Hospitality is not a very easy concept it is very difficult to define. There are various definitions suggested by different authors and they suggest that hospitality is both a commercial activity as well as a social activity. But it becomes quite important to know the dominant theme of hospitality. According Brotherton hospitality means the contemporaneous human exchange that is entered in to voluntarily and it is designed in such a way that it helps in enhancing the mutual benefits of the various parties that are concerned through the provision of food or drink and accommodation. (Brotherton 1999) On the other hand hospitality is seen as an overlap of the three domains according to Lashley that includes commercial, private and social domains. Thus it can be said that the hospitality is a broad concept in which various forms like domestic, social, private and commercial are included. The essay below highlights that though the hospitality is held by commercial hospitality but it holds common values and themes as the hospitality in the home but it’s not just an extension rather than it’s seen as its own domain.
While describing the hospitality in the commercial context it can be said that hospitality is the balanced and the formal system of exchange where various institutions like the restaurants and hotels provide hospitality that are not personal. According to Wood there is a difference between the commercial hospitality and the hospitality at the home as it does not involves giving the personal drinks, food and accommodation of the host rather than it is a impersonal exchange that involves monetary exchange. According to O’Gorman commercial hospitality has been traced long back to 2000AD through the research of various Mesopotamia when at that time various Inns and Hotels were found and they were controlled according to the laws of that time. (Lashley 2000)Hospitality in the commercial nature of the modern time reflects the large hotels and the beverage and food outlets that were also discovered in the cities of Pompeii. (King 1995) According to the literature it has been found that during the 400BC the commercial hospitality was considered very important for bringing the tourists and the traders to the various cities for earning the revenue as hospitality was the main source of revenue at that time. While examining the commercial hospitality it has been found that it was quite different from the domestic hospitality. There were various beverages, accommodations and food due to which different tourists were attracted and it served the integral needs of the travelers and was considered important for the business. (Domenico 2007)
Earlier the commercial hospitality was available for those who had no connection with the private hospitality of for those who were privileged inadequately for receiving the hospitality of the state. But, according to Muhlamann it was found that hospitality was compared with the various other forms of the hospitality. There was a large amount of literature that was judgmental that was found while reviewing the history and the evolution of the commercial hospitality and it was found to be very uncommon. One of the very important point to note here is that the commercial hospitality did not came out of blue and it existed for around 4,000 years and it was practiced separately and distinctly from the domestic hospitality. (Lovitt 2011)
There has been a lot of change in the motives and nature of the hospitality with the passage of time that has helped in evolving different societies but still there is a need of in breadth definition of the same. (Lugosi 2008)There have been three domains that have been examined by the Lashley that includes private, social and commercial domains. Under the social hospitality domain the hospitality and the act of hospitableness takes place in the collective manner and there are various influence of different social forces on the production of accommodation, food and drinks. There is a social bond that is formed between the hosts and the guests in the social hospitality in the context of social gatherings that includes the various functions and weddings. There is a development and the satisfaction of various social needs that creates the togetherness feelings. According to Thio, being together is the most important thing no matter there is a meal or not. (Lugosi 2009)
According to the explanation given by Lashley it has been found that the domestic or the private domain involves the motives of nurturing for the people that are serving the cook, creating safe environment and making beds creating accommodation etc. There is a symbolic tie that is created with the act of friendship while sharing the hospitality that further creates the moral responsibility towards the guests that is receiving the hospitality for returning the favor and is persuaded to host another occasion. (MacCannell 2000)While on the other hand in the case of domestic hospitality there is no financial repayment involved on the host. The various values were advocated by Morrison that includes social duty of care, kinship that originated from the home hospitality and is found in the commercial or social hospitality. According to Lashley it is said that there is some expectation that is shaped from the domestic hospitality for the commercial and social activities and hence there is connection that exists between the three domains. (Morrison 2001)
According to Thio though there is a connection between the three domains of the hospitality there is still an important distinction between the commercial hospitality and the hospitality in general. The distinction lies between the host guest relationship and the money involved. (Muhlmann 2000)There is a special kind of relationship between the guest and host relationship in which the host knows by what exactly will the host be pleased and that helps in enhancing the comfort level of the guests while delivering there flawless service to the guest. There is a monetary exchange in the commercial hospitality while there is a friendship in the domestic hospitality. So, it can be said there is a different type of guest host relationship that develops in the commercial hospitality as the consumers are required to pay if they want to use the services and in return it is the obligation of the host to provide best services for meeting the expectations of the guests. Due to the involvement of money in the commercial hospitality the commercial hospitality is seen in its own domain. (O’Gorman 2009)
The example of this could be taken of the Sebel Hotel that is located in the Surry Hills in Sydney that provides surprise and birthday cake to their guests on their special days. In this hotel the staff personally delivers the cake and sings happy birthday song for their guests. At times they are also given a champagne and complimentary room. This incorporation of the birthday cake and surprise reflects the domestic domain and helps in building the sincere and emotional engagement with the guests. It is found by the hotel that this gesture is highly appreciated by the guests and they return and spread a positive word of mouth. Moreover it can be found that the modern hospitality has also been becoming popular and it is granting an opportunity for the success. (Pandya 2012)
Whereas home is a place of residence, refuge and safety that may be connected to a geographical location. The home spaces are becoming very flexible these days due to various technological innovations that is increasing the merger of leisure and work. While the commercial home is a tourism context and a leisure that includes the range of small businesses that are occupied by the owner. Under these circumstances it can be argued that the commercial homes are the extension of hospitality at the home. Thus, it can be said that the commercial homes is a merger of two of the domains of the private homes that is the private and the commercial. These days the hotels provide fewer facilities rather then that they have become functional places. And more over there are many people who are transforming their homes to the replica hotels for bringing in the aspect of fantasy in the home life. (Thio 2005)
At last it can be concluded that the hospitality activities have three parts that are private, social and commercial. All these activities are distinct individually while the values attached with these activities are same that is the duty of care, kinship and hospitableness. There have been various changes in the commercial hospitality due to which it is viewed as impersonal financial exchange. The main difference that is considered between the commercial hospitality and the home hospitality is the relationship of the guest and the host. There is a friendly relationship in the home hospitality while in the commercial hospitality there is a monetary exchange involved. Thus, it can be found that the commercial hospitality is found very distinctive from the home hospitality and is found in its own domain but not as an extension of hospitality in the home. (Wood 2000)
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