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Question:
Discuss about the Literature Review on Change Management.
 
 
Answer:
Introduction

This study deals with Change Management Model and explaining the theoretical framework of each model. In this particular assignment, four-change management model is explained such as Lewin Model, Prosci Adakar as well as Kotters and Fisher Model. These change management models help a business organisation to select the best possible change model for the attainment of success in the upcoming future. Each change model is unique in its own way. In this competitive world, organisation strive its best to attain global recognition and desire to occupy the topmost position by application of innovative management practices.  

Literature Review
Lewin’s Change Model

Change is a regular thread that largely runs through almost all the businesses regardless of the size, industry as well as age. As opined by Shirey (2013), it is imperative to understand the reason behind the transformation to begin the successful process of change. As rightly put forward by Langley et al. (2013), Lewin three-stage model can be used as an approach for management of the changes in the place of work to understand the fundamental changes in the process of management. The stages involved in the process of change management include unfreezing, transition and freeze. As opined by Burke (2013), unfreeze refers to the first stage in the process of the change management and is about getting ready for the change. Lewin proposed the three-stage change model that stresses the need for generation of motivation for undertaking the change and assists in re-examination of different assumptions about oneself and associations with others (Burke 2013).

As such, it refers to the point from where the movement towards a novel change occurs. Therefore, the employees need motivation in this phase of unfreezes to adapt to different changes in the organisation (Park et al. 2012). The phase of unfreezing makes it certain that the employees of an organisation are completely ready to accept the change.  In addition to this,  unfreeze is also the phase of the initiation that leads to the second stage known as the phase of transition, characterised by adoption and at the same time adaptation (Shirey, 2013).  

As rightly indicated by Burke (2013), the phase of transition can be characterised as a journey that moves from unfreezing to change.  This particular phase of transition requires adequate time to identify with the change and to communicate, train as well as coach the employees as a part of the procedure to offer support.  In other words, this particular phase of transition refers to the stage of execution of the change in the place of work.  The phase of transition leads to the stage of freezing also known as refreezing, essentially regarded as the stage of acceptance, use as well as incorporation of the change.  

Lastly, the stage of freeze is also known as the settling stage after the change has undertaken. Shirey et al. (2013) opine that business concerns need to make it certain that ample effort has been made for cementing the change and to maintain the required standard.  Again, the phase of freeze also needs to make sure that transformation becomes permanent. Therefore, the stage of refreezing can anchor the change, develop different ways to sustain the change and provide the required support as well as training to embark on the inevitable change.

Kurt Lewin Change Model

Figure 1: Kurt Lewin Change Model

(Source: Shirey et al. 2013)

Prosci ADAKAR model

The Prosci ADAKAR model is an essential framework that shall help the business organisation in leading the change management in the organisation. This is made up of the following five constituents.

  • Awareness
  • Desire
  • Knowledge
  • Ability
  • Reinforcement

The above factors shall define the change management in the organisation. The ADKAR model shall determine the steps in the change management in the business organisation (Hayes, 2014). This shall help the business entity in executing the necessary changes as per the long-term goals and the objectives of the business entity.  

The first step in the Prosci ADKAR model is stated as the Awareness levels in the organisation. It defines a number of awareness levels in the business entity. As such, this would help the business organisation in developing awareness about the brand. In this regard, it can be said that the operational policies of the business entity shall cater to development of the awareness levels among the consumers that shall lead to customer loyalty.  

The second step in the development of the change management policies is Desire that shall have an impact on the business functionalities of the business entity. The long-term objectives of the business entity shall have to be considered in the development of the business strategies in the organisation. The attribute of desire relates to attaining the specific targets of the organisation after considering factor like the customer perception, needs and demand as well as the economic policies of the market in which the firm is operating. The Prosci ADKAR model considers desire as the primary characteristic of the business enterprise. In this regard, it can be said that desire shall have the impact on the operational strategies of the business entity.

Prosci ADKAR Model

Figure 2: Prosci ADKAR Model

(Source: Williams 2013)

Williams (2013) mentioned that the knowledge is one of the primary characteristics in executing a change management model in the business entity. Having in- depth knowledge of the business functionalities in the organisation and the alterations that are required to be implemented in the business entity shall assist the management to lead the change management in the organisation to success. In this regard, Quinn et al. (2012) noted that the Prosci ADKAR model emphasises on knowledge to bring about the required changes in the business entity. However, there can be certain issues which can hamper the process of executing changes in the business entity. Possessing in-depth knowledge of the market conditions, as well as the technologies, shall have an impact on the operational policies of the business enterprise.

Lastly, the ability and the reinforcement in the Prosci ADKAR model shall relate to the financial and the operational constituents of the business entity (Van der Voet 2014). The Prosci ADKAR model shall evaluate such policies of the business entity in the context of the global market conditions. Therefore, it is a pertinent tool in the development of the marketing and the operational policies of the business enterprise.

 
Kotters Change Model

As rightly indicated by Hornstein (2015), Kotter wrote Leading Change in the year 1996 that looked at what people perform for bringing transformation in their business organisation. Kotter introduced 8-step change model that aims at helping managers for dealing with transformational change. The first three models are related to creating climate for change. The next steps are all about enabling as well as engaging the organisation. At the last, models are related to implementing as well as sustaining change.

Kotter’s 8-step Change Model

Figure 3: Kotter’s 8-step Change Model

(Source: Quinn et al. 2012)

Kotter mainly defined 8-step of process that can bring change in business organization. These are as follows:

Step 1- Establishing sense of urgency

As opined by Hayes 2014, the first step focuses mainly on examining market as well as competitive realities. It requires identifying as well as discussing on crises and opportunities at the same time. Addition to that, this step creates catalyst for change.

Step 2- Forming powerful coalition

This particular step assembles a group with enough power for leading the change effort. It aims at developing strategies for attainment of vision.

Step 3- Creating Vision

The step follows creating vision that helps directly in changing the effort in the most appropriate way (Day and Shannon 2015). It requires developing strategies for attainment of future goals and objectives.

Step 4- Communicating the vision

It is important for using every channel as well as vehicle of communication for communicating the new vision and strategies (Hornstein 2015). It needs guiding necessary coalition for teaching new behaviors as well as leading by relevant example.

Step 5- Empowering other for acting on vision

This step involves removing obstacles to change as well as changing systems for determining the vision. It requires encouraging the risk-taking as well as non-traditional ideas and actions for future analysis purpose.

Step 6- Planning as well as creating short-term wins

This step initiates planning for visible performance improvement as well as rewarding employees for these improvements (Hornstein 2015). Most of the initiatives fails because of lack of interest in the proposed change either effort or spending too much energy for resisting in the change management process.

Step 7- Consolidating improvements as well as producing change management

This step focuses mainly on using increased credibility for change systems, policies as well as structures that fir the vision of particular business organization. It requires hiring and developing employees for implementing the vision in an effective way. It needs reinvigorating the process with projects, change agents as well as themes.

Step 8- Institutionalizing new approaches

The last step requires creating connections between new behaviors as well as corporate success (Day and Shannon 2015). It needs developing channels for ensuring leadership development and succession for business organization

From the above steps, it is easy to understand the fact that organizational change begins with detailed analysis from approval by the corporate management (Hornstein 2015). This 8-step model is widely accepted in and across all industries in case of implementing organizational change in the most appropriate way.

Fisher Change Model

John M. Fisher has made an important contribution to the popular change management theories. Fisher’s Process of Transition model illustrates the methods by which people respond to any changes. Opined to Barclay (2015), this change theory has been prepared by earlier studies that were made by Elisabeth Kubler-Ross. The change theory was previously composed of five stages and later Fisher modified this theory by identifying and implementing eight stages that people generally follow in succession through the process of change. The eight steps of Fisher’s change model is composed of – anxiety and denial, happiness, fear, threat, guilt and disillusionment, depression and hostility, gradual acceptance and moving forward.

Fisher Change Model

Figure 4: Fisher Change Model

(Source: Barclay 2015)

According to Macaya, Crawford and Soto (2016), the transition curve is an essential factor for every individual to understand the effect of the changes that it will have on the personal construct systems. In addition to this, Cameron and Green (2015) stated that this particular change model is also considered as a vital factor for those individuals who can work through the implications of self-perception. As rightly stated by Hayes (2014), any change that might be even too small must have the potential to influence an individual and might develop conflict between the present values and beliefs and the expected altered ones. As per Macaya, Crawford and Soto (2016), this change model helps the people to move through the transition efficiently, and it also helps to understand the perceptions of the people regarding the past, present and future incidents. Therefore, it can be said that the objective of the change agent is to help in preparing transition as more effective and painless as possible. Opined to Booth (2015), by providing information, education and support, the change agent can help the individuals in transition through emerging and curve on the other side. Cameron and Green (2015) argued that transition through all stages is essential as it helps to progress in a sequential or linear way. It has also been found that if multiple transactions take place at the same moment, then it might have a cumulative effect on the individuals. It is more of a gradual realisation that things might change subtly. According to Hayes (2014), most of the speed of transition mainly depends on the self-perception of an individual, various past experiences and locus of control. In addition to this, the speed of transition also helps to combine all these in order to create their expectation regarding the future events. All of these transitions are found to be very supportive for prior negative activities like rapid drop in the self-confidence and also to increase the negative self-image that compounds the problem (Bjclearn.org. 2016). It has been found that as people could being going through all the various transitions simultaneously, then it become a case of more evidence.      

Conclusion

At the end of the study, it is concluded that Change management theories used for understanding an organizational change in an effective way. These theories act as an effective tool for planning change management activities as well as diagnosing gaps and supporting supervisors. It does not matter if the proposed change involves change in the process of planning project or any other general operations. It is very difficult to adjust to the change for an organisation and its potential employees. Using the above-mentioned models is helpful because it offers guidelines that need to be followed and has the ability in determining expected results. Addition to that, change is difficult to manage as well as implement for any business organisation.

 
References

Barclay, S.R., 2015. Turning Transition into Triumph. In Exploring New Horizons in Career Counselling (pp. 219-232). SensePublishers.

Bjclearn.org. 2016. BJC Institute for Learning and Development. [online] Available at: https://bjclearn.org [Accessed 14 Aug. 2016].

Booth, S.A., 2015. Crisis management strategy: Competition and change in modern enterprises. Routledge.

Burke, W.W., 2013. Organization change: Theory and practice. Sage Publications.

Cameron, E. and Green, M., 2015. Making sense of change management: a complete guide to the models, tools and techniques of organizational change. Kogan Page Publishers.

Day, G.E. and Shannon, E., 2015. Leading and managing change. Leading and Managing Health Services: An Australasian Perspective, p.295.

Hayes, J., 2014. The theory and practice of change management. Palgrave Macmillan.

Hornstein, H.A., 2015. The integration of project management and organizational change management is now a necessity. International Journal of Project Management, 33(2), pp.291-298.

Hughes, D.L., Dwivedi, Y.K., Simintiras, A.C. and Rana, N.P., 2016. Change Management. In Success and Failure of IS/IT Projects (pp. 57-65). Springer International Publishing.Langley, A., Smallman, C., Tsoukas, H. and Van de Ven, A.H., 2013. Process studies of change in organization and management: unveiling temporality, activity, and flow. Academy of Management Journal, 56(1), pp.1-13.

Macaya, E.O., Crawford, B. and Soto, R., 2016, June. Change management in technology projects: Using a comprehensive model of change management. In 2016 11th Iberian Conference on Information Systems and Technologies (CISTI) (pp. 1-6). IEEE.

Park, S.E., Marshall, N.A., Jakku, E., Dowd, A.M., Howden, S.M., Mendham, E. and Fleming, A., 2012. Informing adaptation responses to climate change through theories of transformation. Global Environmental Change, 22(1), pp.115-126.

Quinn, D., Amer, Y., Lonie, A., Blackmore, K., Thompson, L. and Pettigrove, M., 2012. Leading change: Applying change management approaches to engage students in blended learning. Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, 28(1), pp.16-29.

Shirey, M.R., 2013. Lewin’s theory of planned change as a strategic resource. Journal of Nursing Administration, 43(2), pp.69-72.

Van der Voet, J., 2014. The effectiveness and specificity of change management in a public organization: Transformational leadership and a bureaucratic organizational structure. European Management Journal, 32(3), pp.373-382.

Williams, C., 2013. Principles of management. South-Western Cengage Learning.

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