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1.What strategies and interventions could you use to support the learners in the case study to make decisions and guide their own behaviour?

2.How you would prepare the physical and social environment to contribute to the child’s relationship with others and learning?

3.What specific involvement would external agencies and professionals have in the strategies outlined in your response to the case study?

4.What are the family, cultural and ethical considerations related to the case study?

5.How can you make effective use of policy frameworks and external support organisations in response to this case study?

6.What behaviour framework, strategy and model would you apply in response to your chosen case study?

7.What theories have you used to guide your approaches to behaviour management in your case study response?

Peer Training and Classroom Discussion

1. Classroom management is an umbrella term that encompasses the application of a plethora of techniques and skills by teachers for keeping all students focused, organized, orderly and attentive in the classes. An analysis of the case scenario suggests that the main problems that could be identified in Ahmed was his lack of willingness to participate in playful activities with others, withdrawal from the class, and subsequent isolation (Levin & Nolan, 2014). The primary strategy that should be put to practice in this case scenario involves ‘circle of friends’. Members of the peer group will be provided the encouragement to look at self-behaviour for developing a deeper understanding of the behaviour of the focus child (Wu, Fan, Hong & Chen, 2015).

Thus, providing training to the peers, recruiting volunteers among them and acquiring permission to involve all would greatly benefit. Classroom discussion would be another potential strategy. These discussions will prepare the entire class to show greater acceptance and empathy towards Ahmed, thus taking efforts to improve his social and behavioural outcomes (Snow & O'connor, 2016). Role play will challenge the peers to think about how they can act in a responsible manner when they hear people talk in a mean manner about an individual. Role play would also allow the peers and other teachers to understand the feelings of embarrassment, sadness, and humiliation that are faced by Ahmed on a regular basis (Stanton-Chapman, 2015). Hence, implementation of these strategies will prove beneficial in guiding behaviour.

2. The physical environment of a classroom plays a pivotal role in addressing both negative and positive behaviour among the learners. Poorly maintained classrooms that are devoid of any stimulating features have been found to display a failure in creating an environment that encourage all students to adopt a learning approach. According to the instructional communication theory, seating arrangements play an essential role in influencing the communication of the instructor with the students, and among themselves (Mottet, Richmond & McCroskey, 2015). Research evidences have established the fact that students prefer learning in a physical environment that has provisions for flexible seating. Thus, the physical environment will be prepared in a way that encompasses either of the two approaches namely, pods and horseshoe.

While the pod arrangement will be created in a way that has circular tables and many of such tables will be placed together to form groups, it will encourage a learning community. Conversely, the horseshoe or semi-circle will offer an adapted roundtable setup, and facilitate all participants to face each other, thus encouraging discussion (Ross, 2018). The physical environment will also be kept free from obstacles. Altering the furniture layout after every 4 months would help.

Altering the Classroom Environment

Social environment of the classroom comprises of the perceptions of the students on how they receive encouragement for interacting and relating with others. An appropriate social environment can be created by setting the stage and playing the lead (Joe, Hiver & Al-Hoorie, 2017). Adorning the role of the primary role model, efforts must be taken to create effective warm and nurturing relationships among the children. Showing a consistent awareness on the feelings and needs of the child and adequately defining the boundaries that exist in the setting will also prove beneficial. Some of the aspects that should be taken into consideration while promoting a good social environment are teaching the skills of friendship, and using child preferences for promoting social interaction (Churcher, 2014). Ahmed’s learning behaviour can be enhanced by teaching about the different concepts of interaction and reciprocity. Using puppets, games and feeling faces for recognition of emotions would also be imperative for the same.

3. The educators, staff, coordinators and supervisors who are involved in the classroom teaching in the institute will be asked to interact in a cooperative and respectful manner. They can serve the character of role models for Ahmed and his peers. There is a need of seeking help from an appropriately trained educator who will be able to formulate a budget for bringing about the changes in the physical and the social environment. The educator will also help in implementing the modifications in the physical and the social environment owing to the fact that he/she will refer to the procedures, policies, and provisions. These should be adhered to and designed for equipping the classroom teachers with the adequate attitude, knowledge, skills and behaviour that are imperative for addressing the needs of Ahmed (Long, 2016). Support will also be required from relevant professionals and agencies for making decisions that are appropriate and in the best interests of Ahmed, along with the other children. Some of the organisations and/or agencies that will prove beneficial in implementing classroom changes include One World for Children Pvt Ltd, Community Early Learning Australia, and Goodstart Early Learning.

4. The fact that socioeconomic background of a family plays an essential role in challenging behavioural problems among children should be taken into consideration. Children belonging to poor socioeconomic status and single parents are more likely to display problems in their classroom behaviour (Cartledge et al., 2015). The fact that Ahmed belongs to a family that practices Islam might have contributed to his isolating behaviour in the classroom. Adequate efforts must be taken to increase the awareness among his peers and educators regarding his cultural beliefs and values. Demonstrating respect towards his cultural attitudes and perceptions will prove beneficial (Coady, Harper & De Jong, 2016).

Creating a Good Social Environment

5. The National Quality Framework that has been formulated by the ACECQA, Australian Children’s Education and Care Quality Authority must be effectively used for changing the learning behaviour in the case scenario. The National Quality Standard areas will prove effective in relation to the case study. The 2nd, 5th, 6th, and 7th quality areas of the framework should be implemented in this case. The framework will promote maintenance of the health and safety of all children, in a way that their physical activity is promoted. Reasonable supervision and adequate precautionary steps will be taken to ensure that Ahmed and his peers are protected from all forms of harms (2.2). Being respectful of the child and engaging in a meaningful and responsive interaction, by building trusting relationships are some other essential steps (5.1). The cultural and ethnic considerations should be respected and Ahmed’s family must also be involved in the decision making process (6.1) (Acecqa.gov.au, 2018).

The Early Years Learning Framework must also be abided by, for ensuring effective classroom engagement. This framework will take into consideration the fact that children have strong identity sense, and a perception of wellbeing (Acecqa.gov.au, 2018).

Another framework that will prove effective is the My Time, Our Place framework for Australian children of school age (Acecqa.gov.au, 2018). These will help in addressing Ahmed’s developmental needs, experiences and interests and also take into account the individual differences that exist between him and his peers.

6. The functional behavioural assessment (FBA) will be adopted in this case. The FBA refers to an approach that helps in figuring out the reasons that make a child act in certain ways. The FBA will employ a range of techniques for understanding the potential reasons behind the unfitting behaviour displayed by Ahmed. The framework will prove effective in defining the behaviour, followed by collecting and analyzing information, hypothesizing the underlying reasons and developing a plan of action (Anderson, Rodriguez & Campbell, 2015). Certain elements of the National Quality Standard 5.2 will also be implemented. These standards state that all children must be provided support from collaborative learning opportunities, while maintaining their rights and dignity.

Behaviour guidance provided by the Early Years Learning Framework (EYLF) will comprise of a range of ways that that can provide help in Ahmed’s learning, thus resulting in a subsequent ‘self-management’ of behaviour (Acecqa.gov.au, 2018). It will also encourage Ahmed to reflect on his actions. The whole school approach associated with Positive Behaviour for Learning (PBL) is another behavioural model that can also be executed for improving the overall learning and wellbeing of Ahmed and his peers in the school setting (Wright, 2016). It will help in developing a safe, positive, and supportive school environment that promotes development and learning. The model will also empower Ahmed to participate in the major decision making processes.

Seeking Help from Trained Educators

7. The theories that were principally used for the case scenario are the ecological theory, theory of humanism and theory of lack of assertiveness. The Ecological Systems Theory places an emphasis on the way by which the environment interacts to influence the growth and development in a child. The theory states that a child characteristically finds him concurrently entangled in different ecosystems, which range from the greatest intimate home-based system that moves outwards to larger school system, to the most extensive system of culture and society (Garbarino, 2017). The theory elucidated on the fact that all interactions within a microsystem involves personal relationships with classmates, family members, caregivers, and teachers that governs how a child will grow. The way by which a child retorts to individuals in his microsystem also regulate how the child is treated in return.

Conversely, the humanistic theory of learning elaborates on the fact that learning is acquired by watching other’s behaviour and what is obtained as a result of such behaviour. Hence, it explains learning as an observational outcome. The theory states that the duty of a teacher is that of a role model who will display appropriate behaviour, besides providing adequate reasons for each task (Ozuah, 2016).

The theory on lack of assertiveness focuses on the ability of children to express their opinions, feelings, needs, and beliefs, in an open and honest manner, while not being disrespectful of other’s personal rights. The theory stresses on the development of a child through a continuous process of improvement and learning, which when present in combination with support from the teachers, parents and siblings, help in the learning process of children (Okubo, Kato & Mutoh, 2015).

References

Acecqa.gov.au. (2018). BELONGING, BEING & BECOMING. Retrieved from https://www.acecqa.gov.au/sites/default/files/2018-02/belonging_being_and_becoming_the_early_years_learning_framework_for_australia.pdf 

Acecqa.gov.au. (2018). My Time, Our Place. Retrieved from https://www.acecqa.gov.au/sites/default/files/2018-05/my_time_our_place_framework_for_school_age_care_in_australia_0.pdf 

Acecqa.gov.au. (2018). NATIONAL QUALITY STANDARD. Retrieved from https://www.acecqa.gov.au/sites/default/files/2018-07/RevisedNQSHandoutA4.pdf 

Anderson, C. M., Rodriguez, B. J., & Campbell, A. (2015). Functional behavior assessment in schools: Current status and future directions. Journal of Behavioral Education, 24(3), 338-371.

Cartledge, G. W. E. N. D. O. L. Y. N., Lo, Y. Y., Vincent, C. G., & Robinson-Ervin, P. O. R. S. H. A. (2015). Culturally responsive classroom management. Handbook of classroom management, 411-430.

Churcher, K. (2014). " Friending" Vygotsky: A Social Constructivist Pedagogy of Knowledge Building through Classroom Social Media Use. Journal of Effective Teaching, 14(1), 33-50.

Coady, M. R., Harper, C., & De Jong, E. J. (2016). Aiming for equity: Preparing mainstream teachers for inclusion or inclusive classrooms?. TESOL Quarterly, 50(2), 340-368.

Garbarino, J. (2017). Children and Families in the Social Environment: Modern Applications of Social Work. Routledge.

Joe, H. K., Hiver, P., & Al-Hoorie, A. H. (2017). Classroom social climate, self-determined motivation, willingness to communicate, and achievement: A study of structural relationships in instructed second language settings. Learning and Individual Differences, 53, 133-144.

Levin, J., & Nolan, J. F. (2014). Principles of classroom management: A professional decision-making model. Pearson. One Lake Street, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458.

Long, A. L. (2016). Reculturing and rebuilding learning communities through responsive classroom management practices. Mercer University.

Mottet, T., Richmond, V. P., & McCroskey, J. C. (2015). Handbook of instructional communication: Rhetorical and relational perspectives. Routledge.

Okubo, T., Kato, S., & Mutoh, A. (2015, October). A friendship network model on Heider's balance theory considering Assertiveness and Empathy. In Consumer Electronics (GCCE), 2015 IEEE 4th Global Conference on (pp. 117-119). IEEE.

Ozuah, P. O. (2016). First, there was pedagogy and then came andragogy. Einstein journal of Biology and Medicine, 21(2), 83-87.

Ross, R. P. (2018). Classroom segments: The structuring of school time. In Time and School Learning (1984) (pp. 69-88). Routledge.

Snow, C., & O'connor, C. (2016). Close reading and far-reaching classroom discussion: Fostering a vital connection. Journal of Education, 196(1), 1-8.

Stanton-Chapman, T. L. (2015). Promoting positive peer interactions in the preschool classroom: The role and the responsibility of the teacher in supporting children’s sociodramatic play. Early Childhood Education Journal, 43(2), 99-107.

Wright, D. (2016). CLASSROOM KARMA: Positive Teaching, Positive Behaviour, Positive Learning. ROUTLEDGE.

Wu, T., Fan, Y., Hong, Z., & Chen, L. (2015, October). Subspace clustering on mobile data for discovering circle of friends. In International Conference on Knowledge Science, Engineering and Management (pp. 703-711). Springer, Cham.

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