Utilizing the information gained from , critically analyze one of the scholarly articles found in The Ashford Journal of Criminal Justice.
In a critical analysis of the article, complete the following:
Critically evaluate the relevance of the data used to support the thesis of the article.
Evaluate the significance of the sources, including whether they are primary or secondary sources.
Provide examples of either the presence of bias or lack of bias evidenced by the authors.
Critique (as defined in Chapter 5) the accuracy, acceptability, strengths and weaknesses, and overall soundness of the article. In your critique, consider whether or not the authors persuaded you with their viewpoints.
Using source treeing, as described in Chapter 4.1 of your text, find two related scholarly articles and explain how the articles you found could be used to support or contradict the premise and findings of the article being critiqued.
Relevance of the Data Used to Support the Thesis of the Article
In the recent article in relation to the realistic approach of the parole aftercare and its reintegration program are of high risk in regard to the youthful offenders and the rate of high risk these offenders dealt with after they are put through the program of reintegration it may be experimental setting or controlled setting. There is a mention in the article regarding a program which is called “Lifeskills’95” that has been referred to state the successful nature of offenders that are young after the program has been completed. Mostly, people regard the juveniles that do wrong that are harmful in nature, in relation to the article and its statistics that have been presented in the year 1999 and the crime rate for juveniles have decreased and remained in control like this for the last 20 years. Juvenile offenders had started committing crimes for various reasons, which should have locked many behind the bars but many people were in doubt that what will such locking in a prison cell will do to the mental conditions, the emotions and also the outer appearance of the youth offender. It is very well understood that more time that a young offender spends behind bars it increases the risk of recidivism also becomes more. The main doubt which still arises is that does such and act reduce crime by the youth or not? According to this article as well as the statistics given for reintegration programs once the juvenile is released on parole they have been seen helping youthful offenders.
The thesis along with the main points focuses about how reintegration is so important for youthful offenders in this article. Locking juveniles behind the bars far away in youth facility is similar to prison or jail and in doing there has been seen symptoms of improvements. “the studies have recently shown that the more a juvenile stays behind the bars, the more violent they become. Also, the more serious crimes they indulge in as criminals when they come out to the normal living” (Listwan, 2013). The main object of this article is to show the rate of reintegration programs are needed for youth offenders. “More than half of such offenders in California were released on parole from a secure facility but they have failed to comply by the terms of their parole; 34% of the offenders failed to do so within the first twelve months. Some research have highlighted the rate of failure are very high among the “graduates” of the juvenile corrections programs” (Josi, D. A., & Sechrest, D. K., 1999). Keeping all this in mind it has been seen that even the programs that have been offered in the correctional institutional are proven to be not very effective after the offenders has been released.
The object of this article is to shift the community based “alternatives, assumptions of reentry/reintegration programs, pragmatic considerations and reducing recidivism”. All of this is considered as the important objects that they have to take into account before they are introduced to the program and the major part is how the program is held. Community based alternatives are those programs that are situated in the community and they help people who get reintegrated in the society as a good law obliging citizens who oblige law by the terms. A young offender has to be thought about for the purpose of their reentry and they have to show that they are eligible to follow the rules and regulations of the society and the laws for everyone’s safety. There are some young offenders who are allowed and are capable for their reentry but yet there are few offenders that are still a threat to the society and their considerations that has how many time before the offender has been jailed or has been arrested, along with their age is also considered as well as their past with drug addiction and alcoholic nature has to also be considered. To decrease the “recidivism” is the most important aim and object for all this programs and also whether it is based in the community or is the order of the court.
Significance of the Sources and Presence of Bias or Lack of Bias
“Lifeskills’95” is an interactive treatment program which comes to effect at the stage of the aftercare and has been made to assist the chronic, high-risk juvenile offenders, when released from secure confinement, in their initial efforts at community reintegration” (Degnan, 1994). The application of such life skill that have been used regularly as well as it helps those who are socially not able to adjust to the people around or in the society and can’t abide by the norms of society like following the rules and the terms of the law. Such offenders who cannot adjust in the surroundings most of the time they end up failing in school, becoming alcoholic or drug addicts and also influence negative peer pressure on others groups in our society. Week after week meetings are held as a part of these projects in which the individuals discuss things like “the addictive personality or the identity of the individuals who are living with addiction, restrain and sobriety, fear and stress and other addiction, and progressive recovery that are the part of the treatment, which includes assistance helping in gaining and maintaining meaningful employment as well as prepares them professionally” (Degnan, 1994). With the utilization of these 13 modules which are 3 hour long sessions, they help the person guilty to learn from their mistakes and provide ways in which they can rectify their lifestyle and the way of living by suspending being a young offender as it may result into an adult wrongdoer and will have to spend majority of their life in prison. “The level of the program modules is engaged in upgrading the understandings of the individual and their way of life; however, every topic under this is thought to be autonomous. People can begin at any point at any indicated way towards this program and its levels.
By calculating the relevant facts of the data that has been used to give meaning the main object of this article is that all the data’s that are put properly and they benefit to those who are interested in reintegration programs. Whatever has to be done to keep the young offenders facilities from get extra crowded, with the help of these new programs it can be fixed making sure that their data’s are just as good in relation to the research data presented? By asking questions and data collection this program has been used for the benefit. Asking of questions helped them to see that the program would be satisfied or unsuccessful. The main object is in the relation to recidivism and to state the fact that would have to see the statistics from the experimental groups as well as controlled groups. Questions were also asked regarding the social behavior of the offender and their teaching towards their social behavior. Could the offender be re taught the social way of living? Is all provided in the data. According to this program they have two different groups one who stay within a 25 mile radius of the CYA’s Inland Parole Office and the others those who stay outside the 25 mile radius. The experimental group is those who live 25 miles within the radius of the CYA and the one who lived beyond that were regarded as the controlled group. A lot of offenders went AWOL, had been released from the project or got in trouble and have been jailed again yet there were still most of the offenders who were still a part of the program. With respect to at all the data that was available it was clear that the experimental group that were within the 25 mile radius had a condition to their parole that they had to attend the meetings even if the controlled group did not; the experimental group obliged by this mostly and had better rate for their appearance as compares to the controlled group in all categories. “Among the few of the imperative discoveries, people have been given the control group were about twice as likely as experimental groups to have been captured, to be unemployed and to lack the resources that are needed to gain or maintain employment, to have a poor state of mind toward working, and to have mishandled drugs or frequent use of drugs after being released.
Critique of the Article
The sources that have been for the research of this article are considered as secondary sources since these article were written with a lot of quotes and datas that have been collected for this program. There are several books and scholarly magazines that have been used as references for this article and for the other references is very valuable as to how the article have been put together in cohorts with other authors the article is very beneficial for its readers. For instance, “The reality of being socially large should not obstruct the major part of the life skills experience for those who are a part of it. The effect it gives out instantly suggest that its benefits apply beyond the period of re-entry for the offender in ways that will fasten the process of social reintegration, decrease its involvement in their lifestyles, and enhance responsiveness to subsequent opportunities for positive change” (Josi, D. A., & Sechrest, D. K., 1999). Yes, there have been many youth offenders who have backed out of the programs as well as have got thrown out of the same but the fact is that the programs have made a significant change in the percentage of the children being thrown out or have left the program. One more example can be pointed out in relation to this article is that, “such kind of programs are considered to be helpful and can be used to develop the offender and their life style if there is provisions made for the funds in relation to such programs and also receive organizational support. Programs such as “Lifeskills’95” can provide certain objects which can provide relief or support for the parolee. But without an overwhelming desire by the individual, a legislative mandate for parole services, a sense of obligation by the community, short-term achievements will not produce long-term success” (Josi, D. A., & Sechrest, D. K., 1999).
In conclusion it can be stated that, challenging programs for the reintegration of the offenders are becoming less and less due to the lack of funds in many countries, cities and states. However, there are certain states that are lucky enough to get such funds for their programs for youth offenders. The percentage of the likings is not very sure but if the state officials are given the opportunity and means, it result in being successful in relation to some that have failed. If the offenders are ambitious to bring out the change in them along with so much effort put in by them in relation to these projects, then there may be more individuals that would be willing to donate to such reintegration programs. According to this article and statistics that have been given for the reintegration programs.
Degnan, W. (1994). Lifeskills Post-Parole Treatment Program. Sanger, CA: Operation New
Flowers, R. (1986). Children and Criminality: The Child as Victim and Perpetrator . Westport,
Gottfredson, M. & Hirschi, T. (1990). A General Theory of Crime. Palo Alto : Stanford
Josi, D. A., & Sechrest, D. K. (1999). A pragmatic approach to parole aftercare: Evaluation of a
community reintegration program for high-risk youthful offenders. Justice Quarterly ,
Listwan, S. J. (2013). Introduction to Juvenile Justice. San Diego: Bridgepoint Education, Inc.
Robinson, D. M., & Landrum, R. E. (2013). Social and Criminal Justice: A Capstone. San
Diego, California: Bridgepoint Education, Inc.
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