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Occupational Health Program Steps

Discuss about the Develop A Occupation Health Management Program.

Since all occupations have potential and actual occupational health hazards, human resources managers recommend development of workplace health and wellbeing occupational programs as required by work health and safety act 2011 of the Australian law (Cormack & Chennel2018). According to world health organization (WHO), early detections of health hazards at workplaces offer better chances of health risks management and prevention of any possible diseases that may rise or reduction of the speed of which the disease process may occur among workers(ÖZBAY, 2017). Therefore, for a better workplace environment an occupation workplace health program and guideline need to be enforced ("WorkSafe", 2018). For a good occupation health program to be achieved, various steps are involved which include; surveillance and risk assessment of the workplace in order to identify the risk hazards, identification of correct equipment and resources needed, identification of correct aims and objectives in order to achieve the required outcomes, use of correct legislation and ethics as recommended by the law, development of an action plan that is timely based and implementation of the whole program(Gerand et al 2004).

This study seeks to develop a health occupation health program for workers in a mining quarry that currently employs about 20 individuals working in an 8 hours shifts(Cormack & Chennel2018). Although the mining quarry have established and developed certain measures to control the amount of silicon dust the workers are exposed to like fogging system, conveyers covers, and properly localized ventilation, there are still high risk for workers to be exposed contacting silicon related respiratory health diseases like silicosis and other health conditions(ÖZBAY, 2017). Therefore our main objective in this guideline is to develop a well-organised health program for these workers in a control room identifying all silicon health-related risk and developing an action plan that is well timed with correct and attainable outcomes in order to minimize respiratory and other silicon related diseases for the workers(Cormack & Chennel2018).

Historically, RCS dust has been one of the major health hazards leading to the enormous burden of occupational ill health with countless death from diseases majorly silicosis(Harper & Key-Schwartz, 2017). Silicon has been under surveillance over the years and the morbidity and mortality of a large number of exposed individuals have been proved and studied (OHS, 2018). In Australia Silicon is claimed to have more dangerous health effects similar to asbestos and that it can cause serious health effects to miners.  Other than silicosis, RCS has been known to cause other potential health effects(Teale, 2013). According to International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), RCS is responsible for group 1 carcinogens for a variety of lung cancer. Other than that the Australian Institute of occupation hygienists (AIOH) have recently proved that RCS has potential effects of causing kidney diseases. Due to these reasons, there is a need to develop an occupational health program for the miners which include both surveillance and a variety of health promotion strategies that should be implemented at the worksite(Leese, Staff, Carolan & Morton, 2017).  This should include potential diseases assessment, policy making, benefits of the program to the employees, development of the action plan and it should have the environmental support that links to the surrounding community in order to promote the health of all employees(Sparks, 2013). An occupation health program is meant to change attitudes, behaviors, and to promote health practices at workplace. Furthermore, the program aims to promote strategies and suitable targets that demonstrate a measure of success in the workplace over the time(Cormack & Chennel2018).

Risk Assessment and Surveillance

The aim of this occupational health management program is to promote health and safety of miners mining a quarry that currently has around 20 individuals employed. In order to achieve this aim the health management project has the following objectives:

  • Identify and conduct health surveillance assessment.
  • Assess the need for behavioural attitude changes.
  • Demonstrate ethical considerations needed to develop a program.
  • Develop an action plan that should be implemented over the time.

Due to the fact that, RCS only become a health risk when inhaled, the only appropriate way for conducting comprehensive health surveillance in Australia is air monitoring(Worksafe Queensland. 2014). Respiratory dust particles for RCS include all portions of airborne materials that can be inhaled and penetrate up to inner respiratory organs including un-ciliated air pathways(Cormack & Chennel 2018). There are various strategies used to carry out air monitoring and analysis("Silica - OHS Reps", 2018). However, the most significant strategy used include X-ray diffraction which involves the use of various analytical instruments that measure and determine the level of acceptable RCs concentration normally in an 8-hour shift("Regulatory framework for occupational health and safety | ALRC", 2018). Given that the result should always fall under the acceptable RCS as set by the standard the shift may be shorter even at 4 hours but with proper monitoring, compliance, and use of accredited testing equipment it can even reach at 8 hours and 12 hours shifts(ÖZBAY, 2017).  Once the level of exposure is measured, an Occupational Health and safety officer should come and develop an action plan which is well tailored towards eliminating the amount of dust being exposed to the labourers In addition, a full medical check-up should be carried out to all the miners, paying much attention to respiratory, skin function and measuring the amount of methanol in both blood and urine of the miners (Sheehan, Donohue, Shea, Cooper & Cieri, 2016). Most significant medical tests used include FEV1 1, FVC2 and FEV1 /FVC3 in order to test respiratory functions. In addition a chest X-ray and full-size PA view are requred as recommended by ILO.  Furthermore, for effective surveillance, the exposure level should be well documented for posterior purposes thus in future an employee’s future ailment cannot be falsely attributed to the workplace exposure of RCS(Sheehan, Donohue, Shea, Cooper & Cieri, 2016).

 This data collection and documentation should start at the employment stage where one is supposed to undergo a pre-employment medical check-up whereby each employee’s demographic data, occupational history including the kind of work previously undertaken , probable exposures and the control measures that had been put in to place and employees medical history to show one’s pre-existing conditions which can be obtained through filling out a detailed questionnaire such as the Bronchial Symptoms Questionnaire(Khan & Khurshid, 2017). A Physical exam should also be undertaken just before being employed to assess one's physical health and medical advice given to the employee to educate and also advice on ways of avoiding risk factors during the employment period(WHO,2018). Once the above activities are carried out the surveillance can be deemed effective so far(Khan & Khurshid, 2017).

Monitoring and Medical Assessments

There also should be monthly monitoring during the exposure period to RCS to ensure the employee's personal protective equipment are well suited for each person’s duties and they are well maintained(Sheehan, Donohue, Shea, Cooper & Cieri, 2016). Timely medical assessments should be carried out for comparison with the baseline data which will even have one’s job description and dates of employment and termination of employment(Cormack & Chennel 2018). The other kind of data to be stored should be personal results to medical exams and also atmospheric monitoring. This kind of data especially the personal results should always be monitored in confidentiality and only the professionals involved should have access to it having permission from the employees. In case of abnormalities in the results, the employer should be informed to set up corrective measures to curb the abnormalities(Sheehan, Donohue, Shea, Cooper & Cieri, 2016). Surveillance during exposure is deemed a success if the information collected is used to create a better working environment maybe by putting up signs, warnings/ caution, appropriate PPE and healthy safety seminars among others("New reports from the NIOSH health hazard evaluation program", 2015).

Even after the termination of a work contract the Employee should undergo a medical examination just like the one before employment, and should be detailed enough to show the reason for termination and the date("Workplace Health and Wellbeing programs", 2018). If the termination is attributed to ill health, the report should clearly depict the details about the ailment and the same should happen in case of demise of the employee while still, the contract hasn’t ended(Khan & Khurshid, 2017). This surveillance after the termination is termed effective if it clearly gives exposure levels or status at termination thus the data can be used to compare RCS exposure with the baseline data(Gerand et al 2004).

In efforts to bring about behavioural  attitude changes, employee involvement is the most effective way as they get to own up ideas which are generated from among them and not from the management team. This bridges the gap between the employees and the management thus creating more understanding in terms of health and safety thus benefiting both teams. Moreover, the immediate employee may have noticed an ergonomic problem in his/her working of which the management team may not have noticed(Sparks, 2010).

The other method that can be used to effect behaviour change is through motivation whereby employees are recognized positively thus attracting positive change among various employees , this gives more weight to visible management leadership and support by employees for changing unsafe trends, negative attitude to a more positive one and work processes(Dudley & Morriss, 2015). Training of workers and orientation is critical in creating positive change. Training may be in form of seminars and discussions, hands-on approach or it can also be task specific or general. Furthermore, it is a regulatory requirement by law to enable employees to know how to perform their duties properly and safely(Sinelnikov, Inouye & Kerper, 2015). Organizational communication also aides employees in understanding new and existing laws procedures, policies while at the same time providing avenues for revision of the same(ÖZBAY, 2017). The mutual flow of information between employer and employee create a healthy environment for an effective and safety program(OHS, 2018). Management and control of external exposures such as weather changes and riots or protesters including any other emergency planning can be a major contribute in changing the attitudes of employees.

Employee Involvement and Behavioral Change

 Workplace design and engineering whereby safety precautions are designed plays a very significant role in ensuring the employees feel valued and are part of a team where their needs are met. This includes break rooms and various safety measures put in the workplace such as fire extinguishers, ventilation, personal protective equipment,  storage and handling of materials, machine and equipment safeguarding, processes automation and many others (Leese, Staff, Carolan & Morton, 2017). Another major way of bringing about positive behavioural and attitude change is early and timely hazard identification, evaluation and control if not complete elimination thus reducing any potential risks to employees (ÖZBAY, 2017). Other than that, goal setting contributes greatly to behaviour change as individuals who have set goals tend to work better than an employee who is told to work at his or her level best. This gradually will make miners work cautiously to meet their set goals which once reached lead to recognition and contribute to moving up the ranks.

The Work Health and Safety act 2011 has established given duties that should be followed by persons conducting business or undertaking (PCBU) under section 19 to ensure the workplace health and safety of workers (Work Health and Safety Regulation 2017).  This provides that for people working with materials involving silica exposure, there is no reasonable explanation that those individuals health should be affected( Work Health and Safety Regulation 2017). Therefore as section 19 applies, people working at quarry’s should have healthy working environment, have proper safe plants and structures, be provided with proper systems of work, be ensured to safely use silica containing substances, be provided with proper training, instructions, information and supervision plus ensuring the workplace conditions are being monitored to prevent illnesses attributed to working with silica(OHS, 2018). Additionally, the Work Health and Safety regulation act provide such ethics and code of conducts that guide mining (Work Health and Safety Regulation, 2017). The specific details relating to silica is found in documents such as Tunnelling Code of practice, Foundry code of practice, the Abrasive Blasting Code of Practice and Workplace Exposure Standards that provide similar guidance("New reports from the NIOSH health hazard evaluation program", 2015).

Certain ethical considerations are included in this program like for example while carrying out medical examinations of employees, the results of medical examinations should always be kept in confidentiality and the professionals who have access to the data must have obtained consent from each employee(Dudley & Morriss, 2015). The working hours of each miner should rotate at reasonable time spans, usually eight hours a day. There should also be the provision of breaks and day offs. The management team should put into place first aid kits at strategic positions and a trained medical service provider in case of accidents during the working period(ÖZBAY, 2017). Other than that, the medical expert should also give medical advice on various health hazards associated with mining. In order to demonstrate quality control, provision of personal protective equipment for all employees and routine check-up and maintenance of the worn out attires should be included as among the major standards (Work Health and Safety Regulation 2017). In addition, human resources department is recommended  so as to ensure the miner's concerns are heard and conveyed to the management where these issues may be addressed thus acting as a bridge between the two parties(Harper & Key-Schwartz, 2017).

Training and Organizational Communication

In relation to occupational health and safety (OHS) the wellbeing of the miners and prevention of harm is the core motive. (Sinelnikov, Inouye & Kerper, 2015) The employer should make sure the organization get a target of ‘zero harm’ through tracking the lagging indicators and performances and enforcing the leading indicators. Good OHS performance indicators should be reliable, consistent, repeatable and independent("WorkSafe", 2018).  The leading and lagging indicators should be accurate, correct without erroneous conclusions, have a qualitative and quantitative basis, provide collect information and prompt an appropriate response(Sinelnikov, Inouye & Kerper, 2015). Therefore, the performance of the miners in quarry should be measured against the required standards to show the areas that need improvements. This should be done through active self-monitoring in order to reveal how effective the health management system is functioning(Dudley & Morriss, 2015).

Self-monitoring involves looking both hardware and the software of the resources involved in mining. This includes premises, substances involved, management committee, procedures, employees performance and the systems of productions(Sinelnikov, Inouye & Kerper, 2015).  If the control fails due to lagging indicators, the management committee should always check the relative monitoring in order to determine where they have failed.  The objectives should always be determining the immediate case of the substandard performance and identifying the underlying cause and implications that need to be addressed( OHS, 2018).  Other than that auditing and reviewing the performance should be continuously be followed in order to improve the overall health and safety of the miners("Using Checklists to Evaluate the Control of Respirable Silica in Quarries", 2010).

Other performance indicators that are involved to measure improvements for better health and wellbeing include the consistent commitment of the occupation health committee, compliance of workers to use safety protectives, use of collect quality equipment, proper training of workers concerning protective safety education and promotion of positive behaviors and attitudes. In the mining, air monitoring towards the collect standards is the major measure that can demonstrate improvements of the performance where any deviation will lead to ill-health("Using Checklists to Evaluate the Control of Respirable Silica in Quarries", 2010).

Health promotion programs are designed and develop with organized and structured activities over time that normally helps the workers to make an informed decision concerning their health. There are various stages and steps that are involved in making a typical occupational health promotion program. First is by building organizational commitments and by promoting the benefits and involvement of employees (Chalupka, 2012). The organizational commitment can be built by creating responsible groups like occupation health committee, champion leader and involving the top management (ÖZBAY, 2017). Involving the employees at the beginning of program development is a critical step since the program success will basically depend on the reflection made from workers. Some of the important messages to pass at this level should include benefits of the program to their health, the participation of workers and how they can enquire information. In addition, a workplace health policy should be developed at this step(Harper & Key-Schwartz, 2017).  This should include all values, code and ethics, standards and laws governing the program("Work Health and Safety Regulation 2017", 2018). The next step involves identifying issues for employees and for the workplace. This includes conducting health risk assessment completing a healthy workplace check and completing a workplace need assessment check. This can be done by assessing the health issues of employees, infrastructures involve and getting the ideas that are of importance to workers(Worksafe Queensland. 2014).

Once the need assessment has been identified, the next step is to establish a program. There are various factors that are needed to be considered when developing a program plan which includes individual, social and organizational environment(Health and Safety Authority 2013). This includes the awareness of the community groups and local government surrounding, policy involvement and resources available(Chalupka, 2012). Selection of available strategies requires planning for those that are inexpensive, simple to carry out but of high quality and work best. In addition, it is always better to first establish program benchmarks that may help to measure whether a program will work or not (New reports from the NIOSH health hazard evaluation program 2015). Therefore ideas for measuring success such as a number of participants in the program, comparison with the national standards, baseline surveillance, health risk assessment and indicators of monitoring should be put in concern(Harper & Key-Schwartz, 2017). Proper coordination and administration is essentials during management of a program. In that case, three fundamental steps are used which include program design, program implementation and evaluation of the program(Health and Safety Authority 2013). During program design, the source of the initiatives should be accompanied by workers interests and health needs (Worksafe Queensland. 2014). Implementation of a program is all about ‘making it happen’ of which should go hand in hand with an appropriate action plan. Finally, program evaluation enables the employer to determine if the implementations were met and which changes need to be addressed(Health and Safety Authority 2013).


To increase safety precautions for the mining employees and influence positive behaviour change geared towards the safe working environment

Evaluation indicator:

Annual sick leave data

Self- rated productivity of workers


HR annual report

Annual staff survey

Objective: To minimize exposure to respirable crystalline silicon to 0.1 milligrams per cubic meter (0.1mg/m3) by putting up measures to reduce exposure of workers to RCS over a period of 3 years.

Evaluation indicator: Incident reports

Medical examinations report


Monthly safety report                   

Medical examinations results


Type of strategy



Person/s responsible

Resource requirement

Evaluation indicator


Individual worker Protection

Personal Safety

· Liaise with the human resources department to provide personal equipment

· Safety manager and the HR department to plan and train workers on proper use of PPE.

· Regular maintenance of PPEs and replacement of worn out ones

· Educate on Importance of proper usage of PPE(ÖZBAY, 2017).

Within a period of three months

· Human Resources department

· Safety manager Worksafe Queensland. 2014)

· Worker time

· Venue

· HR time

· Number of PPEs provided.

· Number of training sessions carried out on the proper use of PPE(Chalupka, 2012)

· Worker feedback

· Evaluation report of findings and learning’s

Safeguarding the working environment

Healthy working environment

· Put up notices which are a clear warning in areas with the highest exposure risk.

· Liaise with the management team in automation of some processes which have high exposure to RCS.

Within the first 6 months

· The management team

· Occupational Health and safety officer

· Workplace champions

· Funding allocation for the automation budget

· The management team time

· Workplace champions input

· Number of automated processes

· Number of notices and warning put in the mining area

· Registrations database

· Pre and post worker surveys

Objective: Increase employee motivation and attitude change by 50% or more in the workplace over the period of 2 years

Evaluation indicator: Percentage of workers meeting their set goals

Annual sick leave data(Harper & Key-Schwartz, 2017)

Tool: Pre and post intervention survey


Type of strategy



Person/s responsible

Resource requirement

Evaluation indicator


Policy Making-Create a policy to allow breaks and lunchtime to support workers to be active in the workplace thus promoting social and mental well being

Healthy working environment

· Seek management commitment to developing a new policy

· Establish a working group to develop and coordinate the new policy

· Organize worker consultation/feedback sessions during the development of the policy (gather ideas, identify barriers) (Health and Safety Authority 2013)

· Organize a launch and information sessions to inform  workers about the new policy (during team meetings and lunchtimes) ("New reports from the NIOSH health hazard evaluation program", 2015)

· Include information about the policy within the worker induction program

· Develop promotional resources to raise awareness among staff about the policy and encourage uptake of using the flexible work hours as an opportunity to be more active (posters, staff emails, messages for pay slips)

· Upload policy to the intranet(ÖZBAY, 2017)

January 2019 onwards

· Policymaking group including workers representatives and all other departments

· Committee member time

· Working group member time

· Information materials (pay slip, flyers, posters)

· Policy developed and implemented as planned

· Worker awareness and use of the policy

· Pre and post worker surveys

· Policy Making group minutes

Promote the personal health of employees

Healthy Employees

· Put up an incident reporting focal point in case of external threats such as harsh weather and riots(Cormack & Chennel2018).

· Have an emergency response team in case of any medical emergency

· Offer a comprehensive medical check-up periodically to employees(Chalupka, 2012)

January 2019 onwards

· Emergency Response team

· Workers

· Management team

· Workers

· Management team time and resources

· Emergency response team input

· Incident reports

· Medical check-up reports

· Incident Reports

Promote teamwork and inter-management level activities

Healthy working environment

· Employee involvement in safety designing of the workplace such as ventilation and lighting.

· Organization communications of new policies, procedures (Health and Safety Authority 2013).

· Putting up suggestion boxes for the workers to air their complaints.

· Recognition and awarding of exemplary workers in upholding safety such as employee of the month(ÖZBAY, 2017)

In the first two


· Management team

· Workers

· Engineering Department

· Management team time

· Workers time

· Engineering Department input

· Worker satisfaction

· Registrations database

· distributed

· Pre and post surveys



Miners are normally exposed to RCS while mining. This compound normally lead to diseases majorly silicosis though it can affect other body parts like kidney. Due to this reasons developing a health promotion program for such workers is recommended. A health promotion program is designed and developed with organized and structured activities over time that normally helps the workers to make informed decision concerning their health. Various activities are required when developing a health promotion program which includes surveillance, risk assessment and development of an action plan that is timely sensitive and addressed the health and safety of miners. The study has addressed workers working in a quarry where various recommendations have been included.
  1. There should be periodic air- monitoring and analysis carried out in the quarry. This is to be done using the X-ray diffraction or using infrared spectroscopy using the accredited laboratory equipment by the Australian National Association of Testing Authorities (NATA). This will help monitor the amount of the respirable crystalline silica in the mine at different stages of their operation and therefore ensuring the quarry adheres to the set standards of operating a mine.
  2. Employers should limit direct working of employees to areas where they may be exposed to RCS and instead automate the process of mining where there is a probability of high levels of exposure.
  3. Employees should be protected from being exposed to RCS exceeding 50µg/m3, an 8- hour TWA which is the highest limit permitted, as per the OSHA standards, by the use of engineering controls, or by the use of respirators when these controls do not yield acceptable results.
  4. Employers should offer routine check-ups as required by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) of the Department of Labor (DOL) published in the Federal Register new standards governing exposure to respirable crystalline silica in the workplace.
  5. Employers should also keep exposure records of RCS at the workplace and routine check-ups carried out by the employers for posterior purposes as recommended by the new published federal register of OSHA on March 25, 2016.
  6. Environmental management systems, which include a dust management plan, should be employed at the quarries in order to mitigate dust generation. This may include installation of high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters in strategic location/area to minimize exposure to RCS which require timely maintenance as may be recommended depending on the type.
  7. The quarry workers should be adequately sensitized on negative effects associated with RCS dust exposure and the importance of proper use of personal protective equipment while at work. Also, there should be the routine maintenance of the PPE and replacement of the worn out articles.
  8. Although RCS has been known to cause silicosis, cancer and kidney problems the exact entire health hazards have not yet be established. This therefore creates a gap of which further research is recommended.


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