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Write a review of national responses of terrorism for Germany.

Germany's Involvement in Fighting Terrorism

Germany contributed to the fighting against terrorism by providing material support, provided arms and training although they did not take part in the airstrikes. Germany helped the Iraqi Kurdish through being a coalition member as well as being strong in the fight against ISIS. Another support that the country facilitated to the fight is the refueling aircraft to support Coalition air operations, provision of AWACS crews and reconnaissance aircraft in the Iraq Syria war, and also facilitated for the defense using the frigate on the carrier aircraft from France from the point where the coalition was launched. The implementation that Germany made with the UN Security Council on 2178 and 2199 resolutions, and hence strengthen the bond between the al-Qa’ida sanctions regime, ISIL (Da’esh), and UN Security Council (UNSC) (Adams, 2017). There are many laws that the German government can use to freeze the travel of the terrorists if they hold of the criminal's accounts names. It developed a legislation that focuses on minimizing the travels and financial access of the criminals in the long run through the application of the antiterrorism laws that it formulated in the previous amendments.  Germany has a good reputation in fighting terrorists even in the international markets as seen from the initiation they had on Global Counterterrorism Forum (GCTF) as the founding member state. It also helped aid the GCTF to establish good reputation and operations on different grounds to fight foreign terrorism. Internally within the borders of the country, Germany has beefed up its efforts on enforcement to interdict, prevent and counter and voice foreign terrorism by curbing travel through supporting Schengen measures and EU. The treaty signed in May between Germany and the United States enhanced the sharing of information amongst the two containing information of the suspected or terror groups that might be harmful to the citizens and the nation in general.  During the same year, a bill in parliament was passed by the act of parliament where the budget was increased to ensure that there are enough resources to spend on domestic counterterrorism and on law enforcement intelligence efforts (Steinberg, 2017).

Border enforcement, law enforcement, and security: The federal government continued to enact a far-reaching anti-terrorism law, ensuring the participation or support of punishable, counter-terrorism-based local and external groups. The Penal Code denies the scope of preparatory activities related to the fight against terrorism, including the real beginning or the attempt of Germany in the militant terrorist’s preparations, assuring weapons or explosives to attack the terrorists in the name of returning militant police in question (Bures, 2016).

On July 29, Germany received additional anti-terrorism regulations, which allows the federal police to deal with the legal requirements of secret specialists and open social security; develops the exchange of information with external knowledge administrations; It supports the advantages of local analysis to create and publish common databases for remote complicity; Extend the control and observation of wire centers with prepaid cell phones; and reduces the date on which the suspects that the BFV has the power to locate the information and collect it (Førde, Lægreid, Rubecksen & Rykkja, 2019).

Cooperation with International Organizations

Information about alleged drug traffickers is shared between bars and state petition offices. International identity cards in Germany and other personality reports combine strengths, but concerns about information protection are reluctant to develop structures for travel research. The collection and maintenance of passenger data for exploration are high and are limited certain major routes. At present, there is no use of the Passenger Name Record (PNR), but after the approval of another important PNR directive, a PNR framework has been developed and created. By 2016, various acquisitions, arrests, and preparations were devoted to anxiety-related oppression. Through the effort of the Ministry of Justice and estimated that about 600 cases of progressive militants at the end of September as important and legitimate cases (Jackson & Tsui, 2016).

Since the beginning of 2018, the German security expert has published a series of reports showing the development of national strategies against terrorism warfare following the bombing of a truck in Berlin in December 2016, an obvious moment. In Germany, it was crucial to fighting the risk of emanating oppressors from Islamic terror groups (Nacos, 2016). The first part of this manual contains a final recommendation of the final stage terrorist warfare, and the second part presents some difficulties in relation to the women and young people who return from regions (some time ago), which are controlled by the Jihadists (Eckenwiler et al., 2015).

As evidenced by the International Counterterrorism Center, they have become the major relationships of the European population in the spring of 2012, wishing to attend a counter-terrorists meeting. The miracle is not that the new Europeans fought since 1980 for various jihadist groups in the Middle East when Peter R. Neumann plans in his 2015 book on jihadist and the next wave of terrorism has arrived (Nehring, 2016). Although the miracle of non-European competitors is not new, the number of those who have ventured into amateur training in Iraq or Syria has increased recently. To illustrate this, distant European competitors are not really European citizens, but they often spent most of their lives in a European country (Nikolsky, 2015). On the other hand, the term "Islamic State is used in these instructions in the broadest sense to refer to militant jihadists and Jewish militant groups in Syria and Iraq. Although most peripheral European warriors, no doubt, support the ISIS, take the European jihadists to several meetings, for example in Al-Nusra (Mucha, 2017).

The latest information on the number of German warriors by far was distributed on February 9, 2018. So far, 970 people are security experts who have left the Federal Office for Protection of the Constitution. Germany should help ISIS or other counter-terrorism groups in Iraq or Syria. About 150 people are expected to settle in Syria or Iraq and about 33% of the 970 people are returning to Germany (Weisburd & Bayley, 2015). As information received by German security experts in a document from the Egmont Royal Institute for International Relations shows, only 10 percent of the distant warriors returned to Germany because they wanted to resign from the Islamic state. Most returnees were surprised or disappointed by their situation or sought the reputation of their loved ones (Scahill, 2015).

Border Enforcement, Law Enforcement, and Security Measures

As for the profile of German rivals, most of the 970 is under 30 and about one fifth are women. It is assumed that 12% of foreign competitors have converted to Islam. While 40% of foreign warriors have German nationality, 40% are distant citizens and the remaining 20% have dual nationality. In addition, most Germans must be unemployed before fleeing or being seconded to the low-income / talented sector 66% were investigated for crimes. In addition, most of the major warriors were people from the Salafist events that preceded its launch.

As for the Islamists, they attack whoever is alive and in power in Germany who promotes counter-terrorism that according to state and state police officers, PERIOD Süddeutsche talking about 720 potential Islamic fighters. December 2017 about 720 people are considered at risk. In addition, the vast majority of potential oppressors are based on Islamic counter-terrorism in Germany, the control of German citizenship, as shown by Zeit online in a report grouped mainly by the German government after a brief application to the extremist. The political meeting was the appropriate alternative for Germany.

The 2016 Berlin Attack Truck was a turning point for German security experts and their counter-terrorism warfare. In a report published in October 2017, an expert condemned in 2016 the Berlin police authorities of North Rhine-Westphalia and Baden-Württemberg and revealed that in the defense of the man Anis Amri Behind the police, there were serious mistakes made by the attacks of trucks, but the experts did not prosecute Amri, although he repeatedly abused the law and spoke to EI leaders in Syria. Amri was monitored by security experts, but his potential threat was not evaluated. Likewise, the extraordinary examiner criticized the coordinated use of German experts when all was said.

A year after the terrorists attack in Berlin, Interior Minister Thomas de Maizière said that there has been tremendous progress in the fight against terrorism. The follow-up section reviews some of the progress made in 2017 and in the middle of 2018. This includes excluding and controlling the electronic identification of potential attackers as well as the ability to provide information about travelers, organizations, sponsors, use of state operational programs, and risk assessment tools used by German experts.

In February 2017, the Federal Department of Criminal Investigations issued a statement that it was a different tool for risk assessment, called ITE RADAR, created with the lawyers of the University of Constance. The device uses institutionalized research and reaction classes to assess a person's level of vulnerability (Samaan & Jacobs, 2018). Assessment depends only on observable behavior and accessible data on the individual's lifestyle. Respondent is assigned to one of three risk levels: low risk, high risk, and moderate risk. For evaluation, the competent authority adapts its intervention measures to the needs of the individual. The Federal Criminal Police Department announced that RADAR-iTE would be submitted in the summer of 2017. It has also been reported that another risk-detection procedure, called RISKANT, was created to provide sufficient mediation for the police. RISKANT will be able to identify activity management that is particularly suited to problem areas that are evident to high-risk individuals.

Response to Terrorist Attacks

In addition, the German government officials approved a bill that the use of unapproved passenger records, detection, investigation, and prosecution of psychopathic crimes and actual behavior and incomprehensible violations in February 2017. The provision was on April 21, 2016, where the Parliament confirmed. The bill requires the aircraft to provide passenger information to EU countries to help specialists deal with crimes and actual illegality. The agreement was concluded for a long time, but complaints after the aggression of the oppressors in Paris were reduced in November 2015. The bill should be incorporated into German national legislation and before May 25, the date of its entry into force in 2018. Specialists can store up to a year and a half and replace only individual subtle elements under strict conditions.

In June 2017, the parliament passed another law that manages the PC and recognizes the system. This new law will be prepared for hackers who specialize in PC applications, cell phone and information control, such as WhatsApp. WORLD revealed in February 2018 that the Home Office had unexpectedly approved the potential use of a product to control encrypted email on federal mobile phones on January 10, 2018. The FinSpy product should feature gadgets for individual devices, visits, and various messages can be recorded and transmitted to security experts. So far, the Criminal Police Department has never used FinSpy's programming for analysis (Mitu, 2014).

In November 2017, SPIEGEL ONLINE said that currently, 96 men in Germany use electronic tags. These men are observed by the Joint Electronic Control Authority or the Common Electronic Country Monitoring. Seventy of these men are under observation for sexual crimes, 24 for violent injuries and 2 because of potential opponents of Islamic counter-terrorism (Satana & Demirel-Pegg, 2018). The issuance of permits for security experts to detect possible terrorist’s combatants through electronic channels was a success on July 1, 2017, but so far has played a lesser role in anticipating the counter-terrorism.

In addition, problems related to the use of electronic tags occurred, as illustrated by the case of the follow-up: on October 11, 2017, expelled from Syria terrorists potential Islamic militant to fly from Bavaria to Hamburg to Athens - with electronic channels. The experts were unwilling to find the man who claimed that the chains had stopped, sooner or later, to send a flag. Later it was developed that the specialists had deliberately robbed the man recognized since the police had in the aviation terminal of Hamburg not informing to the federal police on the exit of the man. Since January 24, 2018, the man has not returned to Germany. In any case, the Lower Saxony State Police are planning a significant increase in their counter-terrorism anticipation activities, including electronic tags for potential terrorists Islamic fighters.

While the law on the elimination of evil crimes has been around for a long time, security experts have rarely bound this law. As stated by the ESISC in January 2018, 36 people were expelled in 2017 to pose a potential danger. In 24 other cases, people were evicted to pose a militant terrorist risk and violate the law. However, in cases where refugees are subjected to brutal treatment in their country of origin, deportation cannot be affected. These cases remain suspended and investigators who cannot be appointed remain in Germany.

German security experts also presented a series of measures to adopt police structures to the current level of crime. The first federal police unit, GSG 9, has expanded to approximately 33% of the current faculty strength. In January 2018, representatives of the GSG 9 Fuchs in the Frankfurter Allgemeine newspaper made it clear that the purpose of the personnel structure was to improve the counter-terrorism of Berlin in terms of response time (Karlsrud, 2018). GSG 9 was founded in 1972 following the 1972 Olympics attack on Monaco, where 11 Israeli Olympic colleagues were kidnapped and killed (Bouzis, 2015).

Another measure that is gradually being applied by German experts is the transport of unique identification files to dangerous people whose visas have been reused to prevent them from traveling to the world (Richards, 2015). The measure was introduced in 2015 but its suitability cannot be assessed due to lack of information. On January 28, 2018, the WELT announced that the national government could not determine in how many cases the identification of possible counter-terrorism was appropriate. During a brief consultation of the green parliamentary meeting with a delegate of the administration, it was clear that it was the state government rather than the central government that produced reports on the responsible person. As a result, the world came to the Interior Ministry in Saxony-Anhalt, but government experts were unable to comment on the number of messages they considered extraordinary (Qvortrup, 2016). However, it is unclear whether the world has reached out to other experts in the state. In this way, it is difficult to assess the regularity with which State experts resort to this particular security effort.

In general, the challenges posed by the federal government structure are a recurring theme in the assessment of terrorist’s warfare. With regard to security efforts, such as the interruption of telephone calls, there are significant differences between countries (Ide, 2017). In addition, Germany's insurance and information protection laws are equivalent, so security experts can avoid mediation, even if impressive strides have been made in that direction. Thirty-six governmental and nongovernmental organizations, such as the police service and families intelligence, have committed to do abolition tests based on the counter-terrorism in Germany. In order to organize the efforts of the different offices and to create a platform for the exchange of information, the Joint Counter-Terrorism Center was established in 2004. A newly established unit in the JCTC also proposes evaluations hazards to humans with the RADAR-iTE programming shown above. In addition, in March 2018, the German government declared its intention to open an enemy of the terrorist warfare in Berlin in 2020. The order of the special operations, the mobile, and the anti-terrorism department are some of the special techniques used by Germany to fight the enemy. Islamic, this corresponds to a total of about 1200 workers all that should go in the organized approach. The organized firing of the enemy's terrorists warfare is not only a response to the current lack of jobs for the general population which is dedicated to fighting counter-terrorism but also allows different characters on the screen to work together more effectively.

As these are late terrorism a technique of the war for terrorism, the accompaniment of preparation tends to be difficult compared to the jihadists in return (Shelley, 2016). From the very limited regional control of the Islamic State in Syria and Iraq, German experts should increasingly be concerned about the security risk resulting from (ex) meetings controlled by repatriated jihadists. In December 2017, Hans-Georg Maassen announced that the Süddeutsche Zeitung newspaper, women and youth are controlled by jihad. Maassen believes that his non-European competitors acted for the well-being of his family problems and therefore sent women and children to their European countries. More than once, he warned that children and mothers could pose a real security threat. Maasen explained that ISIS children were particularly dangerous because they were mixed and vaccinated by individuals in the Islamic State (Taylor, 2016).

It should be clear that this necessarily means that the return of the jihadists can pose a significant threat. However, the brain behind most of the crimes committed in Europe is a psychopathic attack, but never in Syria and Iraq counter-terrorism miracle what oppressive base ownership groups do they refer to regular terrorism warfare (Richart, 2015).

As you can see above, about 240 of the 970 known German women are women. In relation to German competitors, German security experts know 30 Islamic state warriors and six young people detained in the Middle East after being arrested by police officers, especially Iraqi police. The German government has consular access to about seven of them (Prinz & Schetter, 2016). WELT revealed that almost all women in a region return to pregnancy or have children, suggesting that the number of German children is not negligible. In any case, there is no exact number of young people who were accommodated in an area of information because children born abroad are not registered. Similarly, security professionals cannot keep information about people under the age of 14. In this way, the experts cannot control the number of children under 14 who have left or returned home. In January 2018, WELT announced that German security experts expected the number of cases to be only a few hundred. Most of these children are exceptionally young (Kilcullen, 2016).

So far, experts have conducted criminal investigations of most of the men who returned, while women have sometimes been subjected to criminal controls. In December 2017, it was found that the accused specialists no longer recognize returnees because of their sexual orientation. In 2017, 24 legal arguments against the women of the Islamic State were presented in Germany. A total of 1007 points in 2017 were filed against the men. Attorney General Peter Frank said that the prosecution had proposed nominating other women in the group, according to a more rigorous approach to reinsertion of women into the SI group (Guttmann, 2018). According to the indictment, women are a vital ability within the militant criminal’s concentration, whether or not they participate in battle, murder or death. Frank's purse said women have strengthened the Islamic state internally.

Verena Schäffer, a member of the Greens, presented a comparative view of WELT (Burgess et al., 2014). He said that a large proportion of radical women demonstrate that development is in the process of being established. It correlates with fanatical conservative circles and states that conservative radical men are regularly abandoned their philosophy when women were known outside the radical scene (Cronin, 2015). In any case, men in progressive development and the inclusion of women are probably people of the radical scene, since their partner shares his philosophy. In addition, women with radical belief systems can influence their young people, who can speak with additional evidence (GERMANY, 2017). In December 2017, the United Nations Security Council consistently set the goal of strengthening the techniques to deal with the threat posed by ISIS refugees. He also seeks to accuse women who help the oppressors of counter-terrorism and rape and renew their children. Germany has officially received major amendments to the Penal Code, which allow the company to conduct criminal investigations into individuals or meetings, which would be associated with oppressive terrorist associations (Hellmuth, 2018). The change does not include exercises based on a broader field of concern based on counter-terrorism and inclusion in a militant terrorist association, targeted transport of publicity to counter-terrorism or preparation of possible activists outcomes include terrorist associations (Boin et al., 2019).

In the projects of closer security experts, there are currently 11 women in danger in North Rhine-Westphalia (34 and others can strengthen counter-terrorism), as stated by February 6, 2018, worldwide. Westphalia Germany has the highest number of Salafists and oppressors based on Islamic counter-terrorism (Miller, 2016). 255 people from North Rhine-Westphalia leave the IS for a few years, including 72 women. Women's Observation was adopted as ancillary activities so that women's education in North Rhine-Westphalia shows that preventive measures against women are increasingly indispensable.

The Bavarian Interior Minister, Joachim Herrmann, recommended that young people under the age of 14 also observe German security experts. The legitimate benefit of screening for minors only took 16 to 14 years in 2016 in response to the current threat of the counter-terrorism-based oppressor. The follow-up proposal for children under 14 did not help much (Romaniuk, Grice, Irrera, & Webb, 2017).

Conclusion 

Finally, in recent years, the German experts conducted an overwhelming process of suppressing counter-terrorism. This shows the need for closer collaboration between different parties associated with the contractual terrorism in order to properly exploit terror-based oppression groups.

In addition, the condemnation of the German guerrillas in Iraq creates new difficulties for the German specialists. Article published in the TAZ newspaper of February 12, 2018, the federal government is limited in cases involving minors of German citizens accused of mediation or in cases where the death penalty in courts accepted. In the following months, it must be taken into account the reaction of the German experts at this type of event, including Lamia K., sentenced to death, and at the request of 17-year-old Linda W. of Saxony. The feelings of Linda W., Lamia K., also point to particular difficulties, since there is no terrorism between Germany and Iraq; the death penalty imposed on Lamia K. could theoretically give rise to discretionary epidemics.

In addition, German experts hope that several hundred descendants of German warriors will return to Germany. Until then, the government has just found a son and, in this particular case, the grandfather claimed the repatriation of Tyke. It is if young people who are close to their people and their families in Germany are not trying to be repatriated, will return to the only activity of the German government, an unlikely prospect, despite the fact whatsoever. This would be in accordance with the compassionate methodology of the offspring of the external warriors ordered by the German government. In the end, a consolidated national methodology, including intercession against radicalization, has not yet advanced. Similarly, powerful procedures are needed, including action plans to combat the radicalization of young people.

References

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