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Background

Statement:

In this research paper we will evaluate the way addictions take shape and the cause and effect behind them by analyzing two book Addiction and Grace: Love and Spirituality in the healing of addictions by Gerald May & Biology of desire by Marc Lewis.

An addiction is a long-term malfunction of both the mind's compensation, drive, and primary memory units. It is about how the biology of a person desires a drug or habit, particularly if it leads to a persistent or intense quest for "compensation" with little awareness of the repercussions.

Comparison between Addiction and grace:

May and Lewis both emphasize desire being a principal reason for addiction. Attachment, they believe, is a means for individuals to congregate a basic urge. They elaborate on and place an emphasis on how much we all possess a yearning to possess more throughout our existence and then how each one of us have a desire which we would like to be fulfilled (Snitow, 2019).

Addiction and grace:  

            Gerald May analyses ways some addictions originate and states that they can be healed from a psychological, spiritual and physically position in his book Addiction and Grace: Love and Spirituality in the healing of addictions. For individuals who want to investigate the enigma who and what they truly are, Addiction and Grace presents an intriguing and hopeful perspective may investigates the "procedures of attachments" which cause dependence and the link connecting addictive behaviour as well as spiritual consciousness (May, 1988). The book follows the progression of dependence via desire to addictive reality. Its notion is evident all across the work since it depicts addictions from a holistic perspective. As either a consequence, these addictions are apparently harmless tiny illusions of ecstasy, supremacy, and complete authority that progressively mould the person into a manner of living based on complete repudiation of God. The primary focus is on considering the subject of addictive behaviour from many perspectives, which is then subdivided by describing how dependency is a mental, physiologic, and metaphysical concern (Kim, 2021). He also goes over the several forms of addiction we might have, including those to psychoactive chemicals and narcotics, as well as job, sex, performances, accountability, and affection. May stresses that addiction is an effort to impose complete power over our life, reflecting on his background as a psychotherapist interacting primarily with chemically addicted people. he is capable of providing the readers a thorough grasp of addictions from across all aspects of the situation by concentrating on those three components. And following up with an in-depth examination of the physiological therapy, via grace and Spirituality as a fundamental component of recovery from addiction.

 Biology of desire:

Similarly, Marc Lewis examines ways dependency and neuroscience clash in his written work The biology of desire, as well as how knowing our synapses may aid patients in their recovery. He illustrates how and why the shifts in the abuser's brains are really not indicators of sickness, but rather the sensation of a phase of rapid acquisition that has been enabling us accomplish everything we desire. whereas other portions of the intellect realize it may not be so healthy for us, via the use of the experiences from 5 users. Also, as such that human psyche may retrain dependence via developmental therapeutic interventions. 

Biology of desire: Lewis states "Dependency is the outcome of a person's wilful repeating of the very same ideas and philosophies till they get regular. As a result, addictions emerge - this is learnt – yet attributable to a narrower bottleneck of concentration and fascination, it's taught very profoundly and frequently more rapidly than those of other behaviours” (Lewis, 2015) . The Disease model according to Lewis refers to that, arose to prevent stigmatising users, however he claims that somehow a strictly physiological perspective has failed. He wouldn't encourage us to return to the Old "preference paradigm," in which users are supposed to simply delay gratification (Lewis, 2017). He envisions a way – one that is mostly guided by scientific knowledge, but also through evolutionary counselling – that allows alcoholics to mature instead of simply be given rigorous regimens or medicines.

Comparison analysis

Addictions and grace:

In contrast Even though, it is not religiously inclined Gerald May makes considerable use of scripture for clarifying the basic themes. He is convinced that most Human beings do have an inherent desire for spirituality and God. And even if we are conscious of it or not, this desire for God is a deep yearning for it that provides us with meaning. He talks about the repression of this particular desire and how we are unaware of it. While May applies the studies towards other aspects of compulsive addictions, Addiction and Grace is mostly on the biology of pharmaceutical dependency. As a result, it may appear that this does not apply to aspects associated with sex addicts which are in direct contrast to Lewis’s idea of not using medications as a way of healing but using concrete scientific and behavioural knowledge into counselling practices.

The author’s research investigates that, as a consequence of human yearning, humans all become subject to addictive behaviour. As a by-product, there seems to be a better awareness of why we all develop dependencies and all of us have issues, although certain people's suffering is more severe than many individuals. thus, they go on to describe how well this connection seems to be the primary cause of dependency once we succumb to our wicked impulses.

 Reflections on the knowledge gained from the texts:

 Addiction spreads like a virus. It is not a one-size-fits-all situation. Several parties are engaged in the bonding cycle since the beginning. Close relationships like family, Colleagues and most importantly friends & perhaps even specialized aids have an impact upon or influence you (Lüscher, Robbins & Everitt, 2020). These alternations inside the impacted individual have an impact on them. Almost usually, several of individual engagement aids in the maintenance of the dependency. It is referred to as co-dependency or enmeshment. This condition does not exempt competent neurological or therapeutic aid

Additional medications are prescribed by doctors to assist patients discontinue using the initial substance, resulting in several chemical dependencies (Koob & Volkow, 2016). Whereas the patient and counsellor devote months or even years attempting to unearth phantom memories of formative years to justify the dependence, psychotherapy intervention may exacerbate the unhealthy habits.

Using of harm reduction therpies , it is an process to working with addicts which focuses on reducing the harm that is most often seen in to drug-related individuals, their communities, familial relationships without actually reducing the alcohol or drugs consumption.it reduces the damage and hazards that drugs consumption causes and not drug prohibition itself which is the primary focus of attention(Denning & Little, 2011) There's really only one focused activity that truly combats addictions, namely to change one’s personal lifestyle and ceasing to engage in excessive behavior through the harm reduction therapy several problems associated with addictions can be solved and then it could move forward with the reduction in the consumption itself as a personal desire. Addictions to concepts, jobs, engagements, control, impulses, imaginations, and an unlimited array of diverse variables are all caused by the same mechanisms underlying dependence to alcoholism and drugs (Mercadante, 2015). Across every aspect of the term, humans all seem to be hooked. I discovered that dependencies just aren't confined towards chemicals pertaining to both myself and also for someone else. Working, competence, obligation, closeness, feeling liked, supporting someone, as well as a seemingly infinite litany of these other behaviours, were all addicting to me (Capuzzi& Stauffer, 2016).

Conclusions:

I additionally learned that everyone is dependent, but because Drugs and alcoholism habits are merely much more visible in their effects and are deadly addictions as compared to other addictions. Just being alive and surviving would be to be addicted and dependent on something. Whenever a society attempts to aid an afflicted individual in whatsoever form that really isn't conducive to eliminating the habit, it ends up encouraging the addictive behaviour alternatively. 

References: 

Capuzzi, D., & Stauffer, M. D. (2016). Counseling and psychotherapy: Theories and interventions. John Wiley & Sons.

Denning, P., & Little, J. (2011). Practicing harm reduction psychotherapy: An alternative approach to addictions. Guilford Press.

Kim, A. (2021). Newness of Life and Grace-Enabled Recovery from Addiction. Journal of Moral Theology, 10(Special Issue 1), 124-142.

Koob, G. F., & Volkow, N. D. (2016). Neurobiology of addiction: a neurocircuitry analysis. The Lancet Psychiatry, 3(8), 760-773.

Lewis, M. (2015). Book bite 3: The biology of desire. Good Reading, (Aug 2015), 58-59.

Lewis, M. (2017). Addiction and the brain: development, not disease. Neuroethics, 10(1), 7-18.

Lüscher, C., Robbins, T. W., & Everitt, B. J. (2020). The transition to compulsion in addiction. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 21(5), 247-263.

May, G. G. (1988). Addiction and grace (pp. 91-106). San Francisco: Harper & Row.

Mercadante, L. (2015). Sin and Addiction: Conceptual Enemies or Fellow Travelers?. Religions, 6(2), 614-625.

Snitow, A. (Ed.). (2019). Powers of desire. NYU Press.

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