the diseases are related to the lifestyle of individual and eating habits. Historical background of the people who suffered from CVD can also expose the family lineage to risk conditions (Yusuf 2016, 2021). The society will understand why it is important to eliminate any risk of CVD. The local communities in collaboration to other organizations will look for ways that can prevent and control the diseases. Old age being a risk factor, the people who are above 50 years will have a daily routine for taking physical exercise after the research has been implemented. Physical exercise will help burning the excess cholesterol in the body which will consequently lead to weight reduction. The research will make people aware of the diseases, risk factors associated with it and the prevention mechanisms which can be put in place. The study will have come up with strategies that can be used to people who are already suffering from the diseases. It is clear most of the individuals are affected by the impact of the cardiovascular diseases especially when one of their relative is sick. The people have to spend time with their sick relative and in cases of stroke there must be someone to continue providing care. Most of these old people do not know the doses they should take and the prescription of the doctors (Bibbins 2016, 386). Their relative have to continually ensure that they take the doses according and all medical prescription are adhering to. The community will understand how to take care of their patients and ways of minimize the effects of the diseases. The study will encourage people to do research on the emergencies and precautions that should be taken in case it occur. Sometimes the can faint due to heart attack and the individual close to him or her may not understand what to do. The research will familiarize the community with response mechanism due cardiovascular diseases.
There is a relationship between the type of diet people take, the kind of lifestyles people are living and the number of deaths taking place as a result of cardiovascular (Townsend 2015, 2696). Early detection and diagnosis of the diseases reduce the adverse effects such as many fatalities and reduction of the number expenses. A relationship between the poor, those living in remote areas and occurrence of the deaths due to cardiovascular diseases will also be assessed. The low-class people are likely to die due to cardiovascular diseases due to inaccessibility to services required. The risk factors are highly associated with sedentary lifestyle, obesity, and physical inactivity. The older adults are also at risk because of their age. Some of the human behaviors are contributing to the occurrence of the diseases. Adherence to medication prescription, taking the required diet after diagnosis and other prevention measures depends on the level of awareness and education provided. Training and instruction reduce the occurrence of the diseases because people are already informed of what they are expected to do.
The study will utilize both secondary and primary sources. Some of the secondary sources that will be used include articles and books while primary sources are observation, interview, questionnaires and survey (Nichols 2014, 2950). In the secondary source, the data will be collected through reviewing written books and articles to gather data on statistics of people who die as a result of cardiovascular diseases each year in Sydney. The study will also review data on reports on how old people are more affected by CVD and the impacts of the disorders on the whole population of Australia. Primary sources will entail an active interaction between the community of CVD and the researcher (Yusuf 2016, 2032). The interview will be conducted with doctors working under the department of cardiovascular diseases in various locations of Sydney. Some of the hospitals where the data regarding medical prescription will be collected are St Vincent’s Public Hospital, Sydney Adventist Hospital, and Central Sydney Cardiology. It will be face to face interview with the doctors that will discuss the challenges old patient face after the prescription of the medications. The meeting will also involve ways which doctors can suggest to help people who are already suffering from cardiovascular diseases. A group discussion will also assist in the collection of data where both nurses and doctors from other departments will give their views on prevention mechanism for the diseases.
Similarly, questionnaires will be used to collect information on the family and historical background of the old people suffering from cardiovascular diseases. The kind of lifestyle they have been living and the type of job they were doing before their retirement period. The data will be collected on the current activities which the people who have been diagnosed with the diseases and their health conditions before and after medications. Some of the people after retirement they engage in volunteer activities to make them active while others may continue with operating businesses (Lonn et al 2016, 374). The study will gather data on the response mechanisms of the medications. Furthermore, observation will be carried out on the physical signs and symptoms of the cardiovascular diseases. Some of the patients have a sudden heart attack that makes them unconscious for quite sometimes. Those who are suffering from a stroke are unable to do most of the activities on their own, and they need assistance from other people (Sabatine 2017, 1720). The study will focus on how the relatives and close friends are impacted by CVD and the actions they take to treat it. Additionally, descriptive analysis and tables will be used for data analysis and presentation respectively
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