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The context for this course is ‘Global Change’, and the impact ‘Global Population and Population Growth’ will have on all aspects of engineering activity and endeavour into the immediate future. So we are really looking at population impacts on engineering considerations between years 2000 and 2100. The start points to your considerations might be: - The history of population numbers and growth, current growth rates and projections, and future trends to the year 2100. How will these trends impact on engineering practice in general, and in a discipline specific way? Lots of questions need to be asked and researched, such as rural – urban change, agricultural imperatives, water supply imperatives, power supply imperatives, mass transportation imperatives, competing land use imperatives, and social, environmental and economic sustainability in all contexts. Where and how will engineers fit into these considerations, and what competencies, characteristics and abilities will enable and define successful engineers? 

Engineering Method

Global change has a significant impact on the global population as well as population growth. It has several aspects regarding engineering activities as well as endeavour into the immediate future. On the other hand, the objectives of an organisation are considered as one of the most critical factors to form the structure as well as behaviour. The goals can define specific functions of an organisation. It results in primary as well as a secondary system of the organisation with following significant groupings, relationships and gathering information regarding the impact of global change on the project management process and engineering activities. The present study deals with collecting data regarding the effects of global change on the engineering activities and project management process so that alternative solutions can be generated.

The engineering method is considered a systematic approach that can be utilised to reach the expected solutions. There are six steps involved with the engineering method such as an idea, concept, planning, designing, development as well as launching from the definition of the problem to specific expected result (Kerzner and Kerzner 2017). The engineering method is generally used as it is a series of steps, which is followed by the engineers during solving a specific issue as well as designing a solution. Also, it is considered as a methodological approach to addressing a problem. It is used in scientific methods. In other words, engineering method is regarded as the systematic approach used in order to support an engineer or project team for getting the desired solution that has been specified through customers, sponsors and stakeholders perceiving the value in order to resolve the issue.

The population has importance for developing the process that has specific issues. On the other hand, it is essential to enhance the activity and generate an effective project plan. On the other side, it is necessary to consider other factors for the project so that active management can assist to improve the process. On the other hand, it is needed to develop the activities. It can be helpful to improve the overall procedure so that it assists to do proper planning for the organisation. On the other hand, it is essential for the organisation to develop the right process for managing water crisis.

 

Figure 1: Waster crisis report in Australia

(Source: Green et al. 2015, p.444)

Project management process is considered as an administrative procedure to plan and control the services of implementing the project. The system starts after giving approval through customer and based on contract. It is targeted on the initial values of the system as well as general project management (Green et al. 2015). In other words, project management is considered as the practice of initiating, planning, executing as well as controlling the process in a team in order to achieve particular goals and encounter success criteria at the proper time. The information is generally explained in project documentation and created at the starting of the development procedure. Desalination procedure can be helpful to improve the process to recover the process, and water vapour is condensed.

Project Management Process

People have been undertaking the projects as there is organised human activity. Large complex projects are involved with the project for a long time. There are several objectives of a project like defining the change objective, development of effective strategy as well as make plans to achieve the goal. In addition, the creation of a project management group is essential for monitoring progress. On the other hand, management of the project through implementation of the steps is necessary. 

In order to gather data regarding the impact of the global population as well as population growth, a number of engineers from different organisations are selected an interview has been conducted (Li et al. 2015). The questions like urban change, agricultural imperatives, power supply imperatives as well as mass transportation imperatives have been considered. The primary focus of the project is researching to investigate the impact of global change on the water crisis.  

Regarding the urban change and its impact on the engineering method, most numbers of respondents have given their essential opinions regarding the changes. They have opined that there is a considerable change seen in the process. On the other hand, it is necessary to understand that there is a significant impact of global change on the public engineering process as well as the project management process. It is essential to understand the factors such as people's demand and the requirements of the overall procedure. On the other hand, the global population creates a change to make the activities for constructing any project and doing engineering activities.

On the other hand, the global change has made a significant impact on water supply. The population growth in Australia has led to a water crisis and scarcity.  From different secondary sources, it can be mentioned that due to the location, there are several options available for resolving the issue in the specific area. To control the process, it is essential to meet the water demand for getting an immediate remedy.  

Figure 2: Water required for producing foods

(Source: Nkomo 2015, p.115)

The applications of water usage have several restrictions and have effective conjunction with the process of installation to boost the pumps in the operation of water distribution network (Nkomo 2015). Besides, reclamation of wastewater will mitigate the possibility of water security and would not make the process and water problem securely. The sewage is treated to the process of drinking standard as well as conveyed for the procedure of better solution. In order to overcome the crisis, water reclamation would utilise water without losing it. Hence, reuse of water would be a beneficial contribution in order to control the scarcity of water. On the other hand, it is essential to focus on the economic sustainability and social imperatives in the contexts. It is necessary to understand the process and demand for supplying chains so that proper solutions in order to provide the requirements.

Impact of Global Population and Population Growth

On the other hand, it is essential to focus on objectives of the organisation and develop structure effectively so that it will be helpful to change the activities in project management. Without the implementation of the goals, it is essential to define the issue and gain competitive benefits. For instance, project management in British building suffers, as the official procedure explanation is oriented. On the other hand, the planning as well as costing are considered until the design is completed.

The alternative solution for dealing with scarcity of water as well as surrounding districts as it makes the desalination of sea water.  Freshwater supply can become the process increased as well as populations that are continuing to develop, seawater desalination that becomes the process of new water supply. As desalination becomes more economical, its usage for municipal water supply has increased dramatically.  The method of desalination is divided into two broad procedures (Warner 2016). The categories such as membrane separation as well as thermal evaporation are essential. It is necessary to focus on the areas that have employed mechanical pressure and electrical potential. It is considered as the concentration of the physical separations. The thermal procedure of desalination applies heating in order to evaporate water from salt solution as well as water vapour. 


It is condensed as well as recovered from the process of reverse osmosis membranes that have been appropriately developed. The selected area of research is required to deliver the desalinated seawater as well as transferring the plant that would be connected with the existing process of water distribution network (Harris et al. 2015). It is important to propose the solution that would have advantages for surrounding localities as well as cities. The traditional desalination technologies have various technologies, which are near to the process of commercialisation as well as the procedure that could assist to make the process effective. On the other hand, the best permanent as well as desalinated to the drinking standards are essential. The development of projects are undertaken in the projects need to be appropriately managed and make financial agencies of the process. The development of desalination technologies has multiple technologies that will be helpful to improve the process.

The procedure of communicating the recommended solutions is essential for making the use of seawater. On the other hand, in order to transfer the sea water, the project will consist of the designing reservoir as well as the pipeline for resolving the problem under consideration in the area. The sea water reaches a newly developed tank that will transfer the process of desolation plant where it is essential to have drinking standard as well as will be distributed in the locality. On the other hand, there is 3.5% salt through weight, and it is not healthy for drinking. Hence, desalination procedure of minerals, as well as dissolved salts, are required to remove seawater as well as obtained water that can be transferred to water treatment plant. In addition, water distribution network can be transferred to the plant.

Water Crisis and Scarcity

The process of conducting the research requires an effective project management plan and will be deployed for applying the best possible solution. On the other hand, it consists of designing as well as construction water reservoir along with water transmission pipeline. There are many procedures included in the project plan.

Schedule management: In order to complete the project, there should be regular activities in the project. The events will be completed within five years plan. The functions in the project are divided into several small tasks with a respective deadline. The project will be started on 15th September 2018 and will be completed on 30th March 2020.

Resources: In order to complete the project from the significant resources, it is important to allocate the resources (Staddon 2016). Sponsors of the plans, contractor as well as a material supplier have an essential role regarding this. It is also necessary to improve the process for the organisation and enhance the procedure by proper project management plan.

Sponsor: The project sponsor is required to ensure that the funds are provided require the contractor in order to procure the materials and run the activities of the project. In order to pay salaries, the project activities are essential to bear the project cost.

Contractor: The contractor has a vital role in order to carry out the activities in construction on the site and responsible in order to provide machinery, technical staffs as well as other resources for completing the project. 


Material supplier: The suppliers of materials have a significant role in developing the process and make the process effective. Hence, specific meetings can ensure to carry out the project properly. The material suppliers will be chosen for improving the process whereas the material suppliers will be selected for the project.

Meetings: In order to conduct the process with the active method, it is essential to focus on the activities and make a schedule with the help of a project manager in conjunction with the site engineer. On the other hand, the terms under the process of consideration are essential in the weekly agenda where it is necessary to improve the requirements as well as issues.

Documentation: To manage the process, it is essential to ensure the operation of distribution as well as document controller, which will be appointed. The document controller needs to ensure that the method of delivery is essential. It is necessary to improve the process that has been listed in this process.

Desalination as an Alternative Solution

The accuracy in the process of design, as well as construction, will be adequately maintained. Hence, the quality of the work is essential. The project manager in the process of conjunction with quality assurance as well as the quality control that is important for the organisation. The working drawings need to be emanated from the approved method (Li et al. 2016). On the other hand, it is required to improve the process and make it useful for conducting the research. The process is essential to develop and implement the method. In addition, it is necessary to improve the process with the contract conditions as well as the procedure that can be adequately controlled.

The project consists of an effective plan that can be prepared as a formal document. On the other hand, it is essential to include the process by communicating an effective strategy in the organisation. The monthly progress report, as well as inspecting plans, would enhance the process and eliminate expenditure reports.

The refining process for the activity can be helpful to represent practical choice so that it can assist to make the process effective. It is essential to refine the projects and can assist to improve the scenario. On the other hand, it is required to identify the issue and have a tendency to be severe in the future. The organisational expectations can be helpful to generate a practical choice for selection. The useful resources can assist the process.

One of the major solutions to manage the progress plan is considering the importance of water scarcity as well as reclamation of the process and reuse the procedural treatment plan. Recognizing the importance of the activities, it is essential to develop effective planning and improve the process so that the critical units of the procedures, as well as operations, can be used commonly (Crow-Miller et al. 2017). In addition, there are several procedures to plan for generating effective system in the project.

It is essential to improve the activity in the teams so that active management can be helpful to make it useful. The solution to the main problem needs to be justified with the organisation. The sea water where the newly developed process will be transferred through the process. The population development has a specific method for the organisation so that it would be helpful to generate effective plans for the organisation. 

In order to achieve the process, it is crucial to process severs water scarcity. With an insufficient amount of water resources, it is vital to meet the rising water consumption. On the other hand, withdrawal of the surface water as well as groundwater that has been occurred in the areas of the mechanism (Moore 2014). The overexploiting resources can make the process useful for the organisation. In addition, inadequate water supply through pollution can be achieved with the help of enhancing the procedure. On the other hand, it is vital for the organisation that makes the process useful according to improve the activities. The water resources will be spatial, the project could experience the different procedure. It results with environmental severe as well as socio-economic impact.

Project Management Plan

The water resources can be divided into several procedures and impact on the organisation. The process can assist to improve the scenario. On the other hand, it is crucial to improve the process so that the water resources can be saved (Miller and Belton 2014). Creating spatially for the operation of distribution, it requires the introduction of the variations and different temporal variations that can be affected through the pattern and perception.

Decisions are required to make the process effective. Flexibility as well as operating as well as the quality of the objectives are essential in this matter. The mentioned issues are essential to ensure the process (Jacobs et al. 2016). However, it is crucial for the organisation to make an effective project plan. On the other hand, it is essential to process data with the help of making plans and develop so that the procedure so that the effective project management plan and improve the process. The conditions would be helpful to make the water supply process effective. In addition, it really helps to assist the project.

Conclusion

It is also vital to ensure the activities and make the process useful for the organisation. The process and perception that water resource and spatiotemporal as well as make a perception with reinforces and distribution of water resources. It is essential for the organisation to introduce the process through strong climate change as well as annual average with the perception gradually. It is also essential to enhance the process and help to enhance the process through the maintenance activities.  The country has specific plans for enhancing the process. 

References

Crow-Miller, B., Webber, M. and Molle, F., 2017. The (re) turn to infrastructure for water management?. Water Alternatives.

Green, P.A., Vörösmarty, C.J., Harrison, I., Farrell, T., Sáenz, L. and Fekete, B.M., 2015. Freshwater ecosystem services are supporting humans: Pivoting from water crisis to water solutions. Global Environmental Change, 34, pp.108-118.

Harris, L.M., Goldin, J.A. and Sneddon, C. eds., 2015. Contemporary water governance in the global south: Scarcity, marketisation and participation. Routledge.

Jacobs, K., Lebel, L., Buizer, J., Addams, L., Matson, P., McCullough, E., Garden, P., Saliba, G. and Finan, T., 2016. Linking knowledge with action in the pursuit of sustainable water-resources management. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 113(17), pp.4591-4596.

Kerzner, H. and Kerzner, H.R., 2017. Project management: a systems approach to planning, scheduling, and controlling. John Wiley & Sons.

Li, P., Qian, H., Howard, K.W. and Wu, J., 2015. Building a new and sustainable “Silk Road economic belt”. Environmental Earth Sciences, 74(10), pp.7267-7270.

Li, Y., Xiong, W., Zhang, W., Wang, C. and Wang, P., 2016. Life cycle assessment of water supply alternatives in water-receiving areas of the South-to-North Water Diversion Project in China. Water Research, 89, pp.9-19.

Miller, K.A. and Belton, V., 2014. Water resource management and climate change adaptation: a holistic and multiple criteria perspective. Mitigation and adaptation strategies for global change, 19(3), pp.289-308.

Moore, S.M., 2014. Modernisation, authoritarianism, and the environment: the politics of China’s South–North Water Transfer Project. Environmental Politics, 23(6), pp.947-964.

Nkomo, S., 2015. The impact of economic crisis on project budgeting, appraisal and implementation: The case of Tokwe Mukosi Dam project, Masvingo, Zimbabwe (Doctoral dissertation, UNIVERSITY OF BOTSWANA).

Staddon, C., 2016. Managing Europe's water resources: twenty-first century challenges. Routledge.

Warner, J., 2016. The beauty of the beast: Multi-stakeholder participation for integrated catchment management. In Multi-stakeholder platforms for integrated water management (pp. 17-36). Routledge.

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