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Key Ideas and Arguments Presented in the Media Article

What are the key ideas and arguments presented in the media article as they relate to concepts of work and employment raised in the essential readings? (max 150 word):

The key ideas provided are outsourcing and offshoring employees. The Forbes claims that offshoring involves delegating internal duties to a 3rd party. This can take the a new form of selling materials to retailers in order to buy back services or products or transferring an entire segment of the company to a 3rd-party and then buying back the operation. Whereas offshoring often takes advantage of these differences of cost via relocating manufacturers from costly countries to cheaper markets for them to resell the products at a significant discount in the West (Levine 2012. The key ideas provided are outsourcing and offshoring employees. The Forbes claims that offshoring involves delegating internal duties to a 3rd party. This can take the a new form of selling materials to retailers in order to buy back services or products or transferring an entire segment of the company to a 3rd-party and then buying back the operation (Tokatli 2008). Whereas offshoring often takes advantage of these differences of cost via relocating manufacturers from costly countries to cheaper markets for them to resell the products at a significant discount in the West. Google, for example, outsources its round-the-clock phone support to assist clients all around the world so that it can concentrate on its primary business strategy (Trusson and Woods 2017). Apple, for instance, saves money by locating its plants and other production operations in Europe rather than in the United States.

What are the benefits and/or challenges workers confront in the article, and how does this connect with the essential readings? (max 150 words):

The workers in the story confront challenges such as not allowing local poly graduates to take on back-end positions that have been outsourced because of cost-cutting efforts. There will be no way for them to gain a competitive advantage in the market after graduation as the requirements for a certain job scope become increasingly stringent (Peetz 2016). Also, there's a chance that, in the case of a shipping line, back-end workers won't be able to identify the difference between and a real a fake Bill of Lading because they aren't physically present, whereas someone who may predict the difference mainly by feeling it (Vidal 2012). It's the same situation as in the Apple piece, where firms don't care about their own home market and economy and remain just interested in making money as long as expenses are low and numbers remain high.  In the wild chase of profit maximization, both the readings and the article bring home the idea that outsourcing will only affect the country's domestic market more as compared to the corporation itself.

Reflecting on the issues identified in the media article and relevant essential readings, what actions do you think managers or policy makers should take to resolve them? (max 200 words

Managers should have procedures in place to avoid confidential data from leaking to various outsourced staff. Non-core operations can be delegated to outsiders to enable the headquarters to focus on its primary business. To avoid outsourced employees delaying our own work owing to new projects in their home market, they should be paid fairly so they don't have to undertake more than 1 job at a time & output is maximized. Additionally, in order to enhance the domestic market, policymakers should offer more job possibilities for locals whenever possible, rather than completely outsourcing an entire industry to save money. When at all possible, policymakers must keep specific jobs in the local area. It’s understandable to outsource specific jobs that locals cannot be interested in doing, but tasks that might benefit the local workforce even a little ought to be retained, and firms should be provided with enough advancement as well as incentives to employ locally rather than being 'forced' to do so.

Benefits and/or Challenges for Workers

Reference List

Wise, A., 2013. Pyramid subcontracting and moral detachment: Down-sourcing risk and responsibility in the management of transnational labour in Asia. The Economic and Labour Relations Review, 24(3), pp.433-455.

https://doi.org/10.1177/1035304613498027

Trusson, C. and Woods, F., 2017. ‘An end to the job as we know it’: how an IT professional has experienced the uncertainty of IT outsourcing. Work, employment and society, 31(3), pp.542-552.

Peetz, D., 2016. Why the death of employment is a dead idea. The Conversation, 13.

Levine, L., 2012. Offshoring (or offshore outsourcing) and job loss among US workers.

Vidal, M., 2012. On the persistence of labour market insecurity and slow growth in the US: Reckoning with the Waltonist growth regime. New Political Economy, 17(5), pp.543-564.

Tokatli, N., 2008. Global sourcing: insights from the global clothing industry—the case of Zara, a fast fashion retailer. Journal of economic Geography, 8(1), pp.21-38.

Topic No.: 4

Title of Media Article: Work is a fundamental part of being human. Robots won’t stop us doing it:

What are the key ideas and arguments presented in the media article as they relate to concepts of work and employment raised in essential readings? (max 150 word):

 The major ideas presented discuss how technology is fast changing and how, in the name of automation, most professions presently performed by humans will be taken over by the machines According to ancient thinkers such as Karl Marx, John Dewey and Henri Bergson, the core human character focuses around working as well as adapting to survive in different environment for ages (Fleming 2019).  The course reading discusses how a high capital concentration over a small number of employees can result in a large wage discrepancy, and how circumstances like these are often projected to result in revolutions or other severe measures. Other points highlighted in the articles are how people would not become completely obsolete since machines take over one portion of the scope of job; if they were to accomplish everything, people would truly be rendered obsolete, and perhaps reduced working hours shall be conceivable (Ehrenreich 2015). No person knows what the future holds, therefore automation does not appear to be a true game changer of our lives and jobs; after all, people have been innovating for many years.

What are the benefits and/or challenges workers confront in the article, and how does this connect with the essential readings? (max 150 words):

The one advantage noted in the media article is that automation would result in less work being undertaken by human beings, as machines would perform the more intensive scope of job. This will mean that humans could move to a more equitable model of society, but there will also be a limitation in that this will mean completely disregarding work, which remained a core component of our development (Healy, Nicholson and Parker 2017). Automation is mentioned as a tipping point in both the web piece as well as the reading. As the article discusses how humans remain indispensable and that we shall invent new ways to keep busy while robots take over. On the other hand, the reading discusses how automation may be mitigated by rising wage subsidies as well as welfare changes. The greatest challenges will be how human beings adapt and attempt to develop in order to find out the next way of living with 'work' as a key part of our lives, but in a dissimilar form (Furman 2016).

Actions Managers or Policymakers Should Take to Resolve Issues

Reflecting on the issues identified in the media article and relevant essential readings, what actions do you think managers or policy makers should take to resolve them? (max 200 word):

After considering the media story and pertinent readings, I believe that policymakers and managers should provide job subsidies to assist employees when automation becomes the standard. Similarly, existing employees should be provided opportunity to upskill as well as find relevance in other departments, or, provided that automation doesn’t necessarily indicate that someone shall lose their job, said employee can continue on and assist with machine maintenance & operation. Managers will be able to get more positions for their employees as a result of the changing dynamic and higher productivity. Policymakers must advocate for this diverse scenario so that additional employments are generated, as we have done for many years, while simultaneously giving subsidies and allowing current employees to upskill as well as survive.

Reference List

Healy, J., Nicholson, D. and Parker, J., 2017. Guest editors’ introduction: technological disruption and the future of employment relations. Labour & Industry: a journal of the social and economic relations of work, 27(3), pp.157-164.

Fleming, P., 2019. Robots and organization studies: Why robots might not want to steal your job. Organization Studies, 40(1), pp.23-38.

Furman, J., 2016. Is this time different? The opportunities and challenges of artificial intelligence. presentation, AI Now: The Social and Economic Implications of Artificial Intelligence Technologies in the Near Term, New York, NY.

Ehrenreich, B., 2015. ‘Rise of the Robots’ and ‘Shadow Work.’. The New York Times Book Review.

Topic No:1 / 2  /  3  /  4  /  5  /  6  /  7  /  8  /  9 / 10  /  11  /  12

Title of Media Article: Why bosses should let employees surf the web at work

What are the key ideas and arguments presented in the media article as they relate to concepts of work and employment raised in essential readings? (max 150 word):

The major concept mentioned in the article remains that employees who cyberloaf remain viewed as being unproductive or having harmful behaviours. Cyberloafing is defined as spending more than ten percent of a person's workday on personal matters (Spicer and Fleming 2016). Despite this, this cannot be a fruitless exercise since it may help employees cope with a high-stress environment. According to the key principles from the course readings, Integrity at work remains vital for well-being & has a direct effect on job satisfaction because it is tested in numerous types of employment. Dignity of workplace is self-perceived that means the core of the job shall affect self-esteem as well as sense of purpose of the workers. Also, it’s hypothetical, because the culture of a business can have an impact on how employees remain treated, and respect, sensitivity, and fairness (Lucas 2017). This shows that there remains a link between worker honesty and business efficiency.  Workers that are happy in their jobs remain more likely to have positive moods as well as be more productive, leading to more profits for the organization.

What are the benefits and/or challenges workers confront in the article, and how does this connect with the essential readings? (max 150 words):

According to the report, managers ought to encourage their employees to surf the web at work since it can boost job satisfaction as well as engagement while also offering a stress-relieving outlet (Sayer 2007). As addressed in the course texts, occupational integrity remains an important component of having good emotions at workplace. This motivates workers to spend more time on creative pursuits, enhances workplace concentration & productivity, and influences creativity potential. Conversely, Cyberloafing may sometimes be not useful when too much time remains squandered on non-work activities, thereby diminishing productivity. Workers using the internet for entertainment and imprecise instructions remain two instances of potential problems (Knights and McCabe 2016). Some do it in revenge for what they perceive to be a perceived affront from their bosses, while others do it just because they see other people cyberloaf.

Reflecting on the issues identified in the media article and relevant essential readings, what actions do you think managers or policy makers should take to resolve them? (max 200 word):

According to the media survey, managers should enable employees to cyberloaf on their own time while ensuring that they complete their tasks during hours of working. Employers can, for example, ensure that the employee has a task to perform and that, once completed; they remain permitted to take short breaks to surf the web.

Empowering people at work is important because it offers workers control over their tasks and instils a sense of responsibility as well as accomplishment in their task (Lysova et al. 2019). Employees who feel empowered at work are significantly more likely to feel happy and have a positive attitude about their jobs. As a result, when employees are driven by their employers, they are less likely to cyberloaf. Ad blockers may be installed on the computers of policymakers' companies, ensuring that no viruses are disseminated when employees access the internet. This shall aid in the prevention of data theft. The firm that installs such software will be capable of avoiding data or personal information being exploited.

Reference List

Spicer, A. and Fleming, P., 2016. Resisting the 24/7 work ethic: Shifting modes of regulation and refusal in organized employment. Sage Handbook of Resistance, pp.121-134.

Sayer, A., 2007. Dignity at work: Broadening the agenda. Organization, 14(4), pp.565-581.

Lucas, K., 2017. Workplace dignity. The international encyclopedia of organizational communication, 4, pp.2549-2562.

Lysova, E., Allan, B., Dik, B., Duffy, R. and Steger, M. (2019) 'Fostering meaningful work in organisations: a multi-level review and integration' Journal of Vocational Behaviour 110: 374-389. 

Knights, D. and McCabe, D., 2016. The ‘Missing Masses’ of resistance: an ethnographic understanding of a workplace dispute. British Journal of Management, 27(3), pp.534-549.

Topic No:1 / 2  /  3  /  4  /  5  /  6  /  7  /  8  /  9 / 10  /  11  /  12

Title of Media Article: : "More help needed especially for older workers: Heng Chee How

What are the key ideas and arguments presented in the media article as they relate to concepts of work and employment raised in essential readings? (max 150 word):

The article mainly discussed employment aid & relief funds for elderly employees in Singapore. Mr Heng is said to be pushing senior workers to take advantage of government funds and programs, like those offered by Family Development (MSF), the National Jobs Council (NJC) and the Ministry of Social (Rubery, Keizer and Grimshaw 2016) He was both supportive as well as concerned as he sought help from several government organizations for these older employees, including a higher CPF-Medisave level to prevent foregoing medical treatment. Companies who do not opt to train older personnel in modern technology are especially vulnerable to layoffs because of cost or productivity issues. With programs like e2i's Lift & Place, which ensures older employees are compensated while transferring to a new job. According to an analysis, employers who recruit temporary staff invest less in training as well as often place older employees in less productive organizations than younger employees. Temporary employees are used as a "screening process mainly for full time employment. As a result, the policies & assistance of the government of Singapore, as reaffirmed by Mr Heng, increase employment security for older employees (Huntley 2014).

What are the benefits and/or challenges workers confront in the article, and how does this connect with the essential readings? (max 150 words):

These measures to help older employees keep their jobs in traditional employment are well-known and supported by the government. Job security, according to Standing (2011), is defined as the ability to maintain a niche in the workforce as well as upward mobility in pay and status a result, older employees can take use of support programs to stay in regular jobs, while those being accepted back into the workforce may receive relief monies to help them get through the challenging times. It shall also help low-wage employees who have had significant salary cutbacks and are still working in non-standard jobs (Gerstel and Clawson 2018). Nevertheless, employees may confront difficulties, like preconceptions that they lack technological skills or are less productive. Even with government initiatives, it's ultimately up to the actions of individual businesses. Businesses that fail to engage in skill development risk permanently excluding older workers from the workforce. As a result, if businesses remain unwilling to invest time or money or time in updating the abilities of their older employees, many shall remain without job or work in non-standard jobs (ILO 2016). The government must provide training for elder workers while also rewarding companies that implement assistance programs.

Reflecting on the issues identified in the media article and relevant essential readings, what actions do you think managers or policy makers should take to resolve them? (max 200 word):

Policymakers ought to include incentives or refunds for businesses that embrace reintegration & support programs for older employees, as well as training for them to improve their efficacy. Because older employees may have health concerns, retirement plans, and personal responsibilities, policymakers ought to be interested in flexible/casual work. Flexibility is projected to increase revenue while restricting spending in the public sector via boosting employment growth and raising tax income while reducing welfare support needs (Rubery, Keizer and Grimshaw 2016). It would have to be on a case-by-case basis to prevent over-reliance on the national government since there would be a threshold. Managers ought to value older workers because they may provide advice and direction to new workers, saving them money on training. Discrimination against older employees in the hiring process and in the workplace must be eliminated. It's not only an issue of having precarious positions in the precariat; it's also a matter of being in a post that offers little sense of career or steady occupational identity. A healthy work atmosphere will assist older workers to have a good attitude about their jobs, as well as high adaptability and flexibility.

Reference List

Rubery, J., Keizer, A. and Grimshaw, D., 2016. Flexibility bites back: the multiple and hidden costs of flexible employment policies. Human Resource Management Journal, 26(3), pp.235-251.

Standing, G., 2011. The precariat: the new dangerous class Bloomsbury Academic. New York.

International Labour Organization (ILO) 2016, Non-standard employment around the world: Understanding challenges, shaping prospects, ILO, viewed 14 April 2021,

Rubery, J., Keizer, A. and Grimshaw, D., 2016. Flexibility bites back: the multiple and hidden costs of flexible employment policies. Human Resource Management Journal, 26(3), pp.235-251.

Huntley, R., 2014. Bending over backwards: The janus face of flexibility. Griffith Review, (45), pp.59-68.

Gerstel, N. and Clawson, D., 2018. Studying Gender and Class: A Multiple Methods Approach to Analyzing Time. SAGE Publications Ltd.

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