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Research into assessment and evaluation in education over recent decades has highlighted a paradigm shift in relation to theory and practice. Factors contributing to this shift include political and socio-cultural elements, and a greater understanding of the role of the student in their own learning. This unit is designed to help you think deeply about your own assessment and evaluation practices and to equip you to take steps to bring about an improved approach in your own class and/or school. It is expected you will be able to transmit your understandings and insights in order to challenge the thinking and practices of others and be better positioned to take on educational leadership opportunities.


Master of Education Program Learning Outcomes (PLOs) A Master of Education qualifies individuals who apply an advanced body of knowledge in a range of contexts for professional practice and as a pathway for further learning.
Upon completion of the Master of Education you will be able to:
Demonstrate a mastery of theoretical knowledge and workplace practice in education.
dmonstrate your knowledge of research principles and methods in the discipline of education.
Critically evaluate current and past scholarship and professional practice in the field of education in the light of contemporary research, of workplace practice, and of perspectives grounded in Christian scholarship.
Demonstrate your ability to investigate, analyse and synthesise complex information,problems, concepts and theories in education for application across multi-disciplinary contexts.


Demonstrate your intellectual independence by making complex, creative and original contributions to the body of knowledge and workplace practice in education at both an abstract and practical level.
Justify and interpret theoretical propositions, methodologies, conclusions and professional decisions to specialist and non-specialist audiences through prepared presentations and projects in a variety of settings.
Plan and execute a substantial research project.


Model a high level of self-discipline, professional judgment, personal integrity, teamwork and respect for the dignity of individuals and groups in study and workplace settings. Each unit you take in the Master of Education program will contribute towards the fulfilment of these broader learning outcomes.

Types of Assessment in Education

Assessment and evaluation uses data to plan and expand educational program. McMillan, (2010) highlights that the expansion of educational program is achieved by implementing classroom assessment and evaluation precisely.  Effective appraisal and valuation are joint into all features of curriculum, giving both educators and learners with pertinent and beneficial information to gauge progress and efficiency of material and processes Example, using the  determining the success rate of the students to come with better ways of developing student skills.  

Assessment is the classroom examination to provide valuable information response for the upgrading of education and learning Evaluation uses procedures and measures in judging how a student has learned and understood the material for the purposes of rating and reporting.   The basic differences between evaluation and assessment is that assessment is process oriented while evaluation is product oriented (McMillan, 2012) However, both assessment and evaluation plays important role in scrutinizing and refining the performance of a student.                                                 

Formative valuation is the type of assessment that give information to learners and educators that is useful in improving education and learning  Summative assessment refers to the assessment that occur after a unit coverage; it intends to capture what the learner has gained and judge the performance against some standards  Observational assessment is a type of formative assessment that involves teachers circulating classrooms to monitor the progress of the learner’s  and intervene when necessary.  

Performance assessment need learners to perform as a way of displaying that they comprehend class work. This assessment appraises reasoning process (Cauley, & McMillan, 2010) Portfolio assessment tests the progress of the learner over the course of the term. It includes all the learner’s work in a specific area. Authentic assessment is the type of assessment that need learners to do complex chores representative of events normally done out of school environment. 

To identify learner’s weaknesses and strengths. Assessment assist educators to identify learner’s strengths and flaws. This is essential especially when learners are entering new grades. Assessments like problem-solving tests assist educators to measure the mastery of content of the learners. To monitor learner’s progress (Dixson, Worrell, 2016). Educators uses classroom assessment to monitor learner’s understanding of the concepts taught. This notifies educators in lesson preparation, assisting them identify areas that require more review.  To assess learner previous knowledge. Before starting a new topic, assessment can notify educators  of their learner’s previous experience of a specific concept.    

They can have negative impact on learner’s motivation, especially for learners who performs below mark level. They can gauge the wrong things. For instance, summative assessment can not really tell if the student understood the content taught. They can have reliability and validity errors (McMillan, Venable, & Varier, 2013).  It requires teachers to sacrifice a lot of time assessing during the lesson and may not finish the content at the stipulated time. 

Formative Assessment

Both evaluation and assessment lead to excellence this is because they are both intertwined. While evaluations concerns making judgement, assessments involves correcting performance’s deficiencies in learner’s performance. Below are some ways of how we can achieve excellence: Teachers to plan their learning materials each week to have its distinct curricular objectives Educators to teach learners on those objectives Educators to assign learners to reteach or enrich sittings based on the learner’s assessment grades Teachers to lead  students  in enrich or reteach sittings everyday (Afflerbach, 2017)  

The main purpose of assessment is to expand Student knowledge (Marx, 2007).  When  learners are assessed an information about their performance level is gathered. Evaluation is the process of comparing learner’s performance with other learners or with a particular set of principles.      

Consumes a lot of time Costly in terms of effort and time   measures only superficial knowledge  The best surveys are challenging to develop Some assessments are labor demanding to design and implement for students   Susceptible to learner theft   

The  problem of authentic assessment is that it is an old school assessment and thus it is crude measurement of student’s learning   It is very demanding to execute the portfolio assessment, it is time consuming and requires discipline. (Wiliam, & Thompson, 2017)It is Very challenging to assess learners objectively using this method since it has no established grading criteria. 

The solution to authentic assessment challenge is to build a better test  Portfolio assessment challenges is dealt with by developing a particular, able to be gauge standards for observing and evaluating Assessments must be cautiously based on faculty appraisal and determination of match amid assessment content and curriculum content (Zarinsefat,& Henke, 2015) 

You wrote assessment and evaluation uses data............is it a direct quote? if yes what is the source? how assessment n eval uses data to expand edu program? give me an example.  >>This is not a direct quote. For example, the teacher can conduct weekly class assessment to understand the successes of the different students.  second thing ..... on another slide it is written McMillan 2012. is it McMillan 12 or 13? is it a direct quote. the basic difference in.........is it a direct quote?  >>It is McMillan 2012. No, it is not a direct quote.  

In one slide how to achieve excellence, 1 teacher to design each week....what is the meaning of that? 2 Educator to teach student..end of the week? why the end of a week? what he will do all the week?  >>This will help the teacher to determine if the students actually understood what they learned at the course of the week. This will help the teacher to track the success of the student.  

In the same slide teachers to lead......what is the source of that? in which assessment we can achieve excellence? is it formative summative or any other Teachers lead…(Fuchs, & Fuchs, 2000).  >>>Formative is the better way to achieve these excellence. This is because the teacher tracts the performance of the student and provide feedback.  Fuchs, L. S., & Fuchs, D. (2000). Building student capacity to work productively during peer-assisted reading activities. In B. Taylor, M. Graves, & F. van den Broek (Eds.), Reading for meaning: Fostering comprehension in the middle grades (pp. 95-115). New York: Teachers College Press.  

Reference   

Afflerbach, P. (2017). Understanding and using reading assessment, K–12. ASCD. Cauley, K. M., & McMillan, J. H. (2010). Formative assessment techniques to support student motivation and achievement. The Clearing House: A Journal of Educational Strategies, Issues and Ideas, 83(1), 1-6. Dixson, D. D., & Worrell, F. C. (2016).

Formative and summative assessment in the classroom. Theory into practice, 55(2), 153-159.  McMillan, J. H. (2010). The practical implications of educational aims and contexts for formative assessment. Handbook of formative assessment. New York: Routledge, 41-58. McMillan, J. H., Venable, J. C., & Varier, D. (2013).

Studies of the Effect of Formative Assessment on Student Achievement: So Much More is Needed. Practical Assessment, Research & Evaluation, 18. Marx, G. (2007). “Research Brief—Teacher Evaluation.” Retrieved April 2010, https://www.principalspartneship.com. McMillan, J. H. (Ed.). (2012).

SAGE handbook of research on classroom assessment. Sage. Wiliam, D., & Thompson, M. (2017). Integrating assessment with learning: What will it take to make it work?. In The future of assessment (pp. 53-82). 

Zarinsefat, A., & Henke, P. (2015). Update in preoperative risk assessment in vascular surgery patients. Journal of vascular surgery, 62(2), 499-509.

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