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  • Describe with the aid of photographs or sketches the floor system that has been used.
  • Detail the construction sequence to produce this component of the structural element.
  • Provide photographic detail of the floor under construction nominating the reinforcement etc.

Investigate how the building/building area controls stormwater. Describe the overall concept and report on guttering, downpipes, pipes, tanks, ‘ponding’ areas and detention/retention tanks.

  • Detail the services supplied to the building. Show using photographs the connections for, power, water, gas, fire communications etc.
  • Detail the active and passive fire detection and prevention systems in use. Describe their installation and their functions.

Roof system

  • Identify the structural roof system. Show photographs and describe the components.
  • Indicate the structural members on a roof plan sketch. Clearly identify the roof bracing elements if appropriate.
  • Indicate the type of roof cladding used. Research and provide information on the type of cladding including span tables, connection, installation and support details where appropriate.
  • Sketch the gutter detail for the building and include details of any relevant/necessary flashings to prevent the entry of water into the building.

Roof System

The design and construction of the Bunnings warehouse Marsden have employed the use of different engineering methods.The available reports indicate a comprehensive and very detailed technical aspect of the applied techniques. The Bunnings warehouse Marsden is a low rise structure of the concrete masonry. The study has effectively focused on the following features of the building (Syed 2012). The roofing system, the footing system, the services that are found within the building including fire protection, the wall system and the floor system. The coordination of the highlighted components in ensuring proper structural stability was analyzed. The analysis extended to the choice of the materials as guided by the laid standards of the building and construction.


Bunnings Group, exchanging as Bunnings Warehouse, is a universal family equipment chain. The chain has been possessed by Wesfarmers since 1994 and has stores in Australia, New Zealand. Bunnings was established in Perth, Western Australia in 1887, by two siblings who had emigrated from England. At first, a constrained organization concentrated on sawmilling, it turned into an open organization in 1952 and in this manner ventured into the retail part, buying a few tool shops (Syed 2012). Bunnings started to venture into different states during the 1990s and opened its first distribution center style store in Melbourne in 1994. The chain at present has 294 stores and more than 30,000 employees. Bunnings has a piece of the overall industry of around 20 percent in the Australian retail equipment division, with contending chains including Home Timber and Hardware alongside different autonomous retailers.

Figure 1(a): Bunnings structure (Syed 2012)

Footing System

A footing system refers to the portion of the building that transfers the load to the foundation of the structure. The portion actually rests on the foundation and functions to support the wall that is located above it. In the case of the Bunnings warehouse Marsden, the footing system was designed to assist in the distribution of the loads to the foundation that is located below. According to the geotechnical information that was available at the site, the characteristics of the footing system including the width, depth and the type of the system of the footing was actually guided by the type of the soil in the area. The nature of the rocks and the compaction of the soil greatly influence the stability and load distribution of the buildings. Although there is a variety of the footing system, the construction of the Bunnings warehouse Marsden employed the use of the shallow foundation system.

Footing System

Figure 1: Footing system at the front section (Syed 2012).

 This kind of footing is called a spread footing system although in some cases it is called open footing system. In many of the applications, this kind of the footing system is known to go beyond 60 meters. The geological characteristics of the area allowed for the laying of the footing system of the Bunnings warehouse Marsden at 1m deep.

The process of laying out the open footing system is simply by excavation of the surface earth to expose the hard substratum. The construction of the footing system can then be done. The footing system remains visible for the better period of the construction. The key concept that is relied upon the construction of the footing system of the Bunnings warehouse Marsden was that the footing system would actually take the concentrated loading of the vertical columns. The footing system was preferred since it did not actually surpass the allowable bearing pressure of 100kPa.

Figure2: Orientation of the screws in the concrete (Syed 2012)

The below images illustrates some of the pictures that have been obtained from the site regarding the footing system. The study at the site revealed that there was the use of the system of the bolts.

Figure 3: Footing system in the back section (Syed 2012).

There was the use of the HD bolts that were actually in situ with the system of the columns incorporated into the concrete pad footing.

Structural system

The information at the site indicated utilization of the concrete form structural system by the designers and engineers of the building. The structural system was regarded as the skeleton of the concrete. The structural system was made up of the vertical columns while the horizontal members called beams were carefully distributed in the system. The flat planes of the slabs have been created for the human operation activities. In the structure of the Bunnings warehouse Marsden, the columns and the beams were regarded as the primary load carrying components of the building (Pittet et al 2012).

The two have been considered responsible for the stability of the structure. During the study, it was observed that the columns were the most important component of the building. Interference with the other components like the slabs would only affect the few places or parts of the building. This was supported by the information regarding the distribution of the forces at the site. The structure has therefore emphasized on the proper connection of the members to the columns preferably the moment connections. The moment connections have been used in other engineering construction that requires proper structural stability. The structural system of the Bunnings warehouse Marsden has been subjected to different kinds of loading including the dead loads that acts downwards. The building is occasionally subjected to the live loading. The live loading is sourced from the workers and other business individuals that access the building. The possessions within the warehouse also contribute the live loads.

Structural System


Figure 4: Structural system of the Bunnings warehouse Marsden (Vähä, Heikkilä, Kilpeläinen, Järviluoma and Gambao 2013).

The part of the structural system has employed the use of the hinged connection. Some of these connections were visible while others were obtained from the architectural data from the site. The combined application of these connections has resulted into the robust structure of the warehouse that can actually resist a variety of forces.

Floor System

There is normally lots of consideration when it comes to the selection of the floor system of the building. Some of the factors that are normally considered when selecting the floor system of the structure include the future use of the building, the structural design and the construction methodology (Vähä, Heikkilä, Kilpeläinen, Järviluoma and Gambao 2013). The floor system, however, must be able to meet the two basic criteria for the design including; The floor system must assist in achieving the intended use of the building itself.It is therefore compulsory for the floor to provide the services with little or no maintenance and have an aesthetic value that should be appealing to the users. The system of the floor should be sound structurally. The design and subsequent construction of the Bunnings warehouse Marsden utilized the above-mentioned criteria. The design of the floor system has been made in such a way that allows it to resist destruction during the peak loading. This has been very much evident alongside the other standard conditions.

Considering that this a warehouse, the floor system is subject to very many greater loads including the rolling loads and the static loads, its design has incorporated measures that allow very little movement and also tolerate higher loads(Mateus, Neiva, Bragança, Mendonça and Macieira 2013).

The Bunnings warehouse Marsden has stiffened raft lab that obtains its support from the reinforced concrete piers. This is comparable to the beam-column of the two-way slab system. The support of the slab is from the four faces which diffuse load in different directions. The design was recommendable for the warehouse considering its adaptability to wide range of the layouts. The grid systems are properly organized and this is possibly an indication that very little materials were used for the construction. The service that improves the structure of the material is possible even the repair considering the layout has beams and piers (Goldstein 2012).

The floor system of the Bunnings warehouse Marsden is made up of the concrete that has been treated chemically. The continuous chemical reactions facilitate the process of the hardening. The finish that has been obtained has been very durable and also robust. These characteristics are responsible for the high resistance to the deterioration, more appealing as well as being dustproof. The Pentra-Sil concrete hardener has been used in the floor system construction. This particular product is known to improve the lifespan, integrity and also strength of the floor. The above-illustrated treatment procedures were incorporated to offer long-term security to the floor against different kinds of forces like dusting and the abrasion. The floor system has also been made immune to the effects of the alkalinity, waterborne contaminations, corrosive chemicals, and efflorescence effects. The floor system of the Bunnings warehouse Marsden was as indicated in the figure below.

Floor System

Figure 5: Floor system of the Bunnings warehouse Marsden (Chan, Darko and Ameyaw 2017).

The wall system

The entire external walls of the Bunnings warehouse Marsden was actually made from the vertical precast concrete panels. The illustrated image is an indication of the external walls of the structure that was under the study. The panes that have been used get their support on the seating that possesses direct bearing. The transmission of the weight is directed to one level by the application of the two seating. Variety of techniques for fixing has been applied. The connection that utilizes step footing has been used in this structure (Chan, Darko and Ameyaw 2017).

Figure 6: Wall system of the warehouse (Chan, Darko and Ameyaw 2017)

Roof systems

The cladding of the Bunnings warehouse Marsden has been done using the concealed fixed Lysaght Klip-lok 406. The material that was selected for the purposes of cladding is known to be robust, versatile and also very durable. This material combines other properties like the strength of the steel, the perfect fluted pans, and the lock actions. The image that is indicated below illustrates the roof covering of the Lysaght Klip-Lok 406 used in Bunnings warehouse (Gutmacher, Hoefer and Wöllenstein 2012).

Figure 7:Roof system (Chan, Darko and Ameyaw 2017)

The stormwater is collected by the means of the gutter system and then directed to the storage tank. This water may be used for the cleaning of the floor and the toilets.

Figure 8: Gutter system (Chan, Darko and Ameyaw 2017)

Services within the building unit

There is a supply of the water and sewerage services within the Bunnings warehouse Marsden. The water that is used within the structure is obtained from the local authorities and it is properly distributed within the building. The water that is available within the Bunnings warehouse Marsden is enough for the users of the structure. The structure also enjoys a proper connection to the sewage system. The disposal of the waste matter including human excreta from the toilets has been made easier within the warehouse. The below images illustrate some of the sewage and water services (Johansson 2012).

Figure 9: Water services in the building (Johansson 2012)

Figure 10: Sewage service (Johansson 2012)

Fire protection services

The construction of the Bunnings warehouse Marsden has incorporated substantial measures to protect the occurrence and subsequent spread of fire just in case.  The measures put in place can be categorized as the active measures and the passive measures of the fire protection. The passive measures that have been put in place normally ensure that there is no spread of fire and smoke and this has been achieved by the visible barriers inside the building. The installation of the barriers does not allow the spread of the fire.

Wall System

The active fire protection has been used in some places within the building and some of them include the firefighting equipment. The installation of such equipment is to ensure that fire is quickly put off in the event that such accidents occur. The fire sprinklers have also been incorporated alongside the fire detection and alarm system. The alarm functions in such a way that fire and smoke presence are automatically detected. The occupants of the warehouse can then be alerted for safety steps (Castello Sanyal, Rossiter, Hensley and New 2014).

Figure 11:Fire fighting equipment (Johansson 2012)


The elements which are typically put into thought amid the plan of the balancing framework are; kind of the structure, the dirt conditions, financial elements, basic loadings, development issues and the proposed development time frame. Of every one of these elements, basic stacking and the dirt condition are the most fundamental amid the structure procedure of the footings. The balance framework which is legitimately planned can fundamentally dispense with or limit the differential settlement which happens when the heaviness of the structure focuses on the dirt (Calautit, Hughes and Ghani 2013).

The light measure auxiliary steelwork is comprised of the side rails which are utilized for the dividers and the purlins that are utilized for the rooftop. The optional steelwork offers support to the building envelope; however, it additionally assumes an exceptionally critical job in limiting the essential steelwork. The divider cladding and the rooftop isolates the building envelope from the outside condition and additionally offering acoustic and warm protection.


Calautit, J.K., Hughes, B.R. and Ghani, S.A., 2013. A numerical investigation into the feasibility of integrating green building technologies into row houses in the Middle East. Architectural Science Review, 56(4), pp.279-296.

Castello, C.C., Sanyal, J., Rossiter, J.S., Hensley, Z.P. and New, J.R., 2014, January. Sensor data management, validation, correction, and provenance for building technologies. In Proceedings of the ASHRAE Annual Conference and ASHRAE Transactions.

Chan, A.P.C., Darko, A. and Ameyaw, E.E., 2017. Strategies for promoting green building technologies adoption in the construction industry—an international study. Sustainability, 9(6), p.969.

Darko, A., Chan, A.P., Owusu-Manu, D.G. and Ameyaw, E.E., 2017. Drivers for implementing green building technologies: An international survey of experts. Journal of cleaner production, 145, pp.386-394.

Goldstein, B.E. ed., 2012. Collaborative resilience: Moving through crisis to opportunity. MIT press.

Gutmacher, D., Hoefer, U. and Wöllenstein, J., 2012. Gas sensor technologies for fire detection. Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical, 175, pp.40-45.

Johansson, O., 2012. The spatial diffusion of green building technologies: The case of Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) in the United States. International Journal of Technology Management & Sustainable Development, 10(3), pp.251-266.

Mateus, R., Neiva, S., Bragança, L., Mendonça, P. and Macieira, M., 2013. Sustainability assessment of an innovative lightweight building technology for partition walls–comparison with conventional technologies. Building and Environment, 67, pp.147-159.

Pittet, D., Jagadish, K.S., Kotak, T., Vaghela, K., Zaveri, P., Sareshwala, H. and Gohel, J., 2012. Environmental Impacts of Building Technologies: A Comparative Study in Kutch District, Gujarat State, India. In Technologies and Innovations for Development (pp. 113-128). Springer, Paris.

Syed, A., 2012. Advanced building technologies for sustainability (Vol. 3). John Wiley & Sons.

Vähä, P., Heikkilä, T., Kilpeläinen, P., Järviluoma, M. and Gambao, E., 2013. Extending automation of building construction—Survey on potential sensor technologies and robotic applications. Automation in Construction, 36, pp.168-178.

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