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1. Explain the 4 processes of ‘Project Procurement Management’ (according to PMBoK 5th ed).
2. Explain the 4 components of an ‘enforceable contract’.
3. Explain the 3 necessary components of an ‘offer’.
4. Discuss independent vs. dependent demand.
5. Explain 3 practices that are essential for a JIT (just-in-time) implementation.
6. Explain some hidden costs of outsourcing.
7. Explain the 4 behavioural dimensions of supply chain relationship management.
8. Explain the Linear Averaging method of supplier evaluation.
9. What is Total Quality Management (TQM)?
10. Explain the DMAIC process of Six Sigma.
11. Explain 4 psychological factors that may affect bargaining.
12. From a buyer’s perspective, explain some key differences between buying services and buying products.
1Societies and governments are becoming increasingly concerned about the impact of the use of IT
equipment on the environment, especially in terms of energy efficiency, emissions reduction and
toxic waste reduction (used phones, toners etc.).
Modern organisations are moving towards a more sustainable and ‘Green’ use of Information
Technology. Procurement function plays a vital role in organisational approach to Green and
Explanation of the processes of project procurement management
The four processes of project procurement management include:
Plan procurements: This procedure mainly involves creation of various procurement related documents that helps in describing proper details. It also helps in creating procurement management processes, procurement documents as well as procurement statement off work.
Conduct Procurements: It is identified that the procedure of conduct procurement generally involves responses of the receiving seller, selecting seller as well as awarding contract (Phillips 2013).
Administer Procurements: The procedure of administer contract generally involves in managing various types of procurement relationships for ensuring the performance of the seller.
Close Procurements: The procedure of close contract generally involves completion of each of the procurement.
The four components of enforceable contract are as follows:
Offer: Offer is generally considered as the beginning of the contract. In this type, one party should propose proper arrangement to the other by including appropriate terms.
Acceptance: It is generally communicated in order to offer a declaration to the party that reflects that the accepting party is bound with the terms and conditions of the buyer.
Consideration: Consideration is defined as a value that the parties generally contract in order to exchange (MacDonald and Wu 2014). In this type of contract, both parties can exchange different types of services as well as property until the court would find that each of the consideration made by the party is sufficient.
Competence: Competence is generally known as legal capacity where a party’s main ability is to enter into the contract. It is analyzed that the most common reason for incompetence is considered as the age.
The various components of an offer include:
Communication: The individual who is involved in the offer must communicate the offer properly to an individual who generally selects for accepting as well as rejecting the offer.
Commitment: It is identified that an intent that is bound generally arise with the help of course of conduct (Levac et al. 2017).
Definite terms: It is identified that all offers must be specific as well as definite in their own terms. It is identified that various essential terms of the deal generally include manner of acceptance, price as well as timing.
Independent demands are generally influenced with the help of economic factors that are external to the model of demand supply (Saha and Goyal 2015).
Dependent demand is referred as the demand for the product in question that is generally influenced with the help of demand of some other types of products.
Business generally requires the number of products with the help of independent demand that is required in order to state the customers.
The demand for the various products generally moves in opposite directions and it is identified that both categories are counted under the dependent demand.
The hidden costs of outsourcing include:
Cost of closing a vendor: The cost that is related with vendor selection can be substantial and therefore it may not be under budget.
Cost of building relationship: It is found that that the cost of building as well as maintaining relationship needs extra cost that can be avoided with the help of responsive outsourcing model (Seppala, Kylaheiko and Jantunen 2014).
Explanation of components of an enforceable contract
Cultural difference cost: The cultural difference cost generally occurs due to difference in the organizational culture and it can reduced by selecting proper outsourcing partner.
Productivity lags: It is identified that many organizations generally experience lag in productivity and the extra cost associated with it can e avoided with the ability to select proper remote staff.
Cost of improving various internal processes: The cost that is associated with various internal processes like those that training can be avoided by entailing as well as building propr internal acceptance of outsourcing.
Cost that is related with management of outsourcing relationship: It is identified that all types of invoices, contracts as well as time sheets are generally managed with the help of appropriate outsourcing venture.
The behavioral dimensions of supply chain management include:
Long-term relationship: The long-term relationship has the ability to maintain appropriate co-operative relationship between various entities of mutual economic achievement.
Concurrent engineering: It generally deals with appropriate involvement of various customers, buyers as well as suppliers (Stevens and Johnson 2016).
Strategic purchasing: It is considered as one of the most significant practices that is related with the strategic planning procedure of the firm.
Total quality management is generally referred as one of the continuous effort by both the employees as well as management of a specific organization for ensuring long term customer satisfaction as well as customer loyalty. It is identified that total quality management generally referred as total productive maintenance.
DMAIC is generally defined as a data driven strategy that is mainly utilized for improving various types of processes. It is considered as one of the integral part of six sigma which is generally implemented as one of the standalone quality improvement procedure. It generally consists of five phases that helps in making up the processes (Evans and Lindsay 2014). The five phases include define, measure, analyze, improve as well as control. It is identified that DMAIC procedure generally helps in lending itself to the various approaches of project to quality improvement, which is generally encouraged as well as promoted.
The factors that help in affecting bargaining include:
Speech pattern mirroring: It is identified that when individuals negotiate, they generally respond appropriately that helps in affecting bargaining.
Anchor: Some of the individual’s starts bargaining encountering with the help of modest proposals for generating appropriate reciprocal behavior (Rubin and Brown 2013).
Gain or loss framing: It is identified that individuals can enhance the probability of opponent acceptance by the manner in which they generally frame their offers.
Explanation of the necessary component of an offer
It is identified that while buying a specific service, the ownership cannot be transferred.
It is identified that while buying goods, ownership is generally transferred to the end customer.
This report is encompassing different discussions about the project procurement management. In order to maintain particular development of any organization with respect to various developmental concerns of any organization should use procurement processes with respect to sustainability. In contrast with these facts, this report is also considering the importance of sustainability within the procurement processes that are incorporated for the organizational development concerns and facts. The organizations are mainly searches for management of functional arrears that develops the organizational objectives and aims. This report is defining the consequences of IT procurement processes and functionalities that highlights the impacts and importance of organizational objectives. In addition to this, this report is also elaborating about the justified benefits of IT procurement processes and its functionalities for making one organization developed with respect to fundamental aims and objectives of that particular organization. All of these aspects are managed with respect to fundamental aspects related to Green or Sustainable procurement processes.
Green IT procurement is one of the most innovative and functional technological advancement that is getting introduced within the system architecture of organizations and functional business cases. This technological innovation provides the organization more advancements and functional aspects related to maintenance of sustainability to the organizations and their clients as well as organizational clients (Blome, Hollos and Paulraj 2014). Therefore, this technological advancement needs to manage their performance within the competitive system architecture of business cases. Therefore, all of these aspects can be easily managed with respect to fundamental aspects and adoption of new technological innovations involved within the system architecture of organizations and business cases. The business cases easily manage their sustainability and procurement processes with respect to the Green IT procurement standard implementation within organizations.
This report has selected three significant case studies and then elaborating various important and significant areas of impacts. This report is also elaborating about definition, benefits and guidelines of the sustainable procurement practices for managing the development of organizations and business cases in order to manage sustainability within the organization.
Green procurement is defined as one of thee ecological practices that is mainly utilized for meeting various needs of goods, materials, utilities as well as services. The approach is considered as one of the component of sustainable procurement along with appropriate dedication to social responsibility as well as good corporate citizenship. It is identified that companies make various types of purchasing decision by considering the ecological contact that helps in realizing proper positive public relation benefits. It is considered as one of the continuous commitments from starting until end process management by considering the environmental impact. The entire product lifecycle as well as its ecological impact through operation, maintenance, operation as well as disposal are considered as the green procurement. Similarly, it is analyzed that various types of choices in different products as well as services are generally selected for using environmental friendly practices as well as services.
Discussion on independent as well as dependent demand
The various types of sustainable as well as Green practices generally include:
Proper market availability of items that generally meet the various green specification: In order to purchase various types of items that are related with the user, the government generally adopted appropriate green specification that is considered mandatory requirements when various items are generally present within the market with proper models as well as quantities in supply.
Uncertain availability of market items that meet the various types of green specification: In order to develop different types of green specification with uncertain market availability, the green specifications that is generally included within the specifications of the tender is considered as desirable feature. It is identified that tenders are generally invited for indicating their offers whether the items are helpful in complying with various green features are proper enough to submit various supporting documents for verification. The tender assessment panel generally helps in evaluating tender that mainly meets various types of mandatory requirements that mainly helps in recommending either lowest confirming offer as well as highest scoring confirming offer for acceptance.
Green IT procurement contributions to the business cases and organizations are mainly introduced by significant factors and functionality analysis of any organizations or business sectors. Therefore, the green IT procurement processes and practices are introduced various benefits and advantages involved within its usages, these are elaborated as follows:
Brand image: Brand images can be managed and developed with respect to fundamental aspects and functionalities involved within the business cases that shows the impacts and brand management perspectives of any organization (Cgi.com 2017). The organizations easily manage the functional blockages involved within the organizational structure.
Customer satisfaction: Customer satisfaction is another important aspect that manages the organizational performance with respect to functional aspects related to the organizational development and management processes.
Reduction of risks: Reduction of risks are also managed with respect to the utilization of green IT procurement processes and policies that attracts the customers as well as reduces the risks involved within the entire project (Dou, Sarkis and Bai 2014).
Cost reduction: Cost reduction is another important fact that is important to be managed with respect to the fundamental needs of the organizations. This is managed with respect to various fundamental aspects involved within the organizational structure of the considered organization.
Increased stakeholder value: Stakeholder value improvement can also be managed with respect to green IT procurement policies and functionalities involved within the system architecture and organizational structure of the considered (Igarashi, de Boer and Michelsen 2015).
Explanation of hidden cost of outsourcing
Green IT procurement guidelines are one of the most important and required segments involved within the procurement processes introduced within the organizations. The organizations mainly follow particular guidelines for managing their system architecture with respect to the fundamental needs of organizations. There are significant aspects and guidelines for managing the development of organizations. Therefore, the green procurement guidelines are elaborated as follows with respect to fundamental needs and demands of the organization:
Reclaim: Reclaiming issues and fundamental needs is one of the essential need for the development of any organization with respect to their fundamental needs of the organization (Mosgaard 2015). Therefore, the Green Procurement processes and policies should include this segment of law or clause.
Reconsider: Reconsideration is another important guideline for developing the sustainable system architecture that needs to be introduced within the organizational structure of any specific organization. Reconsideration is very important for managing the resources and fundamental needs of the organization.
Recover: Recover is another important aspect or fundamental need for managing the resources and functional aspects involved within the research work with respect to the aims and objectives of the organizations (Sayed, Hendry and Zorzini 2014). The green IT solutions are very important for managing the productive nature of the organizations with respect to their client demands and needs.
Regulate: Regulation is another important for managing significant development of the fundamental aspects and functional areas of investments. Regulations are managed and arranged with respect to fundamental aspects related to organizational development and infrastructural innovations (Smith et al. 2016). Therefore, all of these aspects are managed with respect to the fundamental needs and developmental concerns of the organizations with respect to their objectives and aims involved within the organizations.
Relinquish: Relinquishing is nothing but the renouncing of rules and regulations that are implemented and arranged for the organizations with respect to their objectives and aims involve and introduced within their organizations (Test et al. 2016). Therefore, this means the rejection of certain goods and services that includes negative impacts on the developmental aspect of organizations that are using organizational resources for managing their developmental aspects and concerns.
Repair: Repairing processes is also one important fact or aspect that incorporates various sustainable factors involved within the entire business processes. In contrast with these facts, there are important facts and concepts about different improvements involved within any organization that requires sustainability management processes for managing significant development of organizational development.
Explanation of the behavioral dimension of supply chain relationship management
Replace: Replacement is another important aspect that needs to be managed and arranged within the system architecture of any organization with respect to their aims and objectives (Testa et al. 2016). The replacement functionality is mainly adopted with respect to the functional aspects related to utilization of resources that includes the fictionalization of their usages.
Restore: Restoring capabilities are another important aspect that is managed through the operational excellences involved within the system architecture of organization with respect to the fundamental aspects and aims or objectives of the organization.
Restrict: Restriction is another important fact that is managed with respect to the functional and fundamental aspects related to restrictions and regulations (Wallace and Omachar 2016). The restrictions and regulations are managed with respect to fundamental aspects and considered demands for technical advancements within the organization.
Recondition: Recondition is another important fact that needs to be managed with respect to the consideration of functional and fundamental needs of technical and issue management perspectives involved within the system architecture of the organization that manages the fundamental demands of the organization (Yan, Chien and Yang 2016). Therefore, all of these aspects are managed and arranged with respect to their fundamental demands and requirements involved within the system architecture of the organization.
Therefore, this can be stated that all of these guidelines are useful for different organizations and business cases that are using procurement processes and techniques for their internal and external development with respect to their aims and objectives involved within their business process. All of these aspects are managed with respect to their functional demands and needs.
This can be concluded that every organization need particular system architecture as well as operational programs for managing significant developmental aspects related to their growth structure involved within their organizational aims and objectives highlighted by the organizational heads and members. Therefore, this report is considering three journal article that are elaborating about the significant applications and usages of green IT procurement processes that are relevant and important for managing the development of Development of the considered organizations with respect to their objectives and aims. This report has also discussed about the importance and benefits of green IT procurement solutions that are incorporated within the system architecture of any organization in order to maintain their sustainability within the competitive market place. The organizations are able to manage their sustainable advancements for managing significant development of functional development with respect to procurement practices and functionalities. Therefore, this report is highlighting the impacts and importance of sustainability of procurement practices that are introduced within the system architecture of any organizations.
Total Quality management
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Dou, Y., Sarkis, J. and Bai, C., 2014. Government green procurement: a Fuzzy-DEMATEL analysis of barriers. In Supply chain management under fuzziness (pp. 567-589). Springer Berlin Heidelberg.
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Evans, J.R. and Lindsay, W.M., 2014. An introduction to Six Sigma and process improvement. Cengage Learning.
Igarashi, M., de Boer, L. and Michelsen, O., 2015. Investigating the anatomy of supplier selection in green public procurement. Journal of Cleaner Production, 108, pp.442-450.
Levac, D., McCormick, A., Levin, M.F., Brien, M., Mills, R., Miller, E. and Sveistrup, H., 2017. Active Video Gaming for Children with Cerebral Palsy: Does a Clinic-Based Virtual Reality Component Offer an Additive Benefit? A Pilot Study. Physical & Occupational Therapy In Pediatrics, pp.1-14.
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Phillips, J., 2013. PMP, Project Management Professional (Certification Study Guides). McGraw-Hill Osborne Media.
Rubin, J.Z. and Brown, B.R., 2013. The social psychology of bargaining and negotiation. Elsevier.
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Sayed, M., Hendry, L. and Zorzini, M., 2014. Implementing sustainable procurement practices in HE institutions and their supply chains: a case study in the UK. In 1st EurOMA Sustainable OM & SCM Forum.
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