Discuss a case study with particular disorder dyslexia or aphasia.
The Salient Features of Amnesia and Cognitive Theory
The faulty cognitive characteristics of ‘Amnesia’ are highlighted by a loss in memory, due to occurrences such as trauma at a psychological platform, damage to the brain or the emergence of any disorder pertaining to the brain (Clark & Maguire, 2016). The following paragraphs shed light on the key aspects of amnesia and cognitive theory, concerning a case study of a 60 year old woman. This is followed by an extensive discussion of the key aspects pertaining to the occurrences of amnesia, followed by elaborate discussion of the salient signs and symptoms pertaining to the same. The case study is then associated with relative cognitive theories of development for extensive understanding of the disease condition, further paving the way for possibilities of future treatment.
The following paragraphs highlights the salient features pertaining to the case study, description of the disease and the associated cognitive theory.
The following case scenario, is that of a woman, aged 60 years old, who was admitted to the hospital upon complaints of symptoms of retrograde type amnesia, occurring suddenly, where she was unable to recall occurrences of events pertaining to the previous day. Upon examination, there were also reported symptoms indicating severe amnesia of the anterograde type. The symptoms emerged when the concerned patient continuously questioned her brother concerning the date and the activities of the day, despite performance of usual housework commencing after breakfast. The onset of her reported symptoms commenced during her performance of regular household duties, precisely after the conductance of a computer tomography scan of her abdominal region. The patient also reported of symptoms pertaining to fluctuating occurrences of headaches lasting for three-quarters of an hour. The patient also has a previous medical history indicated occurrences of embolic stroke, fibrillation of the arteries and occlusion in the arteries of the retina. Upon conductance of a computer tomography scan of the head, the occurrences of calcifications of scattered intraparenchymal nature, further resembling the characteristics of old neurocysticercosis. Conductance of magnetic resonance image scanning of the brain of the concerned patient, presented lesions in the unilateral region of the fornix. Upon analysis of the outlined symptoms and assessment of clinical reports, the patient was diagnosed with transient global amnesia. However upon medical administrations of pharmacological substances such as atorvastatin and aspirin, upon suspicion stroke occurrences, the magnitude of her symptoms showed gradual reductions, followed by complete absence of her symptoms when evaluated after one month for the purpose of follow up examinations. Hence, with respect to the treatment and recovery highlights of the concerned patient, it can be stated that the symptoms of transient global amnesia can occur due to lesions in the brain, which can further be alleviated through conventional care (Gupta et al., 2015).
One of the primary functions of the brain pertaining to the conductance of cognitive activities and understanding is ‘memory’, which is characterized by the retention of processes related to learning strategies, followed by the storage and retention of the same for future life performances (Hu et al., 2016). Amnesia, is characterized a debilitating disorder of the brain, pertaining to the retention of memory. Amnesia is highlighted primarily by the degradation of existing memory, which can be caused due to occurrences such as damage to the brain, infliction to any particularly disease or the presence of any psychological trauma (Hicks et al., 2017). The symptoms pertaining to the occurrences of the amnesia, can also be inflicted due to the ingestion of certain drugs concerned with sedation and hypnosis. With respect to the magnitude of the distortion and damage incurred, the memory of the concerned patient may be lost completely or partially (Noël et al., 2017). The symptoms of amnesia can be classified into two categories, namely retrograde type and anterograde type of amnesia. The occurrences of retrograde amnesia are characterized by the reduction of memory pertaining to the prior to the occurrences of any specific operative incident, trauma, date or injury. The characteristics of anterograde amnesia are highlighted by a loss in the ability of the patient to transfer information to long term memory, acquired from short term memory stores (Kwan, Kurczek & Rosenbaum, 2016). Minute fragments of information which are gathered to conduct immediate activities, pertain to short term memory. Long term memory is responsible for information storage for long often permanent lengths of time. Distortions in the hippocampus or the medial temporal lobe of the brain, are often the causative factors behind amnesia. While the symptoms of amnesia often reduce on their own without treatment, several procedures can be utilized by the patient for the same, such as usage of cognitive theory and even occupational theory (Isahaya et al., 2017).
Case Study of a 60-year-old Woman with Amnesia
In order to understand the occurrences of amnesia, we can utilize the frameworks highlighted by cognitive learning theory, which highlight the various external and internal factors present in the brain for the purpose of retaining information for conductance of learning and cognition (Stacey et al., 2015).
One of the major types of cognitive theory, is social cognitive theory of learning and memory. This theory is highlighted by the cooperative functioning of three factors pertaining to the personal characteristics of the concerned patients such as level of understanding and cognition, as well as physiological factors or possible alterations; factors pertaining to the behavior of the concerned individual as well as the surrounding individuals, and finally, factors pertaining to the various occurrences present in the environment (Cooper & Lu, 2016). With respect to the case study highlighted above, we can attempt to link the cognition of the concerned patient suffering from amnesia and the key features of the social cognitive theory. With respect to interactions occurring between the individual and the environment, cognition, memory or amnesia may be affected by the external factors such as stressful situations or climatic conditions (Montano & Kasprzyk, 2015). However, with respect to the above patient, it can be seen that the occurrences of lesions in the brain led to the incidences of amnesia. The resultant forgetfulness, further was reflected in the behavioral characteristics of the patient, as per the theory, displaying constant questioning and interaction with her brother. Further, based on the social cognitive theory, it can be observed that the concerned patient’s behavior affected her surrounding environment, as displayed in her difficulties in remembrance of the date and activities pertaining to the household work. Hence, the highlighted case study of amnesia in a 60 year old woman, can be associated with the social cognitive theory of learning and cognition.
The theory outlining cognitive behavioral aspects was formulated by Aron Beck. In accordance to the concepts outlined in the Cognitive Behavioral Therapy, the concerned individual is dependent upon the factors pertaining to his or her cognition and understanding of the world, which further behave as factors which determine and influence the behavioral characteristics of the concerned individual (Creed et al., 2016). Hence, the cognitive and understanding capabilities commence into the development by the individual in to an idea pertaining to his or her personality, which further influence the behaviors performed by him or her, for the successful conductance of activities. The nature of the idea concerning his or her personality, so framed by the individual, may be highly demeaning or optimistic (Levy et al., 2017). The cognitive behavioral theory is highlighted by the interplay of factors pertaining to the self, the surrounding environment in the vicinity of the concerned individual, further followed by concepts with regards to the nature of the possible occurrences in the near future. When the concerned individual negatively considers oneself as a failure or incapable of performing any duty, there is further disregard of the factors outlining the environment, where he or she views the surroundings has equally negative and disappointing. Further, an emerging occurrences of this leads to the consideration of the distant future as discouraging (Abramowitz & Arch, 2014). With respect to the occurrences of amnesia as highlighted in the above case study, it can be seen that through the loss of cognition in the concerned patient, she is unable to recall recent memories resulting in a complete absence of judgment pertaining to the conductance household activities, further escalating into the patient’s future as being devoid of any form of existential knowledge and the required activities.
Symptoms and Assessments of Amnesia
Hence, it can be observed that the theories pertaining to learning and cognition can be utilized in associating the symptoms of amnesia. The utilization of effective cognitive learning theories such as social cognitive as well as cognitive behavioral theory can further lead to the beneficial implications pertaining to the treatment of the concerned individuals (Savage et al., 2016). It have been documented that usage of cognitive behavioral theories may be used for the treatment of patients concerned with amnesia, through usage of key words, specific images or frequent checking of noted evidences highlighting required activities to be performed. These will further aid in memory recollection and the resultant beneficial effects in behavioral and environmental responses of the concerned patient (Beck & Haigh, 2014).
Hence, with respect to the case study highlighting amnesia, it can be concluded that the concerned symptoms presented by the patient, can be associated with the salient features pertaining to cognitive theories. Amnesia is a detrimental condition of the brain, which further impacts essential cognitive functions such memory and retention of essential information, further hampering the conductance of daily activities. Hence, while social cognitive theory highlights the various personal, environmental and behavioral factors which have been impacted upon the patient suffering from amnesia, the framework of cognitive behavioral theory highlights the key aspects of patient behavior, affected by the presence of amnesiac conditions. The successful association of patient symptoms to the theories of cognitive development, further aid in the understanding as well the formulation of treatment procedures required for the same.
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Cooper, C., & Lu, L. (2016). Presenteeism as a global phenomenon: Unraveling the psychosocial mechanisms from the perspective of social cognitive theory. Cross Cultural & Strategic Management, 23(2), 216-231.
Creed, T. A., Wolk, C. B., Feinberg, B., Evans, A. C., & Beck, A. T. (2016). Beyond the label: Relationship between community therapists’ self-report of a cognitive behavioral therapy orientation and observed skills. Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research, 43(1), 36-43.
Gupta, M., Kantor, M. A., Tung, C. E., Zhang, N., & Albers, G. W. (2015). Transient global amnesia associated with a unilateral infarction of the fornix: case report and review of the literature. Frontiers in neurology, 5, 291.
Hicks, A. J., Clay, F. J., Hopwood, M., Jayaram, M., Batty, R., & Ponsford, J. L. (2017). Efficacy and harms of pharmacological interventions for neurobehavioral symptoms in post traumatic amnesia after traumatic brain injury: a systematic review and meta-analysis protocol. JBI database of systematic reviews and implementation reports, 15(12), 2890-2912.
Hu, J., Tang, H., Tan, K. C., & Li, H. (2016). How the brain formulates memory: A spatio-temporal model research frontier. IEEE Computational Intelligence Magazine, 11(2), 56-68.
Isahaya, K., Shinohara, K., Akamatu, M., Shimizu, T., Sakurai, K., Shiraishi, M., ... & Hasegawa, Y. (2017). Reversible Cerebral Vasoconstriction Syndrome Presenting with Transient Global Amnesia. Internal Medicine, 56(12), 1569-1573.
Kwan, D., Kurczek, J., & Rosenbaum, R. S. (2016). Specific, personally meaningful cues can benefit episodic prospection in medial temporal lobe amnesia. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 55(2), 137-153.
Levy, H. C., Worden, B. L., Gilliam, C. M., D’Urso, C., Steketee, G., Frost, R. O., & Tolin, D. F. (2017). Changes in saving cognitions mediate hoarding symptom change in cognitive-behavioral therapy for hoarding disorder. Journal of obsessive-compulsive and related disorders, 14, 112-118.
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Stacey, F. G., James, E. L., Chapman, K., Courneya, K. S., & Lubans, D. R. (2015). A systematic review and meta-analysis of social cognitive theory-based physical activity and/or nutrition behavior change interventions for cancer survivors. Journal of Cancer Survivorship, 9(2), 305-338.
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