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Discuss about the Cooperation Instrument Between Cultural Institution.

Management Functions for achieving the goals of organizations

Management refers to organizing and coordinating the business activities for fulfilling the goals and objectives of the organization.  There are certain functions of management that needs to be taken care step by step for getting the desired outcome. These functions are organizing, planning, controlling and learning. These methods has been adopted by many organizations and proved very helpful in making them successful. Now, in the current changing trend, these functions have become obsolete and there is a requirement of making some changes. This contemporary business environment is very different from the earlier environment in the organization (Marzano, 2009).  Everything has been managed in a different way. There is a need of implementation of some modern methods of management instead of classical function that has been used from years. The classical functions are as follow-

  1. Planning- It is the main function of management and includes preparation of all the plans that helps in reaching the organizational goals in an effective way. It basically related to analysis of ‘what to do’, ‘how to do’, ‘when to do’.  It has been done by a systematic thinking. All the other steps are totally dependent upon the planning function. It has to be done in an efficient way because this function is the core function of management.
  2. Organizing- Organizing is also an important function of management as it merges all financial resources, human resources and physical resources for the achievement of organizational goals. Properly organizing of business requires proper raw material, resources and all the other resources. It includes identification of activities, classification, delegation and coordination of the same ("Case Management Roles and Functions Across Various Settings and Professional Disciplines", 2010).
  3. Staffing- Staffing refers to getting and hiring resources. For the processing of organizational operations, it is important to get the staff with all the qualities and that can work for the fulfillment of goals and objectives. It is considered as the most important function of management because there is a huge advancement in technology and complexities in human behavior. The whole performance of an organization depends upon the behavior and hard work of the employees and this is the reason for the importance of staffing.
  4. Directing- Directing refers to providing directions to the resources of process of an organization. Directions help in fulfillment of all the tasks in a systematic manner. It assists organization to work in an effective as well as in an efficient way. Directions are very important as every activity depends upon the direction received for the same (Taylor, 2016).
  5. Controlling- After all the functions of management, it is necessary to control all the functions effective so that it can create a watch on it. An efficient system helps an organization to make better predictions about future. Controlling activities are related to establishment of standards of performance and then measuring with actual one. It helps in finding out correct measures to make every task successful.

Management has been defined as a method or way of achievement of goals that add on value. It’s basically related to organizing and identifying the right objectives and the best possible way to achieve the same. All the activities should be prioritize in a proper manner and make all the tasks on priority that needs to be completed on urgent basis. Now management is related to investigation, process of allocating resources for getting the best return, even if the resources are experience, knowledge and time. It is very easy for all the employees to manage time and other available resources without occupying a formal managerial position and without managing people (Campling, 2008). Now, employees have the capability to manage all the personal resources and their time without having a managerial role. Now people are as responsible as a manager and it is not necessary to get the position of manager to managing the activities. Management has a close relationship with the achievement of goals and achievement of goals are depend upon three ways-

  1. Luck- While looking for anything else, anyone could stumble on a cure.
  2. In a disorganized way, in which budgets have been exceeded.
  3. In a cost- effective way in which an organization makes the best utilization of resources.


All the frontline employees who do not have anyone superior needs to meet all the targets in tight deadlines (Raynaud, 2013).  It can only be possible when all the aspects of management have been done on time. There are difference theories of management that are applicable in contemporary business environment. These theories are according to the new trends and concepts accepted by the organization as well as the latest techniques that have been implemented.

  1. Contingency Theory- This theory means that at the time of taking any managerial decision, a manager should consider all the external as well as internal factors into account. By considering these factor, a manager can also get prepare for the worst case scenario. In the process of identifying best style, it is important to identify the situation first. Sometimes, strategy creates a negative impact on the operations of the business. It also varies from cultural aspects as well as the nature of the organization (Tracy, 2014).
  2. Systems Theory- Systems theory plays a very important role in management science and in understanding the organization in an effective manner, A system is basically collection of different parts of an organization that works together to achieve a common goal. All the parts in the system are interconnected to each other and change in one system affects the nature of the whole system. For examples, a pile of sand is not considered as a system and if someone removes a sand particle from it then also it still remains the pile of the sand. On the other hand we can take an example of functioning of a car. It is considered as a system because if the carburetor of car has been removed then car automatically stops working. In this manner every system has three parts- input, processing and output (Montana & Charnov, 2000).

Input refers to the raw material, resources, capital and technologies. These inputs have been processed in a very systematic manner to create an effective output (Mondy & Martocchio, 2016). There is a proper planning of these inputs and then they applied for the fulfillment of organization goal. Instead of the whole process, each and every aspect of process needs to be managed in a proper way. Systems theory is a very basic theory but still the management practices have not followed this theory and now it has been used in contemporary business environment. There is a huge change in today’s organization in the way of operations, and needs new thinking and ways to manage the same. Now approaches and management theories have become obsolete and new theories have been adopted for the effective management and success of the organization.


System theories help in changing the way of looking into managerial operations of the organization (David & David, 2016). It assesses the organization to look in a broader way. Systems theory has created a new perspective for managers to observe the patterns in the organization like how things are happening. By recognizing various parts and different operations of the organization, they can actually able to correlate them and know the interrelations of each other. By focusing of each part in an individual manner, they can get a lot of knowledge about the features of that particular part ("Cooperation Instruments between Cultural Institutions and the Environment", 2017).

  1. Chaos Theory- The whole world seemed as chaotic and full of randomness. Till the time, all the managers have assumed that they can control all the organizational events but now a new science theory (Chaos theory) says that it is almost impossible to control the events. Different theorists have given the theory by referring to the biological system. As per their suggestion, systems run naturally and gains more complexity with the passing of each day. These systems are more volatile and expand to maintain the complexity. With the increase in complexity, the requirement of more management increases. This keeps on continuing until the system r process splits into two parts or combined with some other part ("Management Insights", 2011).


These contemporary business practices are very important to understand because organizations are adopting the same for the fulfillment of goals and objectives. There are many organization lines multinational companies that consist of human resources belong to more than one culture. Every culture has its own features and people belong to the same behave in a different manner in different scenario. One of the important aspects in today’s scenario is related to the management of people and makes them behave in a particular way in several circumstances. They have to work together to accomplish the goals and objectives of the organization (Perrewé, 2011). The classical function cannot work effectively as the nature of organization is changing continuously so the management theories and aspects should be according to them only.

References

Campling, J. (2008). Management. Milton, Qld.: John Wiley & Sons Australia.

Case Management Roles and Functions Across Various Settings and Professional Disciplines. (2010). Professional Case Management, 15(5), 278-279. doi: 10.1097/ncm.0b013e3181f5a71f

Cooperation Instruments Between Cultural Institutions and the Environment. (2017). International Journal Of Contemporary Management, 16(3). doi: 10.4467/24498939ijcm.17.019.7539

David, F., & David, F. (2016). Strategic Management. Pearson Education UK

Management Insights. (2011). Production And Operations Management, 20(6), vii-ix. doi: 10.1111/j.1937-5956.2010.01186.x

Marzano, R. (2009). Designing & teaching learning goals & objectives. Bloomington, IN: Marzano Research Laboratory.

Mondy, R., & Martocchio, J. (2016). Human resource management. Harlow, Essex, England: Pearson.

Montana, P., & Charnov, B. (2000). Management. Hauppauge, N.Y.: Barron's.

Perrewé, P. (2011). The role of personality in human resource management. Human Resource Management Review, 21(4), 257. doi: 10.1016/j.hrmr.2010.10.009

Raynaud, H. (2013). Managerial Logic. Hoboken: Wiley.

Taylor, F. (2016). The Principles of Scientific Management. Cosimo Classics.

Tracy, B. (2014). Management. New York: AMACOM.

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