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Q1. Three different soils are placed at the front table. In Table 1, identify the soils and provide appropriate names for the soils based on the mass and material characteristics.

Table 1
Soil number Mass characteristics Material characteristics Complete name
1
2
3

Q2. The following information (Table 2) was obtained from particle size analysis carried out on dry material of having an initial mass of 750g. By calculating the percentage of material passing, plot the particle size distribution on Figure 1.

Soil number

Mass characteristics

Material characteristics

Complete name

1

Soil material

Color

Organic soils

2

Color

Shape

Boulders

3

Consistency

Texture

Fine soils

Identification of Soil based on Mass and Material Characteristics

Q 2

Size mm

Material retained g

Percentage retained %

Percentage passing %

37.500

0

0

100

28.000

37

5.27

94.73

20.000

24

3.42

91.31

14.000

73

10.40

80.91

10.000

9

1.28

79.63

6.300

108

15.38

64.25

5.000

41

5.84

58.41

3.350

80

11.4

47.01

2.000

60

8.55

38.46

1.180

97

13.82

24.64

0.600

66

9.40

15.24

0.425

29

4.13

11.11

0.300

23

3.28

7.83

0.212

21

2.99

4.84

0.150

17

2.42

2.42

0.063

17

2.42

2.42

D10 = 0.75

D30 = 2.25

D60 = 6.1

Cu = 6.1/0.75 = 8.133

CG = 2.252/ (0.75x 6.1) = 1.1066

The soil is therefore well graded since Cu is greater than 5 and CG is between 0.5 and 2.0, which is 1.1

The liquid limit  is taken at 20mm penetration which is 68.5%

Using the chart, the soil will be classified to have high plasticity, CL

Q 5

Bulk density

The bulk density will be (Gs+ Sr * e)/ (1+e) ?w

=  (2.70 + 0.82* 0.738)/(1+0.738) * 1000

= 3.30516/1.738 *1000

= 1901.70 kg/m3

Water content

Sr = mGs/e

0.82= m*2.70/0.738

M = (0.82*0.738)/2.70

M= water content= 0.22413 

Q 7

The stress in each soil is given by the formula ρgz

Where  ρ is the unit weight of the soil

g is the gravitational pull

z height of the soil

The following stresses are available when the water table is 3 meters below the surface of the soil

Stress on 3m of sand above water table

ρgz  = 17*9.81*3 = 500.31 N/m2

stress on 2m of sand below water table

ρgz = 21*9.81*2 = 412.02 N/m2

stress as a result of saturated clay

ρgz = 19*9.81*9 = 1677.51 N/m2

stress as a result of saturated sand

ρgz = 21*9.81*5 = 1030.05 N/m2

pore pressure

ρwgz = 1000*9.81*16 = 156,960 N/m2

total stresses = 160579.89 N/m2

Immediately after the rise of water table, the sand on 3m from the top will not be saturated. Nevertheless, the pore pressure will increase.

Stress on 3m of sand above water table

ρgz  = 17*9.81*3 = 500.31 N/m2

stress on 2m of sand below water table

ρgz = 21*9.81*2 = 412.02 N/m2

stress as a result of saturated clay

ρgz = 19*9.81*9 = 1677.51 N/m2

stress as a result of saturated sand

ρgz = 21*9.81*5 = 1030.05 N/m2

pore pressure

ρwgz = 1000*9.81*19 = 186,390 N/m2

total stresses = 190,009.89 N/m2

Q 1

Soil number

Mass characteristics

Material characteristics

Complete name

1

Soil material

Color

Organic soils

2

Color

Shape

Boulders

3

Consistency

Texture

Fine soils

Q 2

Size mm

Material retained g

Percentage retained %

Percentage passing %

37.500

0

0

100

28.000

37

5.27

94.73

20.000

24

3.42

91.31

14.000

73

10.40

80.91

10.000

9

1.28

79.63

6.300

108

15.38

64.25

5.000

41

5.84

58.41

3.350

80

11.4

47.01

2.000

60

8.55

38.46

1.180

97

13.82

24.64

0.600

66

9.40

15.24

0.425

29

4.13

11.11

0.300

23

3.28

7.83

0.212

21

2.99

4.84

0.150

17

2.42

2.42

0.063

17

2.42

2.42

Q 3

D10 = 0.75

D30 = 2.25

D60 = 6.1

Cu = 6.1/0.75 = 8.133

CG = 2.252/ (0.75x 6.1) = 1.1066

The soil is therefore well graded since Cu is greater than 5 and CG is between 0.5 and 2.0, which is 1.1

The liquid limit  is taken at 20mm penetration which is 68.5%

Using the chart, the soil will be classified to have high plasticity, CL

Q 5

Bulk density

The bulk density will be (Gs+ Sr * e)/ (1+e) ?w

=  (2.70 + 0.82* 0.738)/(1+0.738) * 1000

= 3.30516/1.738 *1000

= 1901.70 kg/m3

Water content

Sr = mGs/e

0.82= m*2.70/0.738

M = (0.82*0.738)/2.70

M= water content= 0.22413

The stress in each soil is given by the formula ρgz

Where  ρ is the unit weight of the soil

g is the gravitational pull

z height of the soil

The following stresses are available when the water table is 3 meters below the surface of the soil

Stress on 3m of sand above water table

ρgz  = 17*9.81*3 = 500.31 N/m2

stress on 2m of sand below water table

ρgz = 21*9.81*2 = 412.02 N/m2

Particle Size Distribution Analysis and Results

stress as a result of saturated clay

ρgz = 19*9.81*9 = 1677.51 N/m2

stress as a result of saturated sand

ρgz = 21*9.81*5 = 1030.05 N/m2

pore pressure

ρwgz = 1000*9.81*16 = 156,960 N/m2

total stresses = 160579.89 N/m2

Immediately after the rise of water table, the sand on 3m from the top will not be saturated. Nevertheless, the pore pressure will increase.

Stress on 3m of sand above water table

ρgz  = 17*9.81*3 = 500.31 N/m2

stress on 2m of sand below water table

ρgz = 21*9.81*2 = 412.02 N/m2

stress as a result of saturated clay

ρgz = 19*9.81*9 = 1677.51 N/m2

stress as a result of saturated sand

ρgz = 21*9.81*5 = 1030.05 N/m2

pore pressure

ρwgz = 1000*9.81*19 = 186,390 N/m2

total stresses = 190,009.89 N/m2

after several years f the rise of water table, the pore pressure will increase and the whole sand at the top will be saturated

Stress on 5m of saturated sand layer

ρgz  = 21*9.81*5 = 1030.05 N/m2

stress as a result of saturated clay

ρgz = 19*9.81*9 = 1677.51 N/m2

stress as a result of saturated sand

ρgz = 21*9.81*5 = 1030.05 N/m2

pore pressure

ρwgz = 1000*9.81*19 = 186,390 N/m2

total stresses = 190,127.61 N/m2

Q 1

Soil number

Mass characteristics

Material characteristics

Complete name

1

Soil material

Color

Organic soils

2

Color

Shape

Boulders

3

Consistency

Texture

Fine soils

Q 2

Size mm

Material retained g

Percentage retained %

Percentage passing %

37.500

0

0

100

28.000

37

5.27

94.73

20.000

24

3.42

91.31

14.000

73

10.40

80.91

10.000

9

1.28

79.63

6.300

108

15.38

64.25

5.000

41

5.84

58.41

3.350

80

11.4

47.01

2.000

60

8.55

38.46

1.180

97

13.82

24.64

0.600

66

9.40

15.24

0.425

29

4.13

11.11

0.300

23

3.28

7.83

0.212

21

2.99

4.84

0.150

17

2.42

2.42

0.063

17

2.42

2.42

Q 3 

D10 = 0.75

D30 = 2.25

D60 = 6.1

Cu = 6.1/0.75 = 8.133

CG = 2.252/ (0.75x 6.1) = 1.1066

The soil is therefore well graded since Cu is greater than 5 and CG is between 0.5 and 2.0, which is 1.1

The liquid limit  is taken at 20mm penetration which is 68.5%

Using the chart, the soil will be classified to have high plasticity, CL

Q 5

Bulk density

The bulk density will be (Gs+ Sr * e)/ (1+e) ?w

=  (2.70 + 0.82* 0.738)/(1+0.738) * 1000

= 3.30516/1.738 *1000

= 1901.70 kg/m3

Water content

Sr = mGs/e

0.82= m*2.70/0.738

M = (0.82*0.738)/2.70

M= water content= 0.22413

The stress in each soil is given by the formula ρgz

Where  ρ is the unit weight of the soil

g is the gravitational pull

z height of the soil

The following stresses are available when the water table is 3 meters below the surface of the soil

Stress on 3m of sand above water table

ρgz  = 17*9.81*3 = 500.31 N/m2

stress on 2m of sand below water table

ρgz = 21*9.81*2 = 412.02 N/m2

stress as a result of saturated clay

ρgz = 19*9.81*9 = 1677.51 N/m2

stress as a result of saturated sand

ρgz = 21*9.81*5 = 1030.05 N/m2

pore pressure

ρwgz = 1000*9.81*16 = 156,960 N/m2

total stresses = 160579.89 N/m2

Immediately after the rise of water table, the sand on 3m from the top will not be saturated. Nevertheless, the pore pressure will increase.

Stress on 3m of sand above water table

ρgz  = 17*9.81*3 = 500.31 N/m2

stress on 2m of sand below water table

ρgz = 21*9.81*2 = 412.02 N/m2

stress as a result of saturated clay

ρgz = 19*9.81*9 = 1677.51 N/m2

stress as a result of saturated sand

ρgz = 21*9.81*5 = 1030.05 N/m2

Plasticity and Bulk Density Analysis

pore pressure

ρwgz = 1000*9.81*19 = 186,390 N/m2

total stresses = 190,009.89 N/m2

after several years f the rise of water table, the pore pressure will increase and the whole sand at the top will be saturated

Stress on 5m of saturated sand layer

ρgz  = 21*9.81*5 = 1030.05 N/m2

stress as a result of saturated clay

ρgz = 19*9.81*9 = 1677.51 N/m2

stress as a result of saturated sand

ρgz = 21*9.81*5 = 1030.05 N/m2

pore pressure

ρwgz = 1000*9.81*19 = 186,390 N/m2

total stresses = 190,127.61 N/m2

Flow and equiptential lines

There are 17 equiptential lines are market with 0, 1, 2, 3,4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15 and 16

There are 5 flow lines are running perpendicular to equiptential lines and are marked with numbers 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4.

Total head in upstream and downstream

Total head upstream h, = water head + head from the datum

= 12+17

= 29m

Total head downstream = total head upstream – head loss

= 29 – 12+ 1

   = 18m

Seepage per m width

Using the flow nets to calculate the seepage,

q = (m/n)KH     [L2T-1]

where:

q = seepage per unit width

m= number of flow channels

n= number of equipotential drops

h = total head loss in flow system

K = hydraulic conductivity  

q = (4/16)5 x10-6 *11

    = 1.375 x10-5 m/s per meter width

Pore pressure at point E

Pore pressure at point E = Hp)E * ρw

Pressure head at point e = pressure head at E + elevation head at E

Elevation head of E = 15.5m from the datum

The elevation head of E = total head – elevation head of E

Total head at point E= total head at upstream head – head loss at point E

(12+17- head loss at E)

Head lose at E = number of equipotential drops * H/Nd

Total head at E = {(12+17)- 11 *11/17}

= 29 -7.12= 21.88m

Pressure head at E = total heat at E – elevation head at E

     = 21.88 – 15.5 = 6.38m

Pore pressure at E = pressure head at E * unit weight of water

= 6.38 * 9.807

= 62.56866 Kn/m2

Purpose of cut-off wall

The cut-off in gravity dams helps to prevent piping, reduce the exit gradient and also reduce the amount of seepage under hydraulic structures.

Q 17

a.

t= = radius of the circle

= center of the circle 

Test

Cone pressure

Peak deviator stress

s

t

1

300

185

242.5

57.5

2

450

290

370

80

3

700

520

610

90

a’= c’cos?

a’ = 28

tanα can be found from the slope of the graph

taking a graph of t-s

the slope will be (90-80)/ (610-520) = 0.11111

since tanα =sin?

we find arcsin of 0.11111 to find

? = 6.4o

the value of c =a’/cos6.4

= 28/cos6.4

C’ = 28.18 

b.

Test

Cone pressure

Ultimate deviator stress

s

t

1

300

210

255

45

2

450

235

342.5

107.5

3

700

310

505

195

a’= c’cos?

a’ = 140

tanα can be found from the slope of the graph

taking a graph of t-s

the slope will be (195-45)/ (505-255) = 0.6

since tanα =sin?

we find arcsin of 0.6 to find

? = 36.9o

the value of c =a’/cos36.9

= 140/cos36.9

C’ = 175.07

Cohesion depends on the amount of pressure exerted, therefore impossible little or no pressure will lead to near zero cohesion in ultimate state.

c.

pore water pressure parameter A

for test 1 the value of parameter A =

change in pore pressure = B* change in cone pressure

210-200 = B* 185-145

=B = 10/40 = 0.25

Change in deviator stress – BA (change in cone pressure)

185-145 = BA* (185-145)

40 = 0.25A*40

A = 4

for test 2 the value of parameter A =

change in pore pressure = B* change in cone pressure

250-235 = B* 290-285

=B = 15/5 = 5

Change in deviator stress – BA (change in cone pressure)

290-285 = BA* (290-285)

5 = 5A*5

A = 5

for test 3 the value of parameter A =

change in pore pressure = B* change in cone pressure

315-310 = B* 520-485

=B = 5/35 = 0.143

Change in deviator stress – BA (change in cone pressure)

520-485 = BA* (520-485)

5 = 0.143A*35

A = 1

The value of A is dependent on different types of soils. That is the main reason for the different changes with some values less than 1 while others are above 1.

d.

for effective design of a retaining structure using this material, I will highly concentrate on the cohesion and frictional angle. The angle is high meaning the failure of the structure will be high. The cohesion factor will help to increase the resistance against failure for the structure.

Cite This Work

To export a reference to this article please select a referencing stye below:

My Assignment Help. (2020). Soil Analysis And Characteristics. Retrieved from https://myassignmenthelp.com/free-samples/civ2017-bulk-density-for-the-pore-pressure-and-total-pressure.

My Assignment Help (2020) Soil Analysis And Characteristics [Online]. Available from: https://myassignmenthelp.com/free-samples/civ2017-bulk-density-for-the-pore-pressure-and-total-pressure
[Accessed 23 July 2024].

My Assignment Help. 'Soil Analysis And Characteristics' (My Assignment Help, 2020) <https://myassignmenthelp.com/free-samples/civ2017-bulk-density-for-the-pore-pressure-and-total-pressure> accessed 23 July 2024.

My Assignment Help. Soil Analysis And Characteristics [Internet]. My Assignment Help. 2020 [cited 23 July 2024]. Available from: https://myassignmenthelp.com/free-samples/civ2017-bulk-density-for-the-pore-pressure-and-total-pressure.

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