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Child brain learning methods

Discuss about the Child and Adolescent Development.

The child brain comprises of a number of influential and powerful learning methods at its disposal, even prior to their birth. Infants and young children gain understanding of mechanism causality from perceptual knowledge. Perceptions or thoughts organizes itself considerably around a fundamental framework further representing the array of cohesive, well-established, three-dimensional factors which are further rooted in the range of mechanical associations such as shoving, blocking and sustain (Guilleminault et al., 2013). Factors related to action is regarded as significant to the development of descriptive framework when the child develops competence to influence varied causes and further evaluate the impacts and learning takes place. Children can be manipulated y determining the stimuli along with the related responses whereby the smaller attainable challenges aim to instil buoyancy into the minds of a developing child in order to achieve the performance and further progress to an improved cognitive growth and development during the stages of early childhood (Marcus et al., 2013). Several observations derived from biological and behavioural sciences substantiate that inherited capabilities and potential interacts with experiences since birth through the phases of the whole childhood development procedures and cognitive growth and development has no exceptions. The paper aims to cast light on a study whereby a child is undergoing challenges in her school because of the lack of comprehending the lessons delivered to her in class, and often fall asleep thus leading to incomplete class activities and lower level of social development among her peers. However, these situations can be associated with certain psychological factors related to the child’s cognitive and memory development and resulting to her social and emotional well-being.

Impact of Paediatric Sleep Disordered Breathing and Lethargy

Kyla, an eight years old child as stated in the case study has been experiencing certain crucial challenges which have been further causing her to lead an exigent life at a very early age. It has been identified from the given case study that Kyla has been showing tendencies of sleepiness and lethargy while attending her classes and further leading to certain problems of being unable to pay adequate attention in class. This disorder can thus be related to paediatric sleep disordered breathing whereby children experience restless sleep and paradoxical breathing symptoms (Biggs et al., 2015). As a consequence, children undergo daytime indications which further include lack of attentiveness, difficulties in concentrating on things along with extreme level of daytime sleepiness (EDS).  Another factor related to Obstructive Sleep Apnoea (OSA) can further be related to these issues associated with inadequate sleep at nights which is characterised by the persistent events of upper-airway obstacle and difficulty during sleep that causes frequent arousals in between sound sleep and interruption of regular ventilation system. It has further been noted that a wide range of potentially impenetrable aspects further elevates the levels of risks of cognitive dysfunction among young children with the extensive severity of OSA (Turnbull, Reid & Morton, 2013). The executive execution and implementation that includes the mental processes by further facilitating children to execute, concentrate, and memorize lessons and instructions in an effective manner. These executive operations as well as self-determining competences are reliant on the functioning memory, cognitive flexibility as well as self-control. The concept of working memory further necessitates temporary deficiency of knowledge and information and the competence to precisely influence the information (Fristad & MacPherson, 2014). For instance, Kyla has been attending her classes on a regular basis but has been revealing difficulties and challenges while comprehending the class lessons to her teacher and parents when being asked. Kyla often reveal indications of her challenges in memorizing the chapters taught in class as well as the steps of her arithmetic lessons. However, working memory has been found to draw a parallel with certain rational and intellectual functions in an improved way in comparison to short-term memory (Zwaigenbaum et al., 2015).

Challenges faced by Kyla

Impact of Sleep Disordered Breathing in Children resulting to Poor Academic Performance

Verbal functioning memory mutilations has further been related to symptoms of OSA and may further negotiate young children’s understanding or learning abilities and neurocogntive advancement. Certain investigations have observed that there has been drastically declined level of performance on the memory assessments, executive functioning as well as the general development and intelligence in children of 5-8 years of age with critical symptoms of SDB in comparison to the asymptomatic children (Owens & Adolescent Sleep Working Group ,2014). However, other observations have revealed evidences of lower level of general brainpower, language along with visual-spatial abilities in the consistently sleepiness and snoring of children. Kyla has been demonstrating similar traits in her class thereby unable to show interest to class lessons and most significantly to her classmates (Turnbull, Reid & Morton, 2013). Furthermore, there have been certain other observations based on the functioning memory as well as essential concentration and attentiveness tasks were assessed in children aged 8-12 years suffering from OSA and has been contrasted to the complementary healthy determinant functioning (Hunter et al., 2016). It is significant to note that there has been very less reliability and stability related to the association between OSA severity and remembrance performance in children. However, certain observations demonstrated the performance and functioning level of memory based on the regular psychometric evaluation in children suffering from OSA disorders has been extensively weakened in comparison to the health regulations comprising increased level of respiratory disorder and interruption indices further correlating with increased rate of memory shortages (Guilleminault et al., 2013). Drawing connection to the given case study, it has further been revealed that several schools issues have been reported in the multiple-case series of children suffering from OSA and disclose excessive behavioural disorders, interruptions such as lethargy, restlessness, extensive daytime sleepiness as well as low level test performances (Shochat et al., 2014).

Treatments to lessen the rate of disorders among children with OSA symptoms

However, specific therapeutic measures and treatments in children’s social well-being and behavioural developments have revealed improvements in the memory deficits and shortages. It is important to note that, certain treatment options of Sleep Disordered Breathing incorporate critical involvements with the removal of hypertrophic adenoids and tonsils in children which is further being recognized the frequently executed treatment procedures along without any surgical interventions such as positive airway pressure therapeutic measures like CPAP and anti-inflammatory entities (McEvoy et al., 2016).

Sleep Disordered Breathing (SDB) related to cognitive dysfunction

Impact of Cognitive Issues in Working Memory

Several psychologists have emphasized on certain crucial impact which had taken place in order to associate working memory deficit or short-term memory, but had been unable to congregate this disorder to a single component. With the progress of a broad range of authorized measures of the primary factors of working memory, theorists have provided enhanced knowledge of the working memory reports linked with various kinds of nonconforming or unusual growth and advancements (Galland et al., 2015). Studies have demonstrated that children with working memory deficit have been incompetent to achieve considerable marks and having low level reading and analytical competencies. Similar findings have been gathered from the tests and experiences Kyla has been undergoing, whereby her teacher, class mates as well as family have been sharing evidences of her lethargic and indifferent behavioural patterns in class and further revealing no interests of enthusiastic characteristics which the other children of her class have been showing (McCarter et al., 2013). Certain observations have stated that children in recent times, from 7-10 years have been showing such characteristics thus leading them to lack of working memory, excessive sleepiness. Low level working memory competencies are often been regarded as the fundamental causes of learning difficulties, inability to comprehend knowledge and showing weariness, exhaustion and furthermore the lack of inclination to develop peer relations (McEvoy et al., 2016). Children suffering from such challenges have been struggling on the process of learning activities which have further been placing extensive pressure on their working memory. Some distinguished instances of incompetence are associated with the inabilities of children in remembering lengthy lessons or numbers and thus resulting into the growing rate of disinterest and apathy (Melby-Lervåg & Hulme, 2013). It is important to note that the other working memory concerns have been related to certain unusual growth whereby children with Specific Language Impairment reveal inability to develop language at the usual rate in the absence of any essential cognitive, sensory or physical shortages. It has further been noted that utilizing attention and concentration in order to refresh knowledge and information have been linked to the extent to which young children about 5-8 years of age or younger, demonstrate very less possibilities of using attention in order to revive or restore the items taught in class (Friso-van den Bos et al., 2013). Children usually restrict their performance level on the basis of the time of their retention level.

Working memory and SDB

Association of Working Memory and Cognitive Functioning in Children

Similar to the level of contributions of working memory to the attainment as well as functioning of language, cognitive development also significantly contributes to the acquisition as well as functioning of language. The development of cognition primarily engages brain functioning through the process of thoughts and perceptions which is further be signified as the process of information functioning. However, there have been very less investigation on the functioning of cognition in children which may further be relied to the rate of cognitive manipulation and general intelligence as well as the cognitive abilities (De Weerdt, Desoete & Roeyers, 2013). One significant lack of evidence present in previous observations of the role of working memory and level of intelligence among children is that tasks are utilized to operationalize the two primary constructs which are considered as considerably identical. However, few studies in recent time have demonstrated the implementation of recently established working memory test battery which intends to reduce the overlapping tendencies with the intelligence evaluation performances of similar categories in association (McCarter et al., 2013). Furthermore, while the intelligence assessment tests are considered to be distant from the principles and ideals, they sustain to remain at the most effective instrument equipment for revealing the level of cognitive performance and functioning of children. Recent observations conducted by several Australian psychologists demonstrate that the concise evaluations of cognition are often utilized in order to provide rapid measurable factors of intelligence, brainpower and further to evaluate the inabilities or lack of attention towards learning, with other developmental disabilities along with neuropsychological concerns (Turnbull, Reid & Morton, 2013). However, deriving instances from the case study of Kyla, it can be argued that concise cognitive evaluations comprises of high importance and connection for children specifically to medical cases. Recent investigations recommend that concept related to working memory might pose certain potentialities which would affect the cognitive functioning. Baddeley’s model of working memory has argued that the functioning of working memory comprises of various components. Furthermore, one of the essential factors proposed by Baddeley is known as the phonological loop’ whereby auditory or verbal information can either be sustained or rehearsed (Guilleminault et al., 2013). However, recent studies have revealed that the factors related to working memory regarded as phonological loop tends to serve to the levels of functioning of cognition in young children. It is further to be noted that such associations may be signifying to the characteristics of cognitive function evaluation whereby the assessments and evaluation can be monitored through verbal communication and would need children to use verbal information.

Working memory deficits and learning difficulties

Conclusion

However, it can be demonstrated that specific factors related to the functioning of child brain has high degree of engagement with cognitive functioning, further incorporating the understanding of general intelligence and information, perception abilities along with the influence of knowledge and information which necessitates a child to develop an improved working memory as well as explicitly reasonable phonological loop competence. Furthermore, it would further emerge that any evaluation of cognitive functioning has been administered to children, whereby the primary psychological assessment may further necessitate incorporating an analysis of working memory such as the test battery. The report has explicitly evaluated the way working memory and Sleep Disordered Breathing has posed extensive challenges towards children suffering from such disorders and further affecting the level of social and emotional well-being of children. For most of the young children, this age has been regarded has a critical stage of positive development and progress, however for few such as Kyla, face rate of declining level of motivation and encouragement, emotional well-being along with the involvement with schools and the established activity programs.

References

Biggs, S. N., Walter, L. M., Jackman, A. R., Nisbet, L. C., Weichard, A. J., Hollis, S. L., ... & Horne, R. S. (2015). Long-term cognitive and behavioral outcomes following resolution of sleep disordered breathing in preschool children. PLoS One, 10(9), e0139142.

De Weerdt, F., Desoete, A., & Roeyers, H. (2013). Working memory in children with reading disabilities and/or mathematical disabilities. Journal of learning disabilities, 46(5), 461-472.

Friso-van den Bos, I., van der Ven, S. H., Kroesbergen, E. H., & van Luit, J. E. (2013). Working memory and mathematics in primary school children: A meta-analysis. Educational research review, 10, 29-44.

Fristad, M. A., & MacPherson, H. A. (2014). Evidence-based psychosocial treatments for child and adolescent bipolar spectrum disorders. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 43(3), 339-355.

Galland, B., Spruyt, K., Dawes, P., McDowall, P. S., Elder, D., & Schaughency, E. (2015). Sleep disordered breathing and academic performance: a meta-analysis. Pediatrics, 136(4), e934-e946.

Guilleminault, C., Huang, Y. S., Monteyrol, P. J., Sato, R., Quo, S., & Lin, C. H. (2013). Critical role of myofascial reeducation in pediatric sleep-disordered breathing. Sleep medicine, 14(6), 518-525.

Guilleminault, C., Huang, Y. S., Monteyrol, P. J., Sato, R., Quo, S., & Lin, C. H. (2013). Critical role of myofascial reeducation in pediatric sleep-disordered breathing. Sleep medicine, 14(6), 518-525.

Hunter, S. J., Gozal, D., Smith, D. L., Philby, M. F., Kaylegian, J., & Kheirandish-Gozal, L. (2016). Effect of sleep-disordered breathing severity on cognitive performance measures in a large community cohort of young school-aged children. American journal of respiratory and critical care medicine, 194(6), 739-747.

Marcus, C. L., Moore, R. H., Rosen, C. L., Giordani, B., Garetz, S. L., Taylor, H. G., ... & Paruthi, S. (2013). A randomized trial of adenotonsillectomy for childhood sleep apnea. New England Journal of Medicine, 368(25), 2366-2376.

McCarter, S. J., Boswell, C. L., Louis, E. K. S., Dueffert, L. G., Slocumb, N., Boeve, B. F., ... & Tippmann-Peikert, M. (2013). Treatment outcomes in REM sleep behavior disorder. Sleep medicine, 14(3), 237-242.

McEvoy, R. D., Antic, N. A., Heeley, E., Luo, Y., Ou, Q., Zhang, X., ... & Chen, G. (2016). CPAP for prevention of cardiovascular events in obstructive sleep apnea. New England Journal of Medicine, 375(10), 919-931.

Melby-Lervåg, M., & Hulme, C. (2013). Is working memory training effective? A meta-analytic review. Developmental psychology, 49(2), 270.

Owens, J., & Adolescent Sleep Working Group. (2014). Insufficient sleep in adolescents and young adults: an update on causes and consequences. Pediatrics, 134(3), e921-e932.

Shochat, T., Cohen-Zion, M., & Tzischinsky, O. (2014). Functional consequences of inadequate sleep in adolescents: a systematic review. Sleep medicine reviews, 18(1), 75-87.

Turnbull, K., Reid, G. J., & Morton, J. B. (2013). Behavioral sleep problems and their potential impact on developing executive function in children. Sleep, 36(7), 1077-1084.

Zwaigenbaum, L., Bauman, M. L., Choueiri, R., Kasari, C., Carter, A., Granpeesheh, D., ... & Pierce, K. (2015). Early intervention for children with autism spectrum disorder under 3 years of age: recommendations for practice and research. Pediatrics, 136(Supplement 1), S60-S81.

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