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Literature Review

Introduction

Rural electrification in Nigerian has been a long agenda and a program known as the Federal Government Rural Electrification Programme was initiated in 1981 which has not been very much successful? since the inception. The current research evaluates the rural electrification in Nigerian context. The chapter provides a background of the study. The research aim has been provided with the research objectives. Research questions have also been provided along with a rationale of the research. The structure of the research has also been provided that will be reflected in the original research dissertation.  

The power sector in Nigeria has been suffering poorly. Most of the Nigerian cities are still not enlightened by electricity. According to World Bank data, the percentage of Nigeria having access to electricity was around negligible content of 74% in the 1990, which has increased to around 84% in the 2014 (Olatomiwa 2015). In the earlier years, the electricity access was very less compared to that of modern times. The electricity access was less that prevented further expanse of industrial and other forms of sustainable development in Nigeria that caused serious problems such as economic development.

The current research aims at evaluating the rural electrification in Nigeria and its impact on the development of the country. The research also aims at investigating the potentials of the rural electrification in Nigeria and its potential impact on the growth of Nigeria.

The research objectives are as follows:

  • To evaluate the impact of rural electrification in Nigeria
  • To analyze the impact of rural electrification on Nigeria’s development
  • To assess the issues and challenges faced in rural electrification of Nigeria
  • To recommend potential solution to mitigate the issues and challenges in rural electrification of Nigeria

The research questions are as follows:

  • What are the impact of rural electrification in Nigeria
  • How does rural electrification impact Nigeria’s development
  • Which  issues and challenges are faced in rural electrification of Nigeria
  • What can be recommended as potential solution to mitigate the issues and challenges in rural electrification of Nigeria

Due to poor electrification within Nigeria, the majority of the country has lacked economi8c development and growth in terms of industries and other development of infrastructure. According to Shaaban (2014), that was prior to the 1990s and hence promoted to the needs to rural electrification that might change the economy of Nigeria as well as the industrial growth and future development of the country in terms of the technology as well as other fields of development. The current research has provided the evaluation of the impact of rural electrification on Nigeria. The impact of rural electrification on Nigeria’s development has also been analyzed. The research also assesses the issues and challenges faced in rural electrification of Nigeria. Finally, the research helps in recommending the potential solution to mitigate the issues and challenges in rural electrification of Nigeria (Salmon 2014).

Chapter 1: Introduction

The first chapter introduces the research topic. It provides the research aim, objectives, questions as well as the rationale of the research. The research background has also been provided in this chapter.

Research Methodology

Chapter 2: Literature review

The chapter reviews the literature that has been explored previously by other researchers. Further, the chapter also identifies the gap of literature that helps the researcher to progress the research further.

Chapter 3: Research methodology

The chapter provides research methodology in which the research has been progressed. It provides the various ethical considerations taken into consideration during conducting the research. Further, the chapter also provides numerous techniques adopted for the research.

Chapter 4: Data analysis and findings

The research data is accumulated in the chapter and analyzed in the chapter that throws light on the further analysis as well as findings. The data collected is then analyzed and discussed for progressing through the chapter.

Chapter 5: Conclusion and recommendations

The chapter concludes the research providing the clear linking with objectives of the research from the findings as well as the data that has been analyzed by the research. Further recommendations are also provided in the research for further conduction and betterment of the research as well as mitigate the potential challenges and issues of the research.  

Introduction

The chapter of literature review provides an exploration of the relevant literature regarding the research along with the various constraints of the literature understanding the literature gap that helps the researcher to progress and further advance the research.

Rural electrification in Nigeria

The Roadmap of Reform in Power Sectors by the ex-president of Government, Goodluck Jonathan has mainly focused on the setting of structures, which ensured viable power supply to mainly semi urbanized zones of Nigeria. Regardless, the Roadmap did not get natural power. It is decidedly recommended for President Muhammadu Buhari (Government), stretches out power supply to Nigerians by making as well as rural power framework operationalization, which usually ensures plausible, sensible and tried and true energy to the common gatherings of Nigeria through extension, control access to around 75% of all Nigerians within the year 2020, as per Vision 2020 (Mentis 2015). President Muhammadu Buhari’s government should take note of that, powerlessness to give control organizations to the provincial districts of Nigeria will continue misshaping the change of Nigeria's economy.

As per Emodi (2015), the Rural Electrification Program of the federal government begun 24 years earlier, in 1981, and did not attain adequate achievement, since root. This program had the goal of interfacing all present Headquarters of local government and selecting neighboring towns as well as national cross section towns. It was known as the Nigerian Rural Electrification Program (NREP). The program was begun by the Federal Ministry of Power and Steel (FMPS) which was carried out by the dead National Electric Power Authority (NEPA). The program was tormented by lacking financing, poor execution concerning legally binding specialists and securing challenges. In the 1980's, the program was resuscitated, with the implementation committee and establishment as well as mass obtaining arrangement. According to Baek (2016), regardless of the way that these achieved access that is more significant by controlling through headquarters of local Government and fortunate clients in the speedy district, larger piece of nation families did not see much change in the openness of energy organizations. The Rural Electrification Agency (REA) was developed in 2006, by methods for range 88 (1) of the Electric Power Sector Reform (EPSR) Act-2005. The Act set up the Rural Electrification finance. The Act stipulated that REA should have the going with standard strategies for movement: (i) Expansion of the essential system to common zones (ii) Development of Isolated and Mini-grid structures and (ii) Renewable Energy control period (Ajayi 2016).

Data Analysis and Findings

REA began operations in August 2006 along with each one of its exercises focused on grid expansion to nation ranges, by methods for financing from the Federal Government's yearly budgetary disseminations. The Rural Electrification Fund, stipulated in ESPR-2005, was never executed for common charge wanders. Ohunakin (2014) stated that around 2,000 system expansion wanders at various level of completing were expected control by the Agency, from the Federal Ministry of Power's National Rural Electrification Program. New cross section expansion endeavors were begun by the REA in the region of 2007 and 2009. A critical number of the gained and new errands were not fittingly envisioned and required true blue masterminding, co-arrangement and union. As per Diemuodeke (2016), notwithstanding the likelihood that completed, the lion's share of these endeavors would not have made the pined for money related impact versus, budgetary assignments for undertakings execution. In addition, there was no settled establishment used as a piece of wander decision and execution. In 2009, issues of blackmail assertions incited the suspension of the organization agency staff constantly. Consequently, the agency operations were harmed, provoking Federal Government decision to begin the path toward going down the Agency. This circumstance left around 2,000 on-going errands powerless before vandals, with various natural gatherings continuing with their stay in dimness. A segment of the surrendered endeavors was traded to captivated State Governments, for satisfaction (Nna 2016).

Impact of rural electrification 

Provincial territories of poor nations are frequently off guard as far as access to power. The high cost of giving this administration in low populated, remote spots with troublesome landscape and low utilization result in rustic power plots that are normally more exorbitant to actualize than urban plans. According to Ozoegwu (2017), low country wages can prompt issues of reasonableness and the long separations mean more prominent power misfortunes and more costly client support and hardware upkeep. Regardless of this, country charge has been asserted to have significant advantages, advancing generation and better wellbeing and training for family units. In addition, in the report of the World Bank Group of Independent Evaluation, observational support is found for large portions of these connections and rates of profit for country charge tasks are adequate to warrant the speculation. Furthermore, it demonstrates that purchaser readiness to pay for power is more often than not at or above supply cost.

Regardless of the discoveries detailed in the IEG report, and called attention to, the assessments of the effects of framework get to and particularly provincial charge get to have been liable to various reactions, which are on a very basic level related with endogeneity issues and causality headings. Despite the fact that entrance to framework influences profitability, pay, and financial development, it likewise influences the free market activity of foundation. By ignoring this concurrence, there is a plausibility of biasing assessed impacts (Mohammed 2013)

Rural electrification in Nigeria’s development

Conclusion and Recommendations

Despite the fact that renewable have low O&M costs, most sustainable power source advancements have high in advance capital cost contrasted with their ordinary vitality options. Aside from the higher capital costs, most sustainable power source advancements (RET) confront the boundary of being seen as untested innovations. Ajayi (2017) stated that given these twin boundaries to RET, financial specialists confront higher dangers and instabilities when settling on speculation choices. In this manner in a capital compelled economy like Nigeria, where there are many contending requests for accessible rare capital assets, the promoters of RET face the issues of high exchange costs and limited access to capital. End clients of RET, particularly poor people, confront issues of access to credits. Absence of access to small-scale financing, high loan fees, poor business advancement aptitudes by framework sellers and unsupportive atmosphere for ventures is a portion of the essential boundaries to market development (Adaramola 2014).

Human and institutional limit working at all levels would be required to manage the logical, building and specialized abilities applicable for the outline, improvement, manufacture, establishment and support of RET. Specifically, limit working in four zones are most missing, in particular; preparing of labor to introduce. As per II (2015), work, look after RET, advancement of assembling capacities, improvement of minimum amount of researchers, specialists, and financial analysts, and plan, and viable working of institutional system are also considered.

As per Akinyele (2017), familiarity with the open doors offered by sustainable power sources and their innovations is low among open and private part partners. This absence of data and mindfulness makes a market bending those outcomes in higher hazard recognition for potential sustainable power source ventures. Aliyu (2015) stated that the general observation is that RETs are not yet develop advancements, consequently are suited for specialty showcases and still, at the end of the day will require overwhelming endowment to make it feasible. There is in this manner a requirement for spread of data on RE asset accessibility, advantages and chance to the overall population keeping in mind the end goal to raise open mindfulness and produce exercises in the division. Such process is vital to building open certainty and acknowledgment of RET. Giving data to chose partner bunches like the speculators can assist activate monetary assets expected to advance RET ventures. The draft Renewable Energy Master Plan usually proposes the set up of a National Renewable Energy Development Agency (NREDA), which together with non-legislative associations (NGOs), can help with expanding open mindfulness and giving data and help to intrigued partners (Diemuodeke 2017).

Rural Electrification Programs in Nigeria

In the absolute most fruitful sustainable power source programs, it is a basic that key parts of the economy drive the interest for inexhaustible power creation. In Nigeria, sustainable power source is deficiently connected to key drivers of the sustainable national economy, for example, the development in little and medium endeavors, developing interest for water supply, improvements in the media transmission industry and the drive towards incorporated rustic advancement (Amutha 2016). Building up these cross-sectoral interfaces is essential to extending sustainable power source openings. Taking everything into account, Nigeria as an expansive oil and gas economy represents an uneven playing field for renewable. As per Okeniyi (2015), there is significant stream of assets and arrangement regard for the non-renewable energy source division. This makes it troublesome for sustainable power source to pick up an a dependable balance. Certain endowments for petroleum product customary vitality advances make a boundary for sustainable power sources to accomplish a higher piece of the pie. By and by, innovation imports for ordinary power generation convey a much lower tax than sustainable power source power advancements. This punishes the development of the market for sustainable. Additionally, outer expenses – including natural, wellbeing, and security , which are regularly noteworthy in traditional energies, are for the most part not considered in market costs of these vitality bearers. Also, advantages of sustainable power sources, for example, expanded work are frequently not reflected in the vitality economic situations. While this venture can't address these market contortions, the venture will make the principal strides towards evening the odds, by understanding the points of confinement and capability of sustainable power source, bringing issues to light and trust in sustainable power sources. According to Masud (2017), building limit, enhancing the approach system, and creating inventive applications in different areas and in addition imaginative financing and plans of action keeping in mind the end goal to enhance the economic situations and empowering conditions for sustainable power source are also included (Ikejemba 2016).

Nigeria is right now experiencing a procedure of changes in the power division and changes in the strategies, establishments and direction for rustic zap are thought about. According to Elusakin (2014), there is next to no viable experience or information outside of provincial charge activities being actualized on an ordinary framework extension premise by the administration vitality services at the Federal level and in the states. In this manner, to appropriately educate the arrangement and methodology improvement handle, it is basic to investigate other feasible models of get to extension, heightening and sustainable power source advancement. This venture is intended to convey that experience through the improvement and execution of particular pilot extends in three states in its first segment. Thusly, it starts to handle the hindrances identified with mindfulness, limit, and absence of certainty into sustainable power sources (Akpan 213).

Renewable Energy and Sustainability

In the third part, it is proposed to extend the practical scopes of vitality and sustainable power source applications by supporting the improvement of cross-sectoral vitality applications through a "development TA" approach. In collaboration with neighborhood players and other advancement endeavors, beneficial utilizations for vitality will be investigated and exhibited for replication. The related IDA-financed National Energy Development Project will co-fund with GEF, the required TA support and speculations. GEF support will guarantee that parts of these exercises will be powered with sustainable power source. The segments are depicted in more detail underneath.

As per Ajayi (2014), the Energy Commission of Nigeria has built up a National Renewable Energy Master Plan to advance the utilization of sustainable power source in Nigeria, including by tending to obstructions. That as of now point of confinement such use, among which the absence of proper legitimate condition, specialized ability to check the nature of sustainable power source gear, and prepared labor to create and work sustainable power source ventures. Mediations expelling these obstructions can incorporate the improvement of steady approach, legitimate and administrative instruments, foundation of an empowering institutional structure, advancement of value affirmation activities, correspondences to build open mindfulness, plan of institutionalized Power Purchase Agreements for lattice associated sustainable power source hydro era and making of business conveyance models for extending market infiltration for sun based PV. Under this segment, the venture will fund specialized help for supporting the execution of the National Renewable Energy Master Plan. Contingent upon government needs, the destinations of this help will be the arrangement of a Renewable Energy Policy, the drafting of a Renewable Energy Act, the outline of a Renewable Energy Agency, preparing, or potentially the plan of a money related support for measures gone for making everything fair to minimum cost sustainable power source innovations at the venture level.

Country Electrification Policy (REP) likewise changed the meaning of jolted towns. As per the REP, a town would be named zapped in light of a Certificate usually issued by the Gram Panchayat, confirming that. The issues are:

  1. a) Basic framework, for example, circulation transformer and conveyance lines are given in the possessed area and in addition at least one Dalit Basti/villa where it exists.
  2. b) Electricity is given to open differentspots like schools, panchayat office, wellbeing focuses, dispensaries, group focuses and so on.
  3. c) The quantity of family units jolted are no less than 10% of the aggregate number of the total familiesin the town (Ozoegwu 2017).

Current government has declared 24X 7 Power for all by 2019. Far-reaching state-particular activity gets ready for 24x7 energy to all homes is being set up in organization with separate states, encompassing era, transmission and dissemination. The power service has marked a notice of understanding with the Andhra Pradesh government under its 'Energy for all' activity that expects to cover the whole state by October 2016 (Dada 2014). Plans for Delhi and Rajasthan are as of now entire and prepared for usage and for different states, arrangements are being prepared (Power). For rustic zap to be accomplished economically, we require a monstrous concentrate on formation of pay era exercises to support the provincial economy. DESI Power, Gram Power, Husk Power and soon have sent little matrices and smaller scale lattices in rustic India. Nevertheless, excepting couple of cases, these models are yet to wind up noticeably industrially reasonable and feasible. As per Ayodele (2014), disconnection of business feasibility from the risk of sponsored taxes is one of the significant difficulties, which should be tended to, for circulated era. As of late declared upgraded focuses for sustainable power source modified by MNRE (175 GW by 2022) are required to acquire new speculations and give driving force for rustic zap through sustainable power source.

Challenges in Rural Electrification in Nigeria

The analysis of the electrification in rural Nigeria has been done by Lawal (2015). However, its impact on the Nigerian development has not been properly explored in the previous literature. According to Garba (2017), the major issue that leads to no electrification is the poor economic development as well as poor technological growth. However, the major impact in development of rural areas is not properly explored in the previous research. Further, the major issues are not researched in previous research that clearly defines the problems in the rural electrification and its related and potential countermeasures as well as mitigating techniques.

Introduction

This part gives a research onion that gives an essential rule of the whole research. A research logic has been joined, inquire about outline has been drafted and research strategies chose. Information sorts have likewise been recognized specifying the information accumulation strategies that should be consolidated for this exploration. The information gathering apparatuses are additionally assessed alongside examining systems utilized. The present part likewise gives the populace, test size and gives information investigation systems. Diverse issues like openness, moral, dependability and legitimacy issues are tended to. Inquire about confinements are additionally evaluated giving an research course of events taken after by the outline of this part.

Research onion

The potential structure, which is utilized by the analyst to obtain result, is through adopting a research onion for a research. This graphical delineation is essential for picking the right thinking close by numerous research parts, to give an example, chart and approach for research.

It provides the researcher with the opportunity to get an insight and in depth knowledge regarding the research. Further, the research philosophy also provides the researcher with the opportunity to understand the conceptual framework and plan the research accordingly.  (Olatomiwa 2016). The current research has considered post-positivism research philosophy for the research. Post-positivism has taken as the research philosophy as it helps the researcher an opportunity to understand and test the hypothesis.

Post positivism is taken as the research philosophy as it helps the researcher to understand each theory related to the research and test the theories as well as the hypothesis of the research effectively. Further the research needs are also understood by the post-positivism philosophy that helps the researcher to critically analyze each variables of the research.

Two different types of research approach has been considered for the research. The researcher has considered deductive approach; as with this approach, the researcher can very make hypothetical contemplations related with the rule get some information about subject. Moreover, this approaches besides helps in making immense conclusion. Deductive research approach will be picked as it allows investigating from a more broad point to a tight approach. As indicated by Oyedepo (2014), inductive approach will be kept up a vital separation from, as it is the total inverse of deductive approach. In an inductive approach, the researcher starts the investigation from a particular point and explores towards a more summed up heading. In any case, in a deductive approach, the researcher embraces a base up system in which the investigation starts from a summed up to an unquestionable approach.

Potential Solutions for Rural Electrification in Nigeria

Essential research will be led for this exploration approach. Optional research will be maintained a strategic distance from as it includes excessively investigation of information from library, documents, databases that is tedious and frequently introduces off base information. Such sort of research is appropriate for doing a foundation look into. Both quantitative and subjective information is gathered from directors and works for the momentum explore. Quantitative and subjective information of the essential research will empower the analyst to get a reasonable diagram of the theme and play out the examination precisely 9 Molyneaux 2016).

Essential information is gathered through quantitative and subjective strategies. Quantitative information will be gathered utilizing scope of shut finished inquiries in which likert scale will likewise be accessible to evaluate bitterly and straightforwardness of inquiries. A scope of meetings will be led as subjective research on ex experts and supervisors who were related to 'off-site' development extends in India. The overview inquiries will be led nearby architects and laborers of continuous 'off-site' development extends in India.

The illustration decision for the gathering of data can be through use of probability assessing or non-probability testing. Regardless, largely both sorts of looking at can be used. Through probability testing, a fitting illustration size can be picked while non-probability inspecting grants researcher to pick information in a way that gives decision of test in perspective of a specific criteria.

Every one of the information gathered will not be subjected to business reason and are gathered utilizing and keeping up sufficient moral guidelines. Pro tries to keep up all ethics that are related to conduction of research, for instance, keeping identity of the respondents ambiguous and thusly, diminishing the shot of recognizing evidence of respondents. In the midst of research, all bearings related to Data Protection Act, 1998 are taken after. In the midst of the improvement of request nobody sided supposition were used (Wright 2015).

The authority endeavored to lead the investigation inside stipulated date and thusly stood up to absence of time. In addition, absence of spending arrangement in like manner expected key part in decreasing the limit of study. The researcher was precluded from claiming genuine information in light of nonappearance of time and adequate spending arrangement. Surely, even the examiner was not prepared to accumulate adequate information from theories related with the present survey. Thusly, the assistant resources are deficient for the researcher to make huge conclusion.

Activities

0-4 weeks

4-8 weeks

8-12 weeks

12-16 weeks

16-20 weeks

20-24 weeks

Topic selection

· 

 

 

 

 

 

Framing of structure

 

· 

 

 

 

 

Literature review

 

· 

· 

· 

 

 

Collecting primary information

 

 

· 

 

 

 

Formulating research paln

 

 

 

· 

 

 

Research technique identification

 

 

 

· 

 

 

Data analysis

 

 

 

 

· 

 

Conclusion and recommendation

 

 

 

 

· 

 

Draft formation

 

 

 

 

· 

 

Submission of study

 

 

 

 

 

· 

Table 1: Timeline of the research

(Source: Created by the author)

Conclusion

It can be concluded that essential research will be led for this exploration approach. Optional research will be maintained a strategic distance from as it includes excessively investigation of information from library, documents, databases that is tedious and frequently introduces off base information. Deductive research approach will be chosen as it gives a chance to look into from a more extensive angle to a tight approach. Inductive approach will be maintained a strategic distance from, as it is the polar opposite of deductive approach. In an inductive approach, the scientist begins the exploration from a specific point and investigates towards a more summed up heading. Through this thinking, investigator can legitimize the blunder inclined nature of hypotheses, as there is refinement amid the time spent performing examinations and accomplishing conclusion by analysts and researcher. In this audit, positivism is not considered as it keeps speculations as focus point and hence considers them dependable in nature. The authority endeavored to lead the investigation inside stipulated date and thusly stood up to absence of time. In addition, absence of spending arrangement in like manner expected key part in decreasing the limit of study.

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Wright, A.J. and Onasanya, M., 2015, April. Improving the Performance of Solar PV Installation in Rural Locations in Nigeria: A Case Study.

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