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Effectiveness of the learning and teaching strategies (For example, review your questioning skills in ‘checking for understanding’ or your explaining skills in ‘information and modelling’, or your organising and communicating skills, for example, giving instructions, encouraging student participation etc.)

Reflection on what you have learned and changes for future lessons (Identify a key learning/insight that you have gained about effective learning and teaching and those changes you will make when planning and implementing your next Direct Lesson Plan)

Step 1: Understanding the curriculum context

Completing this audit will take approximately 2-3hours. As you are using this tool to evaluate your current historical skills, knowledge and conceptual understanding, you should complete this without conducting any ‘research’ (internet or textbook searches!). There are several steps in completing this ‘audit tool’. Please note this is an indicative tool ONLY – it does not, nor can it, cover the complexity and depth of what an effective graduate history teacher can or should be able to do. It is a selection only.

You are to complete this tool digitally (in the spaces provided and attach it as an appendix to Assessment 1)

Step 1: Understanding the curriculum context

Using the Australian Curriculum: History for Years 7 – 10, develop a course of study for Years 7-10 as it relates to the selection of depth studies (look back to the Week 1 task). Use the table below to guide this process.

Year/Level

The sequence of Depth Studies

Rationale –explain and justify the narrative underlying the depth study sequence?

7

Investigating the ancient past

The Mediterranean World

The Asian World

The curriculum involves an elaboration of history from the earliest times to the end of the ancient times. It gives the student an understanding of the ancient world through discoveries to the mysteries of various societies (Biggs, 2011).

8

The Western and Islamic World

The Asia-Pacific World

Expanding Contact

The depth study sequence effectively explains the chronological occurrences from the ancient times to the beginning of the modern period. During this period, major civilizations in the world began to meet each other (McKenzie, 2011).

9

Making a Better World

Australia and Asia

World War I (1914-1918)

This level involves two strands: historical skills and historical knowledge and understanding. The sequence hence in interrelating the two strands and allows for appropriate placement of the curriculum into context.

10

World War II

Rights and Freedoms

The globalizing world

The sequence gives the students an understanding and better insight into the chronological changes that occurred from 1918 to the present (Carpenter, 2014). From the sequence, the students get an introduction to the period of history; make links between the various occurrences and hence consolidating an understanding of the chronology.

Step 2: Content knowledge

The breadth of the Australian Curriculum: History, requires teachers to have a broad historical knowledge.

  1. Below is a list of Year 7-10 content knowledge for Australian Curriculum: History(options for each level included). For each depth study, rate your depth of knowledge and understanding.

Depth Studies

Strong

Adequate

Little/None

Aboriginal and Torres Strait and Islander Peoples and Cultures

(Ancient history focus)

ü 

Ancient China (60 000 BCE – c.650 CE)

ü 

Ancient Rome (60 000 BCE – c.650 CE)

Ancient Egypt (60 000 BCE – c.650 CE)

ü 

Ancient India (60 000 BCE – c.650 CE)

ü 

Ancient China (60 000 BCE – c.650 CE)

ü 

Medieval Europe (c.590 – c.1500)

ü 

The Vikings (c.790 – c.1066)

ü 

The Ottoman Empire (c.1299 – c.1683)

ü 

Angkor/Khmer Empire (c.802 – c.1431)

ü 

Mongol Expansion (c.1206 – c.1368)

ü 

Japan under the Shoguns (c.794 – 1867)

ü 

The Polynesian expansion across the Pacific (c.700 – 1756)

ü 

Renaissance Italy (c.1400 – c.1600)

ü 

The Spanish Conquest of the Americas (c.1492 – c.1572)

ü 

Industrial Revolution (1750 – 1914)

ü 

Australia and/or an Asian society in the period 1750 – 1918

ü 

ü 

Australia at War: WWI

ü 

Australia at War: WWII

ü 

Rights and Freedoms (1945-present)

ü 

Globalising world: Popular Culture (1945-present)

ü 

Globalising world: Environment Movement (1945-present)

ü 

Globalising world: Migration Experiences (1945-present)

ü 

Globalising world: Political Crisis (1945-present)

ü 

How do you think you performed on this test?

The test is evaluating skills and techniques that are supposed to be used in teaching history. These skills are among them those are used to ensure the learners understand the various concepts that they are being taught. This is achievable through the various questions that are raised from the test (Dalmau, 2017). The responses of the test are meant to provide insights into what is supposed to be done accurately in order to achieve the desired learning objectives of the test.

What areas might students find challenging? Why?

The most challenging areas of the test included the areas that tested on what approaches could be deployed to ensure that learners who had different levels of understanding were brought to speed together ensuring that they are at the same level by the end of a lesson (Stanton, 2012). This bit of the test was challenging as the different levels of understandings among learners is a bit challenging to balance.

How might teachers address these challenges?

Improving on the score on this test would involve engaging the learners at personal levels to establish the problem of each of the student from which the various techniques and approaches would be devised.

  1. Complete the following test (do not undertake ANY research or study – use your current knowledge only

What is this test trying to assess/evaluate?

The test is evaluating skills and techniques that are supposed to be used in teaching history. These skills are among them those are used to ensure the learners understand the various concepts that they are being taught. This is achievable through the various questions that are raised from the test (McKenzie, 2011). The responses of the test are meant to provide insights into what is supposed to be done accurately in order to achieve the desired learning objectives of the test.

Step 2: Content knowledge

What areas did you find challenging (if any)? Why?

The most challenging areas of the test included the areas that tested on what approaches could be deployed to ensure that learners who had different levels of understanding were brought to speed together ensuring that they are at the same level by the end of a lesson. This bit of the test was challenging as the different levels of understandings among learners is a bit challenging to balance (Rushby, 2016).

What could you do to improve your performance on this test?

Improving on the score on this test would involve engaging the learners at personal levels to establish the problem of each of the student from which the various techniques and approaches would be devised.

Step 3: Procedural concepts

Provide an explanation of each of the following procedural concepts (the concepts provide the conceptual framework for teaching history across Years 7-10). Do not refer to a textbook or undertake any internet research – respond using your own knowledge only. If you do not know – please note this down.

Procedural concept

Explanation

Example of an activity you might use in the classroom to teach this concept

Change and continuity

Moves students from thinking of history as a  mere series of events to powerful and complicated understandings of change and continuity

Teaching on transformations over religion with time

Cause and effect

Identification of chain of events and developments over  a period of time

Turn a light switch on and ask the students to explain why the light is on when the switch is on

Evidence

What one can learn from a source of history that can be useful in the construction of a historical narrative

Coming to class with archaeological remains as proof of ancient times

Perspectives

An individual’s point of view describing how they see and understand the events that happen around them

Posing questions to the students on what they feel would have been the approach to end WWI

Historical interpretations

Views established at later times than the events occurred

Explaining to the students the perceptions of various authors and scholars on the certain topic

Empathy

Engaging with the past thought

Asking the students to describe memorable episodes

  1. b) Read the following task description:

Imagine you are a Roman gladiator fighting in the newly built Flavian Amphitheatre (later renamed the Colosseum) in 80 BCE.  Write a diary entry describing a day in your life.

It could be argued that this is an empathy task. Is the development of empathy about imagining the past and writing stories? Or is it something more? What sub-questions could you add to the task described above to ensure this task is one based on historical thinking (as opposed to creative writing)?

The development of empathy is not just about imagining the past and writing stories instead it encompasses gaining an understanding of the past in relation to the present. Sub-questions related to the ideologies and reasoning among the various historians would be ideal for ensuring that the task description meets historical thinking line of writing (Macbeath, 2015).

  1. C) Imagine you are teaching Year 9 history and examining the issue of conscription (1916 Australian Referendum). Identify and list TWO sources that allow students to explore historical perspectives (varied perspectives at the time).
  2. Artifacts
  3. Document

Identify and list TWO sources that allow students to explore historical interpretations (interpretations of this issue at the time)

  1. Recording
  2. Manuscript

Step 4: Historical skills

This section focuses on source analysis only. There are many other skills we will be examining within EDSS520 – but for the purposes of this task – we are focusing on source analysis.

What is this test trying to assess/evaluate?

This test is based on knowledge on the historical background of various phenomena. It is focusing on the ability of the teacher to relate historical skills and the contemporary society. In order to pass the test it is expected on the examined to demonstrate an understanding of a clear difference between the various historical perspectives and have the ability to link the different historical perspectives to the contemporary society in which the learning is being conducted (Stanton, 2012).

What areas did you find challenging (if any)? Why?

The main challenging aspects of the test involved relating the various historical skills to the current society following the highly dynamic nature of the society (Biggs, 2011). To some extent, there appear to be missing links between the nature of history and their relevance in the current society.

Reflection

Taken together these tasks act as an ‘audit tool’ – a mechanism to encourage you to reflect on your emerging strengths and areas for further development. Critically reflect on the process of completing these activities using the table below:

What strengths can you identify as a result of completing the audit tool tasks? (historical knowledge, conceptual understanding, and historical skills)?

What challenges did you face in completing the audit tool tasks?

Completion of the task of the audit tools has helped in building the historical knowledge and understanding as well as well as an in-depth comprehension of the various historical skills (Younie, 2013). Among the developed historical skills developed is the relation of the ancient historical times to the contemporary society while maintaining each of the times.

The audit task has played a vital role in the elaboration as well as enhancing conceptual understanding. Through the various tests of the skills answered in this the audit tool, the teacher has gained insights into how to install and examine the progress on how students are able to understand the different concepts on historical skills.

Responding to questions testing on the different levels of understanding among the various learners as for the case of handling the challenges of teaching different understanding levels was one of the challenges experienced in the completion of the audit tool.

Contextualizing historical skills in the contemporary society was yet another challenge faced in completing the various tasks of the audit tool. While history borrows heavily from the past, the contemporary society is such dynamic and finds no relevance or applications in the historical society. There seems to be quite an enormous gap between the contemporary society and the historical society.

Opportunities – what opportunities can you access or develop to enable you to address these areas for improvement?

What areas for improvement can you identify as a result of completing the audit tool tasks? (historical knowledge, conceptual understanding, and historical skills)

Opportunities for enhancing the interaction between the learner and the teacher are among the accessible opportunities when improvements are being made on the various areas of the self-audit tool (Biggs, 2011).

An interaction with the students gives the teacher to understand the various points of weaknesses as well as the strengths of the learners. Student-teacher interactions are defined by acceptance, trust, intimacy, understanding, cooperation, care, respect and affection and is determined by to a large extent the amount of effort contributed by both the student and the teacher. A teacher practical in representation, intimacy, respect, care, cooperation and expectations towards the learners they teach increases the chances of building strong relationships that will last as well as initiating positive teacher-learner interactions.

Teacher-student interactions have an impact on the learners gaining skills that are usable in enhancing how they relate with their peers as well as in relating to the university. Academic self-concept, as well as success and enthusiasm, are also among the benefits and opportunities that may be achieved through the teacher-learner relations that have been developed as a result of the completion of the audit skills.

Improving on the score on the various tests would involve engaging the learners at personal levels to establish the problem of each of the student from which the various techniques and approaches would be devised. Personal level based learning facilitates learner-teacher interactions which are an interaction with the students gives the teacher to understand the various points of weaknesses as well as the strengths of the learners.


References

Bassarear, T. (2015). Mathematics for Elementary School Teachers. New Delhi: Cengage Learning.

Biggs, J. B. (2011). Teaching for Quality Learning at University: What the Student Does. London: McGraw-Hill Education (UK).

Carpenter, B. (2014). Enabling Access. London: Routledge.

Dalmau, M. C. (2017). Taking a Fresh Look at Education: Framing Professional Learning in Education through Self-Study. Oxford: Springer.

Kauchak, D. P. (2016). Introduction to Teaching: Becoming a Professional. Manchester: Pearson Education.

Macbeath, J. (2015). School Inspection & Self-Evaluation: Working with the New Relationship. New York: Routledge.

McKenzie, K. B. (2011). Using Equity Audits in the Classroom to Reach and Teach All Students. New York: Corwin Press.

Rushby, N. (2016). The Wiley Handbook of Learning Technology. London: John Wiley & Sons.

Stanton, A. (2012). Sams Teach Yourself Microsoft Dynamics CRM 2011 in 24 Hours. London: Sams Publishing.

Younie, S. (2013). Teaching with Technologies: The Essential Guide. London: McGraw-Hill Education (UK).

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My Assignment Help (2020) A History Teacher's Audit Tool: Curriculum, Content Knowledge, Procedural Concepts, Essay. [Online]. Available from: https://myassignmenthelp.com/free-samples/edss520-history-curriculum-and-teaching/knowledge-and-conceptual-understanding.html
[Accessed 25 July 2024].

My Assignment Help. 'A History Teacher's Audit Tool: Curriculum, Content Knowledge, Procedural Concepts, Essay.' (My Assignment Help, 2020) <https://myassignmenthelp.com/free-samples/edss520-history-curriculum-and-teaching/knowledge-and-conceptual-understanding.html> accessed 25 July 2024.

My Assignment Help. A History Teacher's Audit Tool: Curriculum, Content Knowledge, Procedural Concepts, Essay. [Internet]. My Assignment Help. 2020 [cited 25 July 2024]. Available from: https://myassignmenthelp.com/free-samples/edss520-history-curriculum-and-teaching/knowledge-and-conceptual-understanding.html.

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