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1. discuss how stakeholders can benefit from planning of tourism developments with reference to a current case study
2. discuss the advantages and disadvantages of public/private sector tourism planning partnerships drawing on a current example

Analysing features of tourism development planning at different levels in Qatar

The environment is significant to tourism and natural environment as well as built environment should be preserved for environmentally sustainable. The tourism destinations need to be different and they must reflect the community values. The tourism places must achieve authenticity and they must understand and target the market. The tourism destinations can enhance the experience of the travellers through adding extra values (Connell 2013). Most importantly, the tourism destinations can achieve conservation outcomes along with sense of place through new designs. In this study, the aim is to gain an understanding of tourism and planning along with the current issue of sustainable tourism and how it can impact on the tourism. A small case study of Qatar tourism is given, therefore, this study aims to find out the current trends in the planning of the Qatar tourism. There are five tasks in this study; each of the tasks will be done in a specific manner.

Each of the development processes begins with recognition by regional government and in consultation with the public-private sector. In order to plan a development plan of tourism; understanding of the economic, social and environmental features of the area should be well-known. The participation of the international institutions is also necessary. Qatar Tourism Authority has been doing excellent work to develop the tourism sector in Qatar and major objectives of the sustainable tourism are to keep the right balance of economic, social and environmental development. Sustainable utilisation of the resources, natural elements, integration of community all is required.   

International level: QTA is planning to do the destination branding through participating the trade shows in international representations. Qatar is doing the rich festivals and events to attract the tourists. With the presence of many of the international events, QTA representatives are trying to reach their message to international arena. QTA representative offices are established in Berlin, Paris, Milan, Singapore, Riyadh and London in order to support the promotion of Qatar. These representatives office mainly do the tour programme and they provide information to the travellers. Contemporary development is part of the tourism planning. As stated by Musinguzi (2016), tourism planning is associated with the place marketing and in the international market, the country can show some of the places as chosen tourism destinations. This strategy will attract large numbers of tourists towards Qatar as it has places like Doha, Al Khor, Al Wakrah, Mesaieed. Most of the places are famous for resorts and beach parks with Islamic Art.  

Evaluating the significance of interactive planning systems and processes in tourism developments

National level: In this level, the planning process mainly focuses on the physical structure as well as the policy of the nation. Qatar develops the plan for adding major national routes so that the travellers can easily reach from one place to other. New Transit visa now allows the travellers to enter Qatar for absolutely free and spend for 96 hours between the flights in the country (Ellis and Sheridan 2014). Apart from the routes, it has started the programme of Cruise Tourism in Qatar to facilitate disembarkation. In the year of 2016-17, Qatar confirmed almost 50,000 cruise passengers landed on the seas-shore. In addition, hospitality ensures the consistent and high standards services according to new grading and classification system.

Regional and local: In regional level, Qatar is trying to ensure mainly the investment in order to capitalise the natural attributes. Qatar Tourism Authority identified the six regional hubs to develop for the tourists. Abu Samra (desert and resort), Al Zubarah (heritage and archaeology), Doha (urban tourism), Al Thakira (eco-tourism), Khor Al Udaid (adventure and beach activities) and Zikreet (sports, history and culture); these places are focused for improvement (Visitqatar.qa 2018). Therefore, the regional government is trying to improve the condition of internal transport, regional level of education, network, regional policies and different marketing strategies. 

 Interactive planning is the process that communicates the participation in the development of the particular industry and design of the desirable future (Moscardo 2014). Tourism evolution can bring many issues to the local community and many of the overcrowding destinations, superstructure, traffic contestation and mega events can cause problems to that place. Martin and Assenov (2014) stated this many of the problems are the result of the unrestrictive tourism planning and insufficient systems and policies. On the contrary, some of the destinations get the benefit without any tourism planning. Qatar has planned the tourism development planning as this country is significant for business and many of the sports events. The conventional planning system is unclear and it is vague from the perspective of the budget and the plan is irrelevant from the data to be delivered. As suggested by Malek and Costa (2014), interactive planning is the co-operative, collaborative and participating planning that is included the initial proposal to direct along with the same line for the benefit of the local community as well. The specific planning is emphasised along with ordinary concept to have an opinion, experience and constructive recommendations. Interactive planning makes sure about the communities, organisations and tourism to get involved to the system to avoid over budget spending and lower the negative impact on the community (Musinguzi 2017). In Qatar, in the year 2011, Asian Football Confederation Cup was held. Qatar local communities did not enjoy the benefits from the mega event as many of the communities had turned into big construction sites and population may not aware of the purpose. Responsible tourism is about consuming the tourism facilities in the more responsible way and tourism must minimise the economic, social and environmental impact (Arabiantravelmarket.wtm 2018). Qatar is expected to organise FIFA World Cup in 2022 and many of the places are into under construction and corruption may increase, lack of transparency as well. These incidents will create dissatisfaction within the local and national levels. Development of the tourism is associated with main preservation, conservation and new build.

Evaluating different methods available to measure tourist impact

 Tourism studies review that development of tourism study can impact on both negative and positive way through social, environmental and economic aspects. The aim of the planning in tourism is to evaluate the objective to measure the impacts of economic, social and environment (Martin and Assenov 2014).  

Cambridge Economic Impact Model (STEAM): Cambridge model allows the access to the major national survey through providing cleat maintenance and cost information to be collected. This process is very useful essentially for the regional and local authority giving local database accommodation capacities. The STEAM model was developed in Canada to collect the idea and information from the local organisations and private sector about the failure and success of qualities of services and qualities (Saffari et al. 2016). This process helps to collect the data about visitor survey and tourism performance. Qatar government or QTA can use the STEAM process to use the quantity the numbers of social and economic influence and the agencies can get the numbers of visitors through analyse of a variety of contribution of accommodation, attraction numbers and visitor expenditure as well.  

Environmental measure: Environmental measurement aims to calculate the environmental costs and Qatar has included the legislation regarding Environmental Impact Assessment for the tourism project. Environmental measure predicts the environmental consequences to propose the development activity in order to ensure the potential risks and to recompense the damage to the environment.

Social measure: Socio-cultural measurement of tourism is the most difficult to count as these data are extremely personal and qualitative based. Methods of collecting the social information are collecting the information from primary sources and secondary sources through records, newspapers and public documents (Moscardo 2016). 

 Sustainability tourism takes full account of recent and future social, economic as well as environmental influences and it addresses the needs of the travellers, the desires of the tourism industry and the environment along with host communities. Edgell (2016) supported this by saying tourism industry is committed to creating a low impact on local culture, environment while assisting to generate better future employment for the local people. All eyes now on Qatar at World Travel Market as Qatar have been taking the strategy of sustainable tourism. UNWTO praised Qatar for taking right initiative on sustainable tourism development and Qatar has made a sustainable tourism calendar.  

Brundtland Report (1987) stated about intergenerational equity as it is the sum of all needs which are essential for economic growth and equity is encouraged for the citizen participation (Sustainabletourism.net 2018). This report identified the development of human resource through poverty reduction, wealth redistribution, gender equality and environmental conservation. In addition, this report provided mandate of strengthening international cooperation on developing the environment and to propose a new form of cooperation. Sustainable development must meet the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generation to meet their own needs also (Sher et al. 2015). Therefore, the concept of ‘needs' is essential and this should be given.   

Justifying the introduction of the concept of sustainability in tourism development

Triple Bottom Line is the framework that expands the concept of major three performances of the sustainable organisation. Organisations need to measure the social or wealth creation, financial performance and environmental responsibility. The triple bottom line comprises economic, social equity and environmental factors. The triple bottom line can also be stated as ‘people, profit and planet' (Cheng and Wu 2015). While acquiring a profit is the clearest objective of maintaining a business, numerous organisations are additionally grasping the objectives of dealing with human resources and the planet. Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) develops a set of rules to enable the organisations to report on the social influences on the business (Ruhanen et al. 2015). Human resources (people) are the social value main concern. From a social viewpoint, it's tied in with treating workers well and being dynamic in the community. Organisations with the planet imply currently seeking green strategies that secure nature and decrease contamination (Jamal and Camargo 2014). The hospitality organisations or the tourism destinations need to reduce the ecological footprint so that the organisations can manage the consumption of non-renewable and energy to reduce the manufacturing waste. Profit will eventually drop by giving quality at a reasonable cost.

Sustainable Development Goals set the direction towards continuing the global sustained economic growth. Sustainable consumption and production are needed in tourism and it aims to improve the organisations, especially transnational and large organisations to adopt the sustainable practices and in order to integrate the sustainability information (Hall and Lew 2018).   

The growth of tourism industry in Qatar slowed in 2015-16, it has been observing substantive growth in the year 2017. Almost 4 million tourists visited in 2017 and it increases almost 4%. Mainly terrorism and the factors of Muslim centric areas are the reasons behind the fewer tourists' attraction of Qatar. However, some of the basic factors create a hindrance for the sustainable tourism development.  

Lack of awareness: Local communities are unaware of the advantages of the sustainable tourism. Many of the local communities exploit the natural resources that could be a good help to increase the tourism business. Sustainable tourism could provide economic benefits to the society related to the foreign exchange earnings. Sustainable tourism could provide the good government revenues and creation of employment opportunity. Qatar can make awareness among the local communities to increase the profitability of keeping consideration for sustainability (Harris et al. 2012). Qatar Tourism Authority has already started the campaign to make aware of the local communities in many of the places.

The infrastructure required: Qatar has been making the strategic geographic location by connecting the routes so that the travellers could easily reach from one place to another. Qatar Government is trying to develop the policy and infrastructural quality so that Qatar can position itself in the world-class tourism destination (Page and Connell 2016). Qatar Tourism Authority has started the cruise and ships. Qatar has allowed the transit visa so that the people can travel without.   

Lack of coordination: The stakeholders of the tourism industry need to coordinate with the government bodies. Lack of coordination among the government bodies and the tourism stakeholders can create an issue. The programmes and policies of sustainable tourism can be ineffective if the coordination may result in failure. Qatar Tourism Authority has made a partnership with private organisations to meet the objectives of sustainable tourism.

Low profit and high cost: Qatar government has been facing the cost of implementation of the sustainable programmes as it involves with a heavy cost. The government may incur the heavy expenditure. After that, Qatar Government may impose a tax to return the expenses. The increased burden of tax may lower the numbers of tourists and it can create a high cost for the stakeholders of tourism as well (Swarbrooke 2017).

Economic priority: In most of the famous tourist spots, the common people and stakeholders of the tourism mainly provide importance towards economic development. Therefore, they show less significance towards the sustainability (Weaver 2016). In case of the developing economy, their only aim is to gain economic priority. Their main focus is to gain the large numbers of tourists and it can hinder the concept of sustainable tourism. Qatar offers a range of authentic experience including a museum, public arts, galleries, archaeological sites, towers and forts. These places need to focus on sustainability before they interest the city tours itineraries.

Objective: It is the first stage towards sustainability and government authorities do planning and set the objectives of sustainability at this stage. Purpose of ensuring the objective is to opt for sustainable development. Qatar Tourism Authority sets the objectives of the sustainable tourism through partnership with public and private stakeholders. QTA sets a goal to achieve the diverse tourism industry to attract the investment for the development of tourism industry in Qatar.   Sustainability principle is interdependence of society, economy and the natural environment (Hall and Lew 2018).  Citizenship is associated with the rights and responsibilities, participation.

Eco-efficiencies and risk reduction: In this stage, the authority makes the policies and identifies the impact of the operation. The authorities try to reduce costs by the process of eco-efficiencies. The actions are taken to reduce energy, waste and through the process of development of green building practices. Qatar Tourism Authority identifies the sustainability threats to climate impact chemicals and labour issues.

Competitive advantage: The plan of the sustainability needs to work out in order to gain the competitive advantage. The tourism stakeholders need to integrate the sustainability of the corporate strategy. They can use the sustainability in order to inspire the performance development and new services or products. The hospitality organisations and stakeholders of the tourism can collaborate with the suppliers in order to make it sustainable. Tourism stakeholders can develop and produce sustainability report with metrics (Harris et al. 2012).  

Reinvention and regeneration: By using the strategy of sustainability, it will be feasible to accomplish the plan and policy. The stakeholders can reinvest in economic, environment and social capital. It helps to determine the unique contribution to solve the issue. In this stage, QTA can identify the serious sustainable issue that could be addressed through core-competencies. 

In the development of tourism planning, the current conflicts are associated with the planner, tour operator, government, tourist and local community. There could be different types of conflict of interests in planning for the sustainable tourism in Qatar that has a negative impact on the well-being of the future of this destination. As stated by Kazak (2017), major conflicts can also occur due to the difference between local community and culture of the tourists. People of Qatar generally follow the Islamic religion and their beliefs do not match with the travellers. In addition, different types of conflicts can be solved by utilising a step by step process and the conflict resolution can be solved by identifying the local government. Legal authority assists in creating the solution through mitigation of conflicts through rules and regulations. In some of the situations, discussion, meetings and appropriate communication can help to resolve the different stakeholders (Sigala 2017). 

In Qatar, 2022 FIFA World Cup is going to happen and the government of Qatar is expecting a large rush of people during that time. So that, the government is making the new hospitality buildings, resorts, stadiums, new roads and new cruises. The government expects the cost of this renovation may touch US$220 billion and it is almost 60 times of the spending of South Africa spent on 2010 World Cup (Baum 2016). New airports, new air-conditioned stadium, transport and infrastructure all are to be renovated. The government is just focusing on the tourism and development; however, they do not focus on the condition of the common people. The condition of the local community is getting worse. The construction work and the process of construction are creating an impact on the environment and economic drained is making the situation more difficult.

The equalisation of demand and supply is extremely basic for practical improvement of the tourism industry of Qatar. There are distinctive strategies by which adjust amongst demand as well as supply can be overseen. Different elements which can straightforwardly influence the request and supply administration of tourism industry can fit estimation of demand and advancement of arranging methodologies help in dealing with the demands and supply in a successful way. Demand in tourism is associated with the re-shaping of the industry and opportunity can be blend with attraction. As stated by Moutinho and Vargas-Sanchez (2018), demand in tourism is that the numbers of the tourists who desire to travel from one place to another through using industry of tourism; main features of tourism are elasticity, consumption of the services, market competition and depend upon the season. Delphi strategies are a most critical technique for gauging the request without bounds clients of the tourism business of Qatar (Musinguzi 2017). 

Tourism supply is the services or products which are supplied and purchased by the tourists. Suppliers in tourism are food service, transport and building. It is fundamental that the visitors are fulfilled by the goal and goal is additionally not influenced in a negative way due to the tourism exercises. The request in the tourism business has expanded exponentially in the most recent decade and Qatar has been seeing a consistent increment in the remote tourists in the nation. The supply or the accessibility of the traveller goals can't coordinate the request. In spite of the fact that, the tourists are presently more mindful of their duty and comprehend the issues caused by their deviousness, the issue endures (Pulido-Fernandez et al. 2016). The legislature of Qatar is taking a shot at the foundation improvement to help the extreme inflow of the travellers and shaped association with the private organisations. The association between the legislature and tourism stakeholders is working in making the less investigated tourism goals effectively open. After launching of QNTSS, Qatar welcomes more than 7 million travellers and it achieved the annual acceleration of 11.5% (Arabianmarket.wtm 2018).     

Enclave tourism is destinations in tourism where activities of tourists are cogenerated and planned in a small area to allow the travellers to experience all types of actions of their intentions without going far into the remote places in the host country (Naidoo and Sharpley 2016). The tourism industry is bringing employment, creating learning and increasing economic growth. Enclave tourism can bring the ethical issues including green issues ethics, unethical consumer behaviour and leakage of income and ethics of income. Mass-market tourism is the most damaging tourism and enclave tourism are usually operated by large foreign organisations where the travellers can experience the entire travel experience in one resort. Qatar is getting richer and famous due to the oil reserve and they have been making large resorts and urban tourism section. Enclave tourism is usually big development which takes a lot of lands and space. These lands are usually owned by local communities or farmers. The resorts can be located at the seaside and these resorts will impact on the fish, marine animals and community people as well. Enclave tourism can take away the only source of income from the common people and it is unethical to take away the food or income where the people live (Zubair et al. 2015). It takes away the basic needs such as drinking water and growing crops. 

Emission from the resorts and waste from the resorts can make the environment suffer. The infinite resources are utilised in wrong way; however, it can be minimised if the people aware of this. As stated by Fennell (2015), this is morally unacceptable as travellers live in these hotels and resorts and spend their money. This money goes to the foreign organisations; the common people do not get anything. The behaviour of the consumers and resorts do not give any profit to the community. In Qatar, the enclave tourism commercialises the local culture that may suit the expectations of the travellers.   

Current issues of tourism development are energy consumption, job creation, working condition, responsible sourcing, health and wellness of the tourists, food safety and carbon and another emission. Developing country is taken as Mexico and emerging destination is taken as Qatar.  

Factors

Mexico

Qatar

Social issue

Social changes are clear in the lives of the local people, development of the infrastructure as well as the lifestyle changes (Jackie and Smith 2014).

In Mexico, one section is rich and another section is poor. Heavy traffic and crowed does not let the government make the infrastructure (Shaadi et al. 2018). Some youth do the criminal activities. Sanitation issue and overcrowding are some of the issues.

 Sometimes. Tourists fail to respect the local customers and moral values. Stereotyping and irritation among society increases.

Local communities belong to the Islam and government is trying to lower down the crime. Moral behaviour of the people engages the travellers to maintain a good relationship (Visitqatar.qa 2018). Government is trying to focus on commercialisation of the art and the culture. Changing the value of the people has created the place worth for tourism.

Orthodox mentality of some Islamic people and sudden outrages of terrorism can impact on tourism

Environmental issue

Overdevelopment may come at the cost of nature. High rise houses and building of infrastructure can damage the fauna and flora. Sometimes, local people are displaced for making resorts and luxury hotels. Water disposal issues, more noise and more transport create an ecological imbalance.

Land degradation is one of the reasons behind the issue of environment in Mexico and land clearing is causing the harm of wildlife. Therefore, Mantled howler monkey, the Coahuilan box turtle and Harpy Eagle are getting endangered.

Qatar mainly depends on the crude oil and petroleum. Therefore, natural resources are there. It has infinite sources of water, land and human resources (Buhalis and Amarangana 2015). Environmental issues like drainage, irrigation and national parks are there.

In Qatar, environmental issues are associated with the wetland, wildlife, fossil, fertile soil and wetland. This country is depended on petrochemical; therefore, negative impact of this can suffer for tourism. Qatar does enclave tourism and it can impact on soil, forests and drainage system.

Economic issue

GDP of Mexico is $1.14 trillion and GDO rank is 15th. GDP growth touches 3.3%. Inflation rate is 2.5% (Donelson and Esparza 2017).

The unemployment rate is 3.44%.

Interest rate rates remain comparatively high in Mexico

Qatar’s annual growth is 14.2% and inflation rate s 0.91%.

Major industries in Qatar are financial services, construction and petrochemicals (Vahove 2017).

GDP of Qatar touched $171 billion and GDP rank is 52.

Qatar has been facing the issue of low employment and economic downturn.

Hospitality network values

Ease of doing business rank of Mexico is 49th.

 Altamira and Rio Largartos are some of the important ports.

Ease of doing business rank is 83 rd in 2017 and main ports of entry in Qatar are Hamad port (Sea), Abu Samra Crossing (Land) and Hamad International Airport.

Legal issues

Travellers do not get extra advantage in Mexico law as the laws are same for travellers as well as for the nationalities. Foreigners must have a valid visa or tourist card in Mexico.

Foreign hospitality companies need to provide tax 6 times per year and the total share of taxes of profit is 52%.

Company tax rate 10% and number of payments of taxes year per year are 4. QTA provides the license for the hospitality business. Qatar applies Shari'a Law to all aspects of family law, inheritance and certain criminal acts. Qatar government provides 96 hours time for travelling without a visa.

Qatar needs to open up the investment opportunity for the large hospitality organisations so that luxury hotel chains can come to establish new resorts and hotels. When doing the enclave tourism, Qatar government is doing wrong to the common people; the government can choose alternative places or the government can compensate the poor people. The QTA can start the Pro-poor tourism where the tourism generates benefits for the poor. In case of Mexico, Tours and Activity Operators should be targeted by Mexico Tourism Board to get the outbound market. International travellers always provide a boost to the economy and are likely to increase the footfalls of tourists.

QTA can empower the local group to make a good partnership in tourism. Child labour and gender issues should be stopped. Lastly, economic prosperity can be brought only through the development of the local community by giving them capability. Mexico Government can chalk out the utilisation of foreign currencies to development of the local communities and tourism. Mexico Tourism Board should develop the partnership with the agents so that the travellers can reach the destinations. In Mexico, labour agreement and qualified staffs are needed to engage the travellers here. The partnership with the tourism stakeholders will provide tourism with a right blend of economic, social and environmental benefit.  

Qatar can make the destinations sustainable by reducing the usage of water, energy and the hospitality sector needs to lower the disposal of waste. The hospitality sector can maintain the bio-diversity so that the wild-life can exist without any issue. In Mexico, the issue of climate change has not gained due focus by the community of Mexico and they should focus on integrated tourism marketing. Mexico government is focusing on the developing of the infrastructure. Mexico government can start the attractive policy so that the travellers should visit the places.

Conclusion 

It has been observed that tourism is the quickest developing industry and it adds to a huge degree in the financial advancement of a country. Sustainable tourism will help Qatar in ensuring its rich culture, biodiversity and condition. The regional and local authorities are trying to grab the state-of-art business events spaces and facilities along with the infrastructure and policy developments. The STEAM process helps to understand the process of economic impact process to measure the tourism from the bottom up through the use of local supply. By including the partners, the government can make legitimate arranging toward practical advancement. 

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