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Copy the first 150 full or partial words from your story.

  • Using broad phonetic transcription, transcribe these 100 words.
  • Make a second copy of the broad phonetic transcription of the first 100 words. In this version, divide each of these words into syllables and mark the primary lexical stress of each content word.
  • Make a third copy of the broad phonetic transcription. In this version, mark any intonation contours that are present in your data.  
  • Explain how a broad phonemic analysis would be different than a narrow phonetic analysis using the first five words in your transcript.
  • Identify one sound or suprasegmental feature in your first 100 words of your transcript and describe an activity that would make use of that sound or suprasegmental feature. Your activity should be creative, interesting and meaningful to your learner. It should help in their learning of this particular feature (consciously or unconsciously). Your claims should be supported by literature in the field.

Morphological analysis

Make three copies of your text. In the first copy, highlight all instances of inflectional morphemes. In your second copy, highlight all instances of derivational morphemes. In your third copy, highlight all compounds in yellow font, and all other word formation processes in green font. Write a paragraph or two after each copy of the transcript explaining the basis of your decisions. These claims should be supported by reference to the literature in the field.

  • Indicate how you would teach one morphological feature in your text to a learner of English. Your teaching activity should help a learner to use your selected feature. Your activity should be creative, interesting and meaningful to the learner. You should refer to relevant literature in the field to support your claims.

Define coherence, and provide a detailed analysis of how your text coheres. In your answer explore your text linguistically and consider how both mode and medium affect how your text coheres. In other words, in your answer, you must explain how the image/s (your “selfie”) and the digital nature of your text affects your text’s overall coherence. In all instances, you should also make reference to available literature to support your claims. After you have explained how you have made your text cohere,  reflect on how this type of digital text can be useful for teaching English and explain how you might use a digitally mediated and multi-modal text in English language teaching, and for what purposes. Refer to relevant literature in the field.

Morphological analysis

((click)) Hi everyone (.) ahh first of all thank you for providing me an opportunity (#) tuh introduce myself. My name is Parul and I’m born and brought up in India (#) and from India I’m from the North side (#) I belong to Haryana State (.) and I have completed my Masters in Business Economics (#) from Kurukshetra University (.) Kurukshetra (.) and my bachelors in Education from the same university (#) and I li:ke am also having a passion ($) um t’ be a teacher. So that’s why as for the reason (.)  I’m decided to do Masters in education (.) and like if I talk about my career background (.) I’m also working as a coordinator for the last four years (0.1) (.) with a private school (#) and as coming to my nature I am quite open but a:s i:n emotional sometimes when it comes to my family (1:1) and I regard my husband (.) as my true source of inspiration as he is the honest person I has I had considerate in my life. Including me (.) my family consist of five members (.) :wich [ ] my father in-law is retired from Indian rail base ($) and if I talk about my mother in-law (#) she is a house maker annd if I talk about my husband (.) he i:s has his own business (.)  he is- in sports and I have one loving son (.) Ryan. (1:48) annd I like to feel fresh airs so which inspires me (.) every new day (.) gives me new hopes so that’s why I like to walk for a long: so I like to move for over miles. Well that was just a brief summary of my journey (.) so far. However, if you would li:ke to know I would li:ke to be there for you. Thank you!

QUESTION B: COHERENCE

the script is somewhat nature and we can proudly say that it fulfils most of the conventions of either a written or spoken dialogue.

To start with, the text is oral. Nevertheless, the text is not unprompted like many spoken scripts that are for natural purposes.  I have prepared written texts before which shows the discourse of a particular structure. However, this one does not have are the conventions of a written script. In the latter section of this assignment we will see that the text was arranged in a manner that gives it a lexical redundancy. This includes having both the elements of orality as per Ong (2013, pp. 38-41). The author of this text knew very well that it would be spoken text and she also knew its aim. Therefore, this denied the text most elements that would classify it as a written script.

Define coherence, and provide a detailed analysis of how your text coheres

The text got its shape from the fact that I was doing it as part of my university assignment and as a way of introducing myself to my friends. Some of the elements that were affected by the purpose of the text are tone (Or what Nicholas and Starks (2014, p.61) refers to as the “key” of a text, as I wanted to deliver some categories of familiarity to the script. As we shall see later, my intonation and sentence structure does not possess most patterns to make it a formal speech. On the other hand, it levels of informalities are not enough to classify it as an improvised text. That is why we are saying that the text is there in between the spoken and written.

When analyzing the text section of the script, I will also look at what I did not use since it will help in understanding its nature and purpose….

I did not use any adjective of personality in the text. This was left out with a purpose. A person’s personality can be described using what one thinks of him/herself and using what others notices in him/her. The two makes it very hard for that person to describe him/her personality (Holló, Shu-Wei, & Naghizadeh, 2016).

The first thing to note when analyzing the image that accompanies the image is that the image is a selfie as it is a picture of myself and taken by myself. In this image, I am looking straight at the camera without smiling. It is normal that a person will look straight into the camera and either smile or show some kind of seriousness. The type of images that we post of Facebook and other social media channels places a big role in creating the figure that we want the public to see in us (Barthes 1977).

QUESTION C: PHONETICS AND PHONOLOGY

In this section I will analysis the phonetic transcription, syllables, stress, intonation and phonemic in the text.

According to the analysis that will be done later in this transcript. I usually pronounce as [‘laIk] is /laIk/. The phoneme /k/ can be used to differentiate /laIk/ from /laIt/.  Hence, the two words are two minimal pairs. nevertheless, I do not do this all the time. For example, in my text I said [?a? ?la?? ?l??n??] instead of [?a? ?la?k ?l??n??]. Kent, and Miolo (2017), a phonetic analysis will reflect this but a phonemic analysis will not.

Phonetics and Phonology

Application for teaching

To show how to teach a phonetic element to an English student, I am going to use the different between sounds [p] and [b]. In my text I uses the word /b?t/ often and this should not be mistaken with /p?t/. Wichmann (2014) says that a verbal text will definitely hinder the possibility of misunderstanding. However, I will try to show the meaning-distinctive probable of the phonemes of a language. My teaching proposal will illustrate a variation of one of the potential approaches as described by Harmer (2007. Pp. 253-254) to teach sounds.

To begin with, introducing a contrast that has minimal pairs will clearly show differences in the text. The teacher can orally teach this to the students and by that he/s will create a language model for the learners. (Harmer, 2007, p. 117). The leaners will then have the opportunity to hear these few pairs in context and choose that pair that they believe they are hearing. As suggested by Lecumberri and Maidment (2014), the setting of the text can also help the learners in making the right choice.

QUESTION D: MORPHOLOGY

To demonstrate the morphology of this text well, I am not going to use the original orthographic transcript.

… I like, am also having a passion um to be a teacher. So that’s why as for the reason, I’m decided to be Masters in education, and like if I talk about my career background, I’m also working as a coordinator for the last four years, with a private school, and as coming to my nature I am quite open but as in emotional sometimes… is retired from Indian rail base, and if I talk about my mother in-law, she is a house maker and if I talk about my husband, he has his own business, he is- in sports and I have one loving son, Ryan. I like to feel fresh airs so which inspires me every new day gives me new hopes so that’s why I like to walk for a long. so I like to move for over miles….

Inflectional Morphemes

Meaning

Example

-miles/-s

length / present participle of a noun

books

homes

-ing

Adverb/present the participle of a verb

Loving

Going

Walking

–ing is considered to be an inflectional as the group of the word has actually changed after the addition of this morpheme. (Pullum (1997) has explained the vagueness of this morpheme and conforms that it is a derivative (Einholz et al., 2015).

Application for teaching

To show how morphological elements are taught in an English class, I will use the inflectional morpheme –s, that is used in English to show plural nouns. I will target primary students whose first language does not use a similar inflectional element to refer to plural nouns.

Application for teaching

Therefore, I will use real objects that are readily available and that leaners are familiar with. The objects will be the ones that one can touch and see. “Realia” is a methodology that can motivate the multi-sensory needs of learners of primary level. This will enhance their contact with the language since it will be used to target the culture of these students to meet the actual communication needs (Smith, 1997). The two objects will be toys. If the toys are not available the, the teacher can use what Smith (1997) talks about in his work “Virtual realia.”

QUESTION E: WORDS

In this last section, I have decided to analysis the words for the reason, that I have identified in the previous portion.

According to Stahl et al, (2018) choosing the right word will help in making an excellent verbal speech. The three words makes up a phrase as they seem to join the two parts of the sentence where they are used. Besides, although they are making the text cleaner, they can be omitted and the sentence will still make sense. For example, in the sentence, “So that’s why as for the reason I’m decided to do Masters in Education…. When we omit the phrase the sentence will still make sense as it will be like this “So that’s why I’m decided to do Masters in Education…” So syntactically the words make a phrase that can be omitted or replaced with another words. Semantically, they are also meaningful in the text and can be replaced by words that expresses a similar meaning (Strubell et al, 2018). For example, “So that’s why (I have decided to do Masters in Education) as for the reason I’m decided to do Masters in Education”.

Application for teaching

I will show you how to teach phrases as part of speech. I will pay more attention on the sematic feature of phrases and this words shows actions.

To begin with, the teacher will choose instructions that he/s thinks that they will occur frequently during the class time. for example, put off, sit down, stand up, put off etc. the teacher will then teach the students the actual meaning of this commands.

QUESTION F: PHRASES AND CLAUSES

My text does not have any interrogative clause. The main reason why we do not have such sections is because the script was not a dialogue with someone else. Dialogues are the one that normally generate interrogative clauses. My text was a monologue, a description of myself. According to Ushioda (2017) it is difficult to have an interrogative clause in a monologue.

Words

QUESTION G:

Understanding one’s linguistic self

The whole exercise was very interesting as I was trying to make myself aware of elements in my idiolect. Although, one does not understand the extent at which the examined corpus is an honest representation of the natural idiolect of someone since it must not be produced for a completely natural purpose nor in a complete impulsive manner (Klaudy, 2017). There are some questions that one can ask him/herself just like the way Nicholas and Starks (2014, p. 36) did. For example, are some of my features accommodated in the text as I knew the kind of a task I was undertaking? Or, do my idiolect in a more spontaneous context has the same elements like the analyses corpus?

The answer to these questions is not easy but one can avoid the predicament by arguing that even when deploying different features of a communication repertoire using the terminologies used by Nicholas and Starks (2014) in their framework, the easiest way of including idiolect will have to come from within ourselves. Therefore, we will be representing a self-idiolect (Siegel, 2018).

It seems that quite often I tend to use short pauses (.) in my text. Another feature of my idiolect that also occurs at the end of some words or sentences is (#) and ($) pitches. This might be an influence of the phonemic system of my mother tongue, since in Arabic we have a lot of raising and falling pitches.

References

Barthes, R. (1977). Image, music, text. London: Fontana.

Einholz, A., Wimmer, E., Hennies, J., Rothweiler, M., & Penke, M. (2015). The acquisition of verbal morphology in German children with hearing impairment—A comparison between children treated with hearing aids and children with CI. In Proceedings of the 22nd International Congress on the Education of the Deaf (ICED) (pp. 1-7).

Harmer, J. (2007). The practice of English language teaching (4th ed.). Harlow, England: Pearson Education.

Holló, G., Shu-Wei, H., & Naghizadeh, F. (2016). Evaluation of a new software version of the RTVue optical coherence tomograph for image segmentation and detection of glaucoma in high myopia. Journal of glaucoma, 25(6), e615-e619.

Kent, R. D., & Miolo, G. (2017). Phonetic abilities in the first year of life. The handbook of child language, 303-334.

Klaudy, K. (2017). Linguistic and cultural asymmetry in translation from and into minor languages. Cadernos de Literatura em Tradução, (17), 22-37.

Lecumberri, M., & Maidment, J. A. (2014). English transcription course. Routledge.

Nicholas, H., & Starks, D. (2014). Language education and applied linguistics: bridging the two fields. Abindong, Oxdon & New York, NY: Routledge.

Ong, W. J. (2013). Orality and literacy (2nd ed.). Hoboken: Taylor and Francis.

Pullum, G. K. (1997). The Morpholexical Nature of English To-Contraction. Language: Journal of the Linguistic Society of America, 73(1), 79-102. doi:10.2307/416594

Siegel, D. J. (2018). Attachment and self-understanding: parenting with the brain in mind 1. In Attachment and human survival (pp. 21-35). Routledge.

Smith, B. (1997). Virtual realia. The Internet TESL Journal, 3(7), 1-5. Retrieved from Retrieved from https://iteslj.org/Articles/Smith-Realia

Stahl, B., Flöel, A., Amelew, B., Regenbrecht, F., & Kotz, S. A. (2018). FV5. Tapping into neural resources of verbal communication may help overcome difficulties in speech-motor planning after stroke. Clinical Neurophysiology, 129(8), e51.

Strubell, E., Verga, P., Andor, D., Weiss, D., & McCallum, A. (2018). Linguistically-Informed Self-Attention for Semantic Role Labeling. arXiv preprint arXiv:1804.08199.

Ushioda, E. (2017). The impact of global English on motivation to learn other languages: Toward an ideal multilingual self. The Modern Language Journal, 101(3), 469-482.

Wichmann, A. (2014). Intonation in text and discourse: Beginnings, middles and ends. Routledge.

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