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Contemporary Computing Can Be Seen As An Assemblage

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Question:

Discuss contemporary computing can be seen as an assemblage?

 

Answer:

Introduction

This report is based on two top stories in IT. One is the selling out of a human like robot named pepper and the other is about the Bank of England hiring hackers in their system. Hacking is a modern technology that can be used in two ways: for good or to harm others. The recent events of hacking that are mentioned in these two stories can be avoided or minimized with ethical hacking. Few inquiries that digital innovation are changing the method in which we take part in the research process. In all actuality, it is ending up being clearer that investigation is progressively being mediated through automated development. Contemporary computing can be seen as an assemblage means that how modern and latest technologies can work perfectly with the latest technologies. The first story is on a robot that is created to be a friend or companion for the humans. The robot can understand the facial expressions of human. It is designed and programmed in such a manner that it acts like a human. The second story is about ethical hacking, though the concept is not that new but it has begun to take a toll on the society. New technologies are helping in making this concept better and advanced.

A.N.T

An approach to research and social theory originates in the study of science is known as actor network theory. In spite of the fact that it is known mainly for its dubious emphasis on the limit of nonhumans to act or take an interest in networks or systems or both, actor network theory is likewise connected with compelling studies of critical and conventional sociology.

  • Actants: It denotes the non-humans and humans actors.
     
  • Network: It is undetermined relation among the entities.

 A.N.T can be used for computing purpose because it is broad and adaptive. In A.N.T, the ideas and concepts can be expanded into precise directions. All the ideas can be collectively used in systems. It helps is assembling all the ideas as a whole. The utilization of ANT has turned out to be valuable keeping in mind the end goal to catch the on-screen characters which are included in the advancement of latest innovation for various reasons. The primary thing is to concentrate on the on-screen character systems as the essential building square for the improvement of the latest innovation.

 

Story 1

An emotional robot named Pepper sold one minute after 1000 units were bought: A robot named pepper made by the company Softbank Robotics was sold out 1 minute just after it was put to sale (Japanese information site for all people who love Japan, 2015). One thousand pieces of this robot was built to display and respond emotions. Each unit cost about 1610 dollars and a monthly fee of 200 dollars has to be paid (Mail Online, 2015).

Actants in the story: Robot named Pepper

(HUMAN ACTANT): company Softbank Robotics; Customers, Software engineer

(HARDWARE ACTANTS) Hardware used for building the robot: 4 microphones, 2 high definition cameras, 3 dimensional sensor, gyroscope in the chest, touch sensors, 2 sonar, 6 lasers, 3 bumper sensors.

SOFTWARE ACTANTS: Algorithms, Standards, Computer language used

STRUCTURAL ACTANTS: NOT APPLICABLE IN THE STORY

CULTURAL ACTANTS: Human like; Presence of various human like emotions

How the actants are acting with each other: The robot has a humanoid face and a display on its chest, the robot is mainly designed to empathize and communicate using touch and voice. The software engineers designed the robot named Pepper, with human like capabilities. It is designed using artificial intelligence for bringing out various emotions.   ANT can be used in this story to analyze the story according to the behavior of the actants in the story. Pepper is capable to examine facial expressions, words and body language via its sensors; it adapts its mannerisms and behavior to suit the person (Japanese information site for all people who love Japan, 2015). Pepper is a robot designed to detect emotions and respond to it, it is designed to co-exist with humans. The robot can understand various emotions and can analyze the expression of the humans. It is able for self-improvement and adaptation (Mail Online, 2015). It is mainly designed to serve as a companion. It has many sensors attached to it so that it can detect the emotions and runs with the help of a battery. The robot has a three dimensional camera attached so that it can comply with its surroundings and move safely by avoiding the obstacles on its path. It is build with various speakers and has a screen attached to its chest. The robot was sold out as soon as was put to sale. The users were thrilled to see the functionalities of the robot.

 

How can the robot be used in the business? It is build by Softbank Mobile and Aldebaran robotics. It was designed to act as a companion for the humans. It has the capability to read and identify the emotions of humans. It is an interactive robot and has the ability to talk to the humans. It rather has a very funny voice. It cannot perform any domestic work; instead, it can be used to improve the life of people. It is used to connect with various peoples and have fun with them. Peppers loves to converse with people, it is exceptionally inquisitive about humans (Mail Online, 2015). As one keep on associating with the robot, Pepper will remember and learn latest things about the persons taste. Equipped for both adjustment and self-change, it will soon have the capacity to hunt down new applications. The primary objective of the robot is to develop and learn orderly so that it can be a friend at home.

Story 2

Bank of England employs hackers

(HUMAN ACTANT) Actants in the story: Ethical hacker; Bank of England; customers

(SOFTWARE ACTANT) Software used to perform hacking: There are many computer languages that can be used by the hackers or programmers for hacking. Computer languages like C#, java, C, C++ and many more can be used to hack into various systems.

(HARDWARE ACTANT) Hardware used perform hacking: Computer or PC; Network; Internet Connection

DIGITAL ACTANT: Protocols for performing hacking, various hacking algorithms

STRUCTURAL ACTANT: Privacy law

CULTURAL ACTANT: Hacking

How the actants are working with each other: It is a well-known mystery in the IT industry that huge companies and organizations regularly utilize the service of hackers. An ethical hacker is someone whose occupation is to nudge and jab at frameworks to verify the corporation is as secure and ensured as could be expected under the various circumstances (Theregister.co.uk, 2015). Still, the majority of the companies and organizations that contract programmers do not turn out transparently to talk about on this matter. The Bank of England reported that they were going to contract ethical hackers to assist test the safety of the organizations . Many banks were cynical of this choice however; the CEO of web security firm Bloxx said it was an exceptional choice.

 

Hacker: The phrase hacker has fallen into disrespect, drawing closer to demonstrate that in the popular medium the culprits of a mixture of types of PC law violations (Farsole, Kashikar and Zunzunwala, 2010). In any case, numerous persons who are known as programmers, have pretentiously borne that mark from 1950's, are not criminal. A large number of them are entrepreneurial and scholarly pioneers of their eras. The expression hacking is obvious as a prohibited utilization of the system assets or the PC framework that does not fit in with them (Amorosi, 2010). The remark hacker was earlier used to portray a developer who is great at his or her employment.

Ethical hacking: Ethical programmer and Ethical hacking are expressions used to depict hacking done by an individual or organization to help recognize potential dangers on a network or PC (Bodhani, 2012). Ethical hacker endeavors to sidestep framework security and quest for any feeble points that could be subjugated by malevolent hackers (Beaver, 2010). The company to improve the quality of its security can later use the information gathered from this kind of activities. The hacker uses various computer languages for encrypting and decoding of the codes. They use a computer for the basic work hat is needed to be done. They hack in to the network following all the privacy laws made by the government.

Can it enhance a business ? Ethical hacking and Ethical programmer are terms used to depict hacking performed by an organization or individual to help recognize potential dangers on a PC or system. Ethical hacker endeavors to sidestep framework security and quest for any powerless focuses that could be abused by malevolent hackers (Mcfedries, 2010). MasterCard passwords and particulars can be stolen making financial harm to persons and again the PC systems can be hacked conveying on the machine to stop working which will make individuals to stop using electronic sparing cash. Subsequently, it can be said that utilizing good developers was not a terrible thought for the bank of England. The methodology of using some individual to hack ones association is good hacking (Mcfedries, 2010). Good hacking is one of the instruments that are used to judge the security ventures of the affiliations. It is in like manner suggested as entering testing, red teaming, intrusion testing, lack of protection and even security judgments . Everybody these has unmistakable ramifications in various countries. Hacking is moreover portrayed as new progression of the present activities, programming and code. It enhances them and more beneficial. Good means a hypothesis with moral quality. Developers hack structures to perceive hazardous, unapproved get to and misuse. These hackers utilize a mixed bag of strategies to soften the security structure up the relationship in the season of computerized attack. Ethical hacking can be beneficial for the bank because it has the capability of making the network better and thus can help to regain the trust of the clients or customers.

 

The hackers should follow the following rules:

  • Goals should be set: The hacker should be able to recognize the loopholes in the system that are at a risk of getting hacked.
     
  • Planning the process of testing: Planning is vital and distribution it by means of the anxious personnel advisable. Consent of the testing procedure by all the stakeholders who are involved is necessary. 
     
  • Permission: To avoid any legal notice in the future, one should et permission prior to the procedure is done. The permission acquired should be in written.
     
  • Ethical and professional work: All the plans and goals that were set at the beginning of the procedure should be followed at any cost. Confidentially should be maintained always given that any circumstances may appear.
     
  • Records should be maintained: The hacker should always keep Formal records.
     
  • Privacy should not be violated: Even if all the data and information can be acquired by the hacker, yet it should be not be used for exposing them (if the person is not bound by investigation).
     
  • Rights should be maintained: The hackers should respect other’s right and should not pryin the lives of others.
     
  • Scientific process should be used: To start with lay down a target that is scientific. The test must be reliable to the findings.
     
  • One tool should be used throughout the process: There are various tools present for hacking. Therefore, one might be overwhelmed to use many at a time. This scenario of using various tools for one purpose should be avoided.
     
  • Provide well-timed updates: All the work done should be completed in the stipulated time frame.

Conclusion

This report is conducted on two stories of computing or IT. Two stories that are identified with IT are clarified in this report. One is about the selling out of 1000 units of robot pepper in few minutes after put on sale and the other is about the programmers being utilized in the bank of England. Hacking has turn into a grave issue in nowadays. The vast majority of the associations and even people are aggravated because of this occasion. This is the motivation behind why bank of England utilized moral programmers for their association as it can help them to secure their association. The humans can use the robot as a companion as it can read and understand all the emotions on the face of humans. This robot is used for interactive purpose and can learn many new things from its surroundings.

 

References

  • Amorosi, D. (2010). In defense of hackers. Infosecurity, 7(5), p.38.
     
  • Beaver, K. (2010). Hacking for dummies. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley Pub.
     
  • Bodhani, A. (2012). Bad... in a good way [ethical hacking]. Engineering & Technology, 7(12), pp.64-68.
     
  • Engebretson, P. (2010). The basics of hacking and penetration testing. Waltham, MA: Elsevier.
     
  • Farsole, A., Kashikar, A. and Zunzunwala, A. (2010). Ethical Hacking. International Journal of Computer Applications, 1(10), pp.14-20.
     
  • FBI thwarts ATM hacking attempt. (2010). Computer Fraud & Security, 2010(4), pp.3-20.
     
  • Goldstein, H. (2010). Hacking for humanity. IEEE Spectr., 47(2), pp.33-34.
     
  • Hacking popular among students. (2010). Network Security, 2010(9), p.20.
     
  • Mail Online, (2015). Pepper the $1,600 'emotional' robot sells out in ONE MINUTE. [online] Available at: https://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-3134746/Pepper-emotional-robot-sells-ONE-MINUTE-1-000-models-Japanese-humanoid-sell-1-600-each.html [Accessed 14 Jul. 2015].
     
  • Mcfedries, P. (2010). Hacking the planet [technically speaking. IEEE Spectr., 47(8), pp.23-23.
     
  • Philipp, A., Cowen, D. and Davis, C. (2010). Hacking exposed computer forensics. New York: McGraw-Hill/Osborne.
     
  • Wilhelm, T. (2010). Professional penetration testing. Rockland, Mass.: Syngress.
     
  • Japanese information site for all people who love Japan, (2015). Japanese Robot ‘Pepper’ with heart. [online] Available at: https://nicejapan.co.nz/news/japanese-robot-pepper-with-heart/ [Accessed 24 Jul. 2015].
     
  • Theregister.co.uk, (2015). Bank of England seeks 'HACKERS' to defend vaults against e-thieves. [online] Available at: https://www.theregister.co.uk/2014/04/24/ethical_hackers_drafted_to_probe_banks/ [Accessed 24 Jul. 2015].
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