Discuss About The Cognitive Perspectives Learning Rutledge?
Peer learning indicates students teaching or learning from other fellow students. Peer learning is not a new concept in education it involves a broad range of activities. accounting to the researchers of University of Ulster there are ten models of peer learning, with the oldest one being the Proctor Model in which the junior students are taught by the senior students. The innovative current form of peer to peer learning include innovative learning cells where students from same year form groups to study together and also share personal problems. The other models of peer learning include discussion groups, self-help groups, private study, seminars, peer assessment, mentoring at workplace, and various community services. This report is going to focus on the fact that how peer to peer learning can make the students independent learners. The following paragraphs will talk about peer to peer learning and how it can benefit the students and the ways through it will make the students independent.
Peer learning is not at all a new concept, throughout the history peer earning has been encouraged, it can be seen in Aristotle’s idea of Archons or the student leaders and in the letters of “Seneca the Younger” (Brown 2015). The theory was first organized by Andrew Bell, who was a Scotsman in the year 1795 and later this organized theory was implemented in the French and English schools. Over a period of time peer learning methods has become popular and the educational institutions has taken interest in finding better and more efficient methods of teaching (Boud, Cohen and Sampson 2014). Peer learning is different than peer instruction, which is a relatively recent concept, while peer teaching or learning means that one student will teach another student or they will both learn together by sharing their respective knowledge.
According to Goodlad and Hurst there are several peer learning methods at college level. In reputed universities, surrogate teaching is a common method of peer learning, in this method the older experienced students teach the younger students or take responsibilities to mentor some of the undergraduates. Students who are ahead in studies than their batch-mates or have recently have done quite well in their academic front they participate in one to one tutoring programs or proctoring programs (Chiu and Hew 2017). In cooperative learning method, classmates divide themselves into small groups and everyone in each of the groups take responsibility to teach others, each of the members contribute something unique in the group. There is another type of peer learning in which is more specific in nature in terms of co-operative learning; in this process, the entire class is divided into pairs where both of them tutor each other it is called Reciprocal peer tutoring (Kulkarni et al. 2015). According to research, peer learning encourage spirit of team building and students learn to become supportive; improves psychological health, increases social skills, communication skills and self- confidence; and ensures higher chances of achievement and enhances productivity through advanced learning outcomes.
Peer learning becomes advanced when solidified as an irreplaceable piece of an instructive projects, giving watchful thought to influence a good figuring out how to condition. Understudies must frame shared respect for and trust and trust in each other, with the objective that they don't falter to express suppositions, test contemplations, and demand, or offer help when it is required (Kupczynski et al. 2014). Companion learning can be also enhanced if nature of shared help continues after some time and past the classroom. In this way, understudies are independently and overall in charge of streamlining their own particular learning and achievements.
There are several benefits of peer learning, they are as follows:
There are certain disadvantages of peer learning as well:
To conclude it can be said that peer learning is very important for the students to learn to work with one another grow their communication skills and to learn how to work as an independent individual. Peer learning makes one learn with the help of their fellow mates through exchange of knowledge and discussions. Learning to be an independent person is the most essential part of growing up thus peer learning should be encouraged in order to make a person a complete individual completely capable of making their own choice and learn from others, choose their own dreams and one who knows how to achieve those goals.
Boud, D., Cohen, R. and Sampson, J. eds., 2014. Peer learning in higher education: Learning from and with each other. Routledge.
Brown, G., 2015, October. Self and peer assessment. In Assessment & Grading Seminar Series.
Chiu, K.F. and Hew, K.F.T., 2017. Asynchronous online discussion forum in MOOCs: Does operating matter for peer learning and performance?. Australasian Journal of Educational Technology.
Kulkarni, C., Wei, K.P., Le, H., Chia, D., Papadopoulos, K., Cheng, J., Koller, D. and Klemmer, S.R., 2015. Peer and self assessment in massive online classes. In Design thinking research (pp. 131-168). Springer, Cham.
Kupczynski, L., Mundy, M.A., Goswami, J. and Meling, V., 2014. Cooperative learning in distance learning: a mixed methods study. International Journal of Instruction, 5(2).
Lundberg, C.A., 2014. Peers and faculty as predictors of learning for community college students. Community College Review, 42(2), pp.79-98.
Mastropieri, M.A. and Scruggs, T.E., 2017. The inclusive classroom: Strategies for effective differentiated instruction. Pearson.
O'Donnell, A.M. and King, A. eds., 2014. Cognitive perspectives on peer learning. Routledge.
Reid, P., Chau, M. and Thalluri, J., 2016. Students' experience and evaluation of peer-to-peer learning innovation. Focus on Health Professional Education: A Multi-disciplinary Journal, 17(1), p.101.
Reinholz, D., 2016. The assessment cycle: a model for learning through peer assessment. Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, 41(2), pp.301-315.
Richards, J.C., 2015. The changing face of language learning: Learning beyond the classroom. RELC Journal, 46(1), pp.5-22.
Taylor, E.W., 2017. Transformative learning theory. In Transformative Learning Meets Bildung (pp. 17-29). SensePublishers, Rotterdam.
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