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Background of the Study

Describe about the Case Study for Evaluation of economic strategy for energy security for new nuclear power plants in the UK.

Background of the Study

The UK’s energy policy has traditionally supported nuclear power (Heffron, 2013), which can be identified in the Planning Act 2008 (Legislation.gov.uk, 2016). The PA 2008 supported a more efficient planning regime for major infrastructure projects, which includes the construction of nuclear energy plants. The purpose of the PA 2008 is to limit the scope of planning inquiries, which potentially undermine the viability of nuclear power plants due to the significant public outcry that is present (Legislation.gov.uk, 2016).  National policy states support nuclear energy, which limits the scope of public challenges (Negro, Alkemade, and Hekkert, 2012). The implication is that the support is from the Government, but not necessarily the public. The support for nuclear energy is limiting the voice of the public, which can be seen in National Planning Statements (NPS) (Chu, and Majumdar, 2012). The fundamental problem with focusing upon government policy without support from a large part of the population is that the energy policy will be unsustainable.

The sustainability of the UK's nuclear energy policy has to be called into question, because of the fears that are held by the public. For example, there have been legal challenges to nuclear plans due to the perceived threat. However, R (“An Taisce (The National Trust for Ireland) v. The Secretary of State for Energy and Climate Change [2014] EWCA Civ 1111”) held that the challenge of the Hinkley C site was ill-founded on the grounds that the “evidence that the risk of a severe nuclear accident is not merely unlikely, but extremely remote, is capable of being ‘compelling evidence’ that a proposed nuclear power station is not likely to have significant transboundary effects, since it is common ground that such effects would be likely to occur only if there was such an accident” para 40).  This case identifies a framework of deference within the courts to planning policy, which include support of the “Justification of Practices Involving Ionising Radiation Regulations 2004” (Gov.uk., 2015) that have enabled newer, potentially more unstable reactor designs. The operation of the law seems to be little more than supporting the pro-nuclear policies.

The pro-nuclear policies have been called into question, especially in the light of Dr Mike Weightman’s “Progress in Implementing the Lessons Learnt from the Fukushima Accident Report” (onr.org.uk, 2012). This report highlights that it is necessary for there to be increased safeguards in the UK’s nuclear power policy. Nonetheless, the government still supports nuclear power as necessary tool to create energy security and combating climate change (Ukerc.ac.uk, 2016). 

Problem Statement

The inference is that there has to be sufficient legal regime and government structure in place, in order to prevent unsustainable nuclear energy whilst promoting safeguarded and sustainable energy development. Thus, this research will examine the UK’s nuclear energy agenda policy from 2010-2020. Within the scope of the research, there will be an examination of the safeguards and right of challenge, because they are an important part of the energy policy’s sustainability (i.e. is there sustainable promotion of nuclear power as a method to create energy security and combat climate change) (Geels, 2014).

Nuclear energy is seen by some quarters as an essential part of the solution to reduce the reliance on fossil fuels. However, there are others that see nuclear energy as a dangerous option, especially in the light of the harm that can be done to the environment and human health if there is a breach of safety standards within the nuclear facility (Ramana, 2016). This research thus examined the role that nuclear energy may play in the future of Britain’s energy security, and whether it is the correct path to take. The positivity surrounding nuclear energy can be seen in the HM Government’s early White Papers. For example, in the 1955 paper A Programme of Nuclear Power, nuclear power was coined as the energy of the future. The development of nuclear power plants progressed through the 1960s, 1970s and 1980s, but challenges to the program have potentially undermined its viability (Szulecki, et al., 2016). These challenges include the privatization of the nuclear industry, challenges in the courts and public outcry due to health and environmental concerns (Lund. et al., 2014). The privatization of nuclear energy is a challenge, because nuclear energy requires high investment (i.e. £2-3 billion for each site) (Heffron, 2013). This means that the government’s goal to make the UK the world’s primary place of nuclear investment is potentially misconceived. Thus, this research tried to assess whether the UK can be described as fulfilling this goal, and whether nuclear   is really the solution to create energy security in the UK (especially when there are other renewable that could be the focus of the investment).

The above section has depicted the major concern related to the UK energy supply policy, in specific the sustainability of Nuclear Power. The aim of the study was therefore an attempt to assess nuclear power sustainability aspects with special reference to three pillars of sustainability, such as socio political concern, environmental concern and techno-economical concern.

Aim and Objective of the Study

At the same time, the objectives of this study were as mentioned below:

To assess whether nuclear power can retain its current electricity generation of 21% in the UK until 2020 in the light of current sustainability measures;

To assess whether nuclear power generation can be increased in the UK between now and 2020, in order to minimize the reliance on gas imports (currently sitting at approximately at 50%);

To evaluate the long-term stability of the UK’s nuclear energy policy by assessing whether the current policy framework will be able to replace retiring facilities (50% are due to retire by 2025);

To assess whether the UK’s 2010 to 2020 energy law and policy is promoting a sustainable mix in light of current EU and international requirements for safeguarding the environment and human life;

To assess whether the current fossil fuel, renewables and nuclear will promote energy security until 2020 and 2025 (i.e. should the promotion of nuclear be replaced with renewables whilst nuclear should be treated as a stop-gap for the short-term, especially as public opinion against nuclear power increases).

The primary research question is:

The secondary research questions are:

Does the UK’s current 2010-2020 nuclear energy policy promote sustainability through both energy security (i.e. minimizing reliance on gas imports) and safeguarding human life and the environment?

What is meant by sustainability, energy security and safeguarding human life and the environment?

What role should public opinion and the challenge play in the determination of the UK's energy policy mix?

The climate change and energy security in the United Kingdom are significantly reshaping and changing the energy security and portfolio. Various sources or renewable energy and energy production nuclear power plants are increasing in number in Britain. The Introduction chapter briefly described the various sub-section in the research study including the aim, objectives, and research questions. The literature review chapter is followed by the introduction chapter that allows in gaining theoretical knowledge about the undertaken research.

Introduction

Almost 25 % of the total electricity generation in the United Kingdom is sourced from the nuclear power plant (World-nuclear.org., 2016). The Government of the United Kingdom firmly believes that the nuclear energy plays a significant role in delivering the affordable, low-carbon and secure future of energy.  In terms of achieving the potential success, the Government has developed new nuclear policy for the nuclear power plant. Ensuring the change in climate conditions, and maintaining the security of the supply source and environment, the Government required to develop a robust strategy. The economic sustainability exhibits a robust competitive market philosophy that led to the profitability of the nuclear power plant. Goto, and Sueyoshi, (2015) pointed out that the Government follows a particular economic strategy for formulating the nuclear laws in UK.

Research Question

This particular research study aims at defining the theoretical concept in analyzing the impact of the nuclear power plant in providing the sustainability of UK. With the application of the theoretical concepts, the analyst gets an opportunity of enhancing the research methods and processes in a much detailed manner. The application of the various theoretical concepts in the study will add detailed knowledge and theories to the literature of the study.

There is a right for the State to invest in nuclear research and development, as long as it is for energy (or other peaceful purposes). “Article IV(1) on the 1968 Non-Proliferation Treaty” identifies that its legal provisions does not affect “the inalienable right of all the Parties to the Treaty to develop research, production and use of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes without discrimination and in conformity with Articles I and II of this Treaty”. On the other hand, Winfield, and Dolter, (2014) showed that article IV(1) allows the legitimate use of nuclear power, which means that this right will be extended to instances of nuclear energy. This means that as long as the there is a clear peaceful intention for the nuclear programme then it is legal. On a contrary, Verbruggen, Laes, and Lemmens, (2014) said that this legal framework does not create transparency and accountability on the potential dangers of nuclear research and development in the context of safety issues, because its only purpose is to prevent the production of nuclear weapons. Thus, the general nature of nuclear development is allowable, as long as there is a non-military application. In fact the nature of this international Treaty creates a situation where there is an inalienable right for the state to promote nuclear energy.

The expansion of nuclear requires that care is taken by the government to balance the perception of the public with the energy needs of the state. Abdmouleh, Alammari, and Gastli, (2015) showed that the PA 2008 provides a framework for the promotion of nuclear power, which highlights that the drive for a stable energy source is an important replacement to fossil fuels. According to Nolden, (2013), nuclear energy is seen as a clean energy source, the problem is that disposal creates potential dangers due to radioactivity. Warren, (2014) cited that the equally the production of energy from nuclear poses dangers when/if there are a leak from the reactors. The question that arises is whether nuclear energy is a safe and appropriate choice given the potential dangers that it poses to the public. Thus, the economic, legal and political issues have to be examined, in order to determine the legality/validity of the UK’s promotion of nuclear power.

Chapter Synopsis

to the community and environment will have to be considered within the formation of the energy policy.

As mentioned by Al-Amir, and Abu-Hijleh, (2013), the security of energy sources is at the centre of every states obligation to its citizenry, especially as energy is integrally linked to human health and the economy. In this context, as per Visschers, and Siegrist, (2013), the energy security argument is a valid reason for the state to pursue a specific energy policy, but the meaning of security is highly contextual political and economic framework. This context is important to the overall consideration of the right of the state to promote nuclear. Rutherford, and Coutard, (2014) showed that nuclear was promoted in Germany until recently, but advances in renewable has resulted in disbandment of nuclear for the newer technology. One could argue that there should be a similar move in the UK. In support to this, Laes, Gorissen, and Nevens, (2014) cited that, the nuclear priority can be linked to the importance of the UK in not only the promotion of nuclear energy, but also the disposal of nuclear waste (such as the dual role of Sellafield in Cumbria). Kiriyama, and Kajikawa, (2014) showed that there is an important political and economic agenda in the UK; however, this does not answer the questions on whether nuclear energy can be considered safe to human health and the environment (i.e. does the threat posed if there is a leak or improper disposal provide a sufficient legal and/or policy reason for challenging the promotion of nuclear energy in the UK).

According to Lee, Lee, and Lee, (2014), the literature is clear on the operation of nuclear energy, how it can provide nuclear security and the challenges on the basis of environmental and human health grounds, but what is less clear is the legal and public policy test on balancing these arguments (i.e. what test should be meet for a nuclear energy site be effectively challenged).

Cohen, Reichl, and Schmidthaler, (2014) showed that there is a trend of deference to government decisions on energy policy (R (“An Taisce (The National Trust for Ireland) v. The Secretary of State for Energy and Climate Change [2014] EWCA Civ 1111”; R (Walker) v. “Secretary of State for Energy and Climate Change” [2011] EWHC 2048 (Admin)), which raises questions about whether the nuclear energy debate is considering both sides. Moreover, Bolton, Foxon, and Hall, (2015) have cited that in Germany, there is a legal requirement to consider the protections and rights within the express constitutional obligations of the State. Conversely, according to Bolton, and Foxon, (2015), the parliamentary sovereignty argument in the UK has resulted in the legal rights of potential plaintiffs arguing against nuclear energy being limited (as seen in the An Taisce and Walker Cases). Parkhill, et al., (2013) showed that without the threat of real legal challenge then it is less likely that the government will consider the true viability and stability of nuclear energy, because environmental and other pressure groups will have a limited impact on government policy. On a contrary, Genus, and Mafakheri, (2014) have stated that, the interests of the most influential lobbyists will play a central role, such as the wants and needs of the energy companies themselves.

Energy companies that have an interest in nuclear power play an influential role in the UK, which explains why it is central to the clean energy agenda. Bale, Varga, and Foxon, (2015) stated he problem is when the government and the energy companies are determining what is clean then sustainability is in question, because economics plays a highly influential role in the energy mix. According to Purkus, et al., (2015), the result is that there is the potential for greater discord between the interests of the public and the interests of the state when developing clean energy policy. Batel, and Devine‐Wright, (2016) showed that the literature highlights that one route to minimizing this discord is greater public participation in the energy policy decision-making process, including the right to effectively challenge decisions that the public or sectors of the public deem unsustainable or a danger to human health/the environment. According to Helm, (2014), an energy policy or infrastructure will be more sustainable if the public is invested in the development of the site, which means that the right to have an impactful say in the energy and to have an effective right of challenge is essential to the sustainability of any given (energy) policy. Moreover, Goto, and Sueyoshi, (2015) showed that there is a fundamental problem in the UK in its approach to energy policy. This problem is that there is a hole in its sustainability because the right of public participation is limited to the operation of PA 2008 and the deference doctrine that the courts apply to challenges of energy policy.

Hall and Buckley, (2016) have focused on nuclear energy as the clean source for UK energy security is problematic on two grounds, which are: (1) there will be a lack of diversity, which is essential to the stability of the market (especially when technology advances may result in dirty energy being assessed on more than its carbon footprint); and (2) the actual health and environmental impacts of nuclear energy is unknown, because it is relatively new within the context of energy production (i.e. the environmental and health impacts of fossil fuel is a relatively new given the longevity of these energy sources) (Hoppmann, Huenteler, and Girod, 2014).

Cox, and Beland, (2013) implicated that it is necessary for the government to be open to multiple clean energy sources, because if a particular source is deemed to be a significant risk to public health and/or the environment under international environmental and/or human rights law then it should be minimized or completely decommissioned. Again, Sirin, and Ege, (2012) have argued that nuclear energy is potentially on its way to being deemed a dirty energy, because of the potential long-term effects of radioactivity and the dangers if there is a leak (given the stance of Germany). Thus, it is essential that there is a legal definition of clean energy, in order to allow for an effective public challenge of governmental energy policy.

According to Balcombe, Rigby, and Azapagic, (2013), the precautionary principle from international environmental law provides an important test to act as a benchmark on how a particular activity should be treated. For example, the international case of “Responsibilities and Obligations of States Sponsoring Persons and Entities with Respect to Activities in the Area Advisory Opinion, ITLOS Sea-bed Disputes Chamber, 1 February 2011, paras 57-58” identified that there has to be an evolutionary approach to understanding how state energy activities affect local communities and the environment. A similar approach was applied by the “International Court of Justice (ICJ) in the Danube Dam Case (Case Concerning the Gabcikovo Nagymaros Project (Hungary v Slovakia) (1997) ICJ Reports 7)”, which held that:

“Throughout the ages, mankind has, for economic and other reasons, constantly interfered with nature. In the past, this was often done without consideration of the effects on the environment. Owing to new scientific insights and to a growing awareness of the risks for mankind ‐ for present and future generations ‐ of pursuit of such interventions at an unconsidered and unabated pace, new norms and standards have been developed, set forth in a great number of instruments during the last two decades” (at para 78).

This means that there is an obligation on states to consider the current and most up to date scientific evidence, as well as the opinions of local communities to determine whether a particular policy is valid. In fact, the “Responsibilities and Obligations of States Sponsoring Persons and Entities with Respect to Activities Case” went on to hold that there is an "obligation to ensure the availability of recourse for compensation in respect of damage caused by pollution; and the obligation to conduct environmental impact assessment" (at para 22). This case concerned off-shore oil and gas activities, but there is a sound argument that it could equally apply to nuclear energy (or any type of energy development when there is a potential threat to human health and the environment).

Nonetheless, it is essential to examine the conflicting attitudes to nuclear energy development, in order to develop a threshold when such developments may be deemed unsustainable. Daojiong, (2016) showed that there are many states that promote nuclear energy, in fact, the European Union (EU) is a pro-nuclear energy proponent. Conversely, the position of Germany and other anti-nuclear energy states also have to be considered. It is through this examination that the UK's 2010-2020 Nuclear Energy Policy will be evaluated, in order to ascertain whether there are sufficient legal safeguards, appropriate promotion of public participation and whether the precautionary principle is being effectively applied. Therefore, this report will identify this benchmark in its methodology, in order to make an informed set of recommendations after applying to the UK's energy policy.

Techno-economic assessment

Sustainability is a complex concept, but there is a wider set of law and policy on it. For example, the Brundtland Report states that sustainability is the "development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs." This means that security of future generations has to be considered, especially in regard to the status of the environment and the access to resources (i.e. energy in the energy context). “Principle 4 of the Rio Declaration” states that that "in order to achieve sustainable development, environmental protection shall constitute an integral part of the development process and cannot be considered in isolation from it." The implication is that there is an emerging legal framework to determine what is sustainable, but this concept is not clear on its own. Rather, there are a number of different subsequent principles, which include:

(1)        Conservation of biological diversity and ecological integrity;

(2)       Intergenerational equity;

(3)        The precautionary principles;

(4)       Environment-Economy Integration;

(5)        Internalization of Environmental Costs; and

(6)        Participation.

Thus, these six principles have to apply to the concepts of energy security and clean energy, in order to create an effective benchmarking system that is capable of ascertaining the transactional costs of nuclear power. This will then be compared to key renewables, such as solar, wind and hydro-power sources (as well as fossil fuels in general).

Moreover, Hammond, Howard, and Jones, (2013) cited that nuclear policy of Britain is not independent from rest of the world. The nuclear energy production of UK is accounted for about 2.5% of the total nuclear energy production in the world. Geels  et al., (2016) stated that it is necessary for considering the availability of uranium in the nuclear reactors. The UK nuclear power plants have no native source of uranium and are solely dependent on the sources from outside the country. Moreover, Franco, Castaneda, and Dyner, (2015) cited that the total reserve of uranium of the world can last up to hundred years assuming the supply of 43 thousand tonnes each year.  The past decades have witnessed the extraction of the uranium from the easy sources, and the current reserve of uranium can serve the electricity need for nearly two decades unless new sources are discovered.

Energy security is another vague term that has to be considered because is security linked to the self-sufficiency of the State to produce its own energy or it is the reduction of risk to energy flows being stopped. Is the impact on the environment an important concern and the potential for environmental, economic disaster. This examination has to have a comprehensive definition, in order to test the future of nuclear as a part of a sustainable and stable energy policy. Energy security has been defined as "from physical security of personnel and of installations, and secure transport by land or by sea, to securing a stable legal and political climate for energy trade and investment” (Kern, Kuzemko, and Mitchell, 2014). This means that there are a number of different factors that make up energy security, which requires a holistic approach to be applied. Nonetheless, there are different definitions, such as the “International Energy Agency” defines energy security as the "uninterrupted availability of energy sources at an affordable price". This means the actual finite versus infinite argument arises, which is problematic for nuclear because uranium is required (a finite source like traditional fossil fuels) (UNEP, 2007, p. 4). Thus, it is essential to examine the balance between the potential threats of the energy source on an economic, physical and long-term access basis. Once again nuclear will be compared to renewables. It is necessary to consider that this review is based on a 2010-2020 review, which means that the finite nature of nuclear may be worked into the plan. However, the economic transactions and the potential threat to the community and environment will have to be considered within the formation of the energy policy.

To determine whether nuclear power fits into the UK's energy mix for 2010 to 2020 depends on upon whether it can be defined as clean energy and can bring energy security. This means that there has to be a benchmark to test these two concepts against, especially when the viability of any policy or legal framework relies upon the participation of the public (and their right to challenge the policy). Consequently, there have to be objective benchmarks to be applied to determine if this end is being met; otherwise, the trend towards difference will remain. Hence, the subsequent study will be based on the following benchmarks (i.e. clean energy, energy security, sustainability, and public participation), which will be

Nuclear energy may be clean energy within the precepts of reducing the carbon footprint (Heffron and Talus, 2016). Nonetheless, within the US Civil Code, clean energy is seen as synonymous with renewable energy (42 US Civil Code ss. 7372). Nuclear energy is not renewable energy because it is reliant on finite resources (UNEP, 2007). The United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) identifies that there is a minimal impact through the creation of nuclear on the carbon footprint. However, the “central environmental problem with nuclear plants is the lack of economic and safe disposal of radioactive nuclear wastes that are a bi-product of plant operations; they mostly are sequestered in spent nuclear waste pools of water maintained on the plant site” (UNEP, 2007, p. 4). Khor, and Lalchand, (2014) raised the question whether nuclear energy can be determined to be clean energy, especially when there is a potentially negative impact on the environment that could be catastrophic if there was a leak (i.e. the radioactivity). Another issue that is raised with regards to the cleanliness of nuclear is the “the huge amount of water they require is sucked in at rates that kill large numbers of fish and larvae; closed loop cooling towers need to be required to prevent this phenomenon” (UNEP, 2007, p. 4). The implication is that nuclear may be clean within the precepts of limiting carbon emissions, but the potential threat to the local ecosystems and wide-scale catastrophe may be sufficient to challenge the premise that on a holistic basis that it is clean energy. To make this determination, the following report will consider the ‘cleanliness of renewables,' which will include an examination of the potential negative environmental impacts. For example, windfarms pose a danger to birds and are deemed an eyesore for some; or hydro-power plants can be linked to damming, which can kill the local ecosystem and traditional industries (such as fishing). Thus, the concept of clean energy requires an analysis of the environmental costs and returns of a given energy source. To make this determination, transaction cost analysis will be applied to nuclear and compared to main renewables, which are seen as examples of clean energy.

Sekercioglu, and Yılmaz, (2012) have defined that the conceptual framework assists in identifying the significant theories and concepts that allow in-depth analysis of the research topic. Understanding the impact of the economic strategy for the ensuring the energy security of the new nuclear power plant has been considered for defining the theoretical concepts in a much detailed manner.

Conceptual Framework

Figure 1: Conceptual Framework

(Created by Author)

In the above conceptual framework, the decision makers and stakeholders of the policy makers impact the identification of the decision criteria and sustainability issues. This further impacts the various, socio-political, environmental and techno-economical assessment. These factors, in turn, affect the sustainability of UK.

Conclusion

In this particular study, the analyst has reviewed the existing researches and theoretical concepts revealing the impact of the new energy policies for ensuring the sustainability of UK. In spite of the various areas of development in the nuclear power plant, there remain various issues including security, risks, and safety of environmental health in the United Kingdom. The nuclear power plants are emerging in numbers in UK, due to the new Energy Act 2008 for reducing the carbon dioxide emission from the other source of energy. This particular literature review chapter of the study has assisted in providing theoretical background and concepts to the selected topic.

Introduction

The application of the appropriate methodologies in the research study allows in better and in-depth analysis of the research topic. Mackey, and Gass, (2015) stated that the research analysis reveals the detailed procedures for conducting the study. In this particular research, for evaluating the economic strategy for the energy security of new nuclear power plants in the United Kingdom, the research methodologies will provide in-depth and better analysis of the study.

Methods Outline

For the evaluation the impact of the economic strategies for the energy security of the new nuclear power plant in the United Kingdom, various detailed research methodologies have been utilized. For this particular research, Positivism Philosophy has been selected for gathering detailed information about the research topic. In addition to that, the selected Deductive Approach assist in raw data collection for analyzing the impact of the nuclear power laws in the United Kingdom. The applications of the deductive approach have furthermore used the concept of the theoretical model for gaining an in-depth understanding of the topic. Furthermore, in this particular research, the use of both secondary and primary data sources assist in gaining detailed information and in-depth understanding of the research study. For this particular study, fifty employees of the new nuclear plant in UK have been considered for the quantitative study, whereas five managers of the nuclear plant have been considered for the qualitative study.

Research Philosophy

Taylor, Bogdan, and DeVault, (2015) cited that the research philosophy reveals the appropriate process for gaining information about the selected topic. In addition to that, the research philosophy assists in explaining the various processes and assumptions undertaken by the analyst while conducting the study. Silverman, (2016) stated that research philosophy could be broadly sub-divided into Realism, interpretivism, and Positivism.

The positivism philosophy assists in involving the logic for evaluating the underlying facts and information with a scientific approach. On the other hand, the Interpretivism philosophy involves the complex structure of management and business activities. Furthermore, the application of the interpretative philosophy defines the concept of the scientific approach in data collection and interpreting procedure. The realism philosophy can be defined as a mixed approach having the characteristic of both the positivism and interpretivism philosophy. The application of the realism philosophy involves the human interactions and beliefs along with the realities.

Justification for selecting the appropriate research philosophy:

For this particular study, Positivism Philosophy has been selected for revealing the underlying information and hidden facts for understanding the economic strategies undertaken by the new nuclear power plants in UK. Due to the time limitation of the study, the application of other research philosophies, for example, Realism and Interpretative has been eliminated in this study. In addition to that, the application of the positivism philosophy has limited the analyst's role in data collection and evaluation that has in turn minimized the errors in data evaluation.

Research Approach

Smith, (2015), cited that the utilization of the appropriate research approach shows the correct format for developing the study. The application of the particular approach is dependent upon the characteristic of the research study. Any specific research study can be sub-divided into two significant approaches, namely Inductive approach, and Deductive Approach. The application of the “inductive research approach” is considered when enough data is not present relevant to the research topic. During the initial stage of research, the inductive approach allows in gaining vital data that assist in building the process for a research study. Moreover, the inductive approach is mostly utilized for the purpose of proposing new concepts and theories. On the other hand, the deductive approach is used when enough data is present for conducting the study. In the deductive approach, for gathering detailed data about the undertaken topic, the practical theories are utilized. The “deductive approach” utilises the data analysis concept for providing a theoretical background to the research study.

Justification for selecting the appropriate research approach:

In this particular study, Deductive Approach has been selected for evaluating the economic strategy for ensuring the sustainability and energy security in UK. Since no new concepts and theories have been introduced in the study, the application of the inductive approach has been eliminated. Furthermore, the applications of the deductive approach have allowed conducting the study in a much detailed manner using the theoretical concepts. 

Research Design

According to Billig, and Waterman, (2014), the research design assist in defining the particular framework required for revealing the data collection procedure and pattern for analyzing the collected data. Particularly, in the data collection procedure, the application of the appropriate design provides in-depth understanding and description of the process. Neuman, and Robson, (2012) cited that there is three major research design used in the academic study. The applications of the explanatory research design assist in describing the events in accordance with the course of its happening. On the other hand, the exploratory design involves different thoughts and knowledge required for completing the research study. Lastly, the application of the Descriptive research design provides a detailed description of the events in accordance with their course of occurrence.

Justification for selecting the appropriate research design:

For this particular study, Descriptive Research Design has been selected for evaluating the nuclear power plants in UK. Due to the cross-sectional nature of the research study, the application of the explanatory and exploratory design has been rejected in this study.

Data collection

Bauer, (2014) have defined data as the most useful fact and information required for analyzing the research topic. The appropriate data assist in providing the precise result for the study.

Data Sources

Data sources are required for extracting relevant data and information about the topic. The use of Primary and Secondary Data Sources assist in gaining meaningful information about the research topic. The application of the primary data sources helps in gathering the raw information but required clarification in term of validity and reliability. The secondary sources used the theoretical concepts and models for providing a better description of the research topic.  In this particular study, the detailed literature review has been considered as the secondary data collected from both the offline and online sources like books, websites, and journals. Furthermore, data are collected from previous researchers and studies for analyzing the undertaken research study in details.

Data Analysis Techniques

Pickard, (2012) defined that the qualitative data are useful for providing a better description to the research study while recording the raw data in a narrative form. The application of the qualitative data adds theoretical concept to the research for better analysis of the research study. On the other hand, Quantitative data provides statistical representation of the result and data analysis procedure. For analyzing the collected data, the analyst has considered the application of qualitative data analysis techniques for gaining details of the research study. The analyst has considered detailed reviewing for the past studies and researchers for analyzing the objectives and research questions formulated in the introduction chapter of the study.

Limitations of the Study

While conducting the research study, the analyst has come across various limitations that are both non-avoidable and avoidable in nature. In this particular study, the limitations are as follows:

Budget: The analyst had a limited budget for conducting the research study. The budget constraint has limited the researcher to complete the study with a small sample size for collecting raw data.

Time: The cross-sectional nature of the study has led the analyst to complete the analysis with a limited period of time. Due to the cross-sectional nature, various details and area of analysis have been eliminated from the study.

Reliability: The raw data were collected from the employees and managers of the Nuclear power plant. The responses with the sense of voluntary have been considered for analysis, but the employees can be biased towards the organization that can lead to the inappropriate result of evaluation.

Ethical considerations

While conducting the study, the analyst required to follow various rules for identification of the right and wrong set of behavior for the study. The follow the various ethical considerations that have been followed for providing standard to the research study:

Data Application: The analyst has ensured that the data collected for "the analysis of the nuclear power plant for understanding the economic strategy," has been used for the research purpose only and has not been used for any commercial purposes.

Analyst’s Involvement: The qualitative research is conducted based on the previous researchers, theoretical models, and framework formed by the previous researchers. The analyst of the current research has ensured that the conclusions of the study are drawn based on the secondary study only. Furthermore, the analyst has also ensured that no personal emotions and partiality have impacted the result of the research.

Conclusion

The research methodology chapter defined the different procedure and tools required for better analysis of the undertaken research study. This particular chapter allows the researcher to apply the different techniques for analyzing the research study in a scientific manner. The various tools used in the research methodology chapter assist in gaining detailed information for evaluating the economic strategies undertaken by the new nuclear power plants in UK.

Introduction

With the ‘Data Analysis and Discussion’ chapter, the research study aims by evaluating the energy security and economic sustainability of the new nuclear power plants operating in the United Kingdom. In this particular research, secondary data resources have been utilized for gathering relevant information about the undertaken topic. In addition to that, the application of the qualitative techniques has been utilized for providing theoretical background and concept of the study with the evaluation of the past research and studies. According to Abdmouleh, Alammari, and Gastli, (2015), the application of the data analysis techniques assists in the implementation of the theoretical framework to the practical field of application. Hammond, Howard, and Jones, (2013) showed that the use of the secondary sources and qualitative data analysis limits the errors in data reliability and validity. Therefore, the qualitative data analysis provides genuineness in spite of the involved complexities. The impact of the various reformed laws and legislation of the UK have been evaluated in this chapter with the application of the various theoretical information obtained from the various journals and previous studies. This particular chapter evaluated the sustainable measures and current policy framework of UK (Hall, and Buckley, 2016). On the basis of the information gathered in this particular chapter, the research conclusion has been made in the next chapter.

Assessing whether nuclear power can retain its current electricity generation of 21% in the UK until 2020 in the light of current sustainability measures:

According to Bolton, Foxon, and Hall, (2015), the renewable energy is supported as the diversification in the term for providing secure energy mix and low carbon environment to the field of nuclear power plant. Franco, Castaneda, and Dyner, (2015) showed that in the year 2012, the total energy consumption of the United Kingdom has amounted to 202 Mtoe. The gas and oil encounters for 32% and 35% of the primary energy mix in UK (Goto, and Sueyoshi, 2015). The previous study showed that the consumption of energy from the primary sources has lowered by 4% in 1990 and in 2011; the value has dropped to -7% (Mackey, and Gass, 2015).

 Total Consumption in 2012 and Energy Consumption in Different Sector

Figure 2: Total Consumption in 2012 and Energy Consumption in Different Sector

(Source: Taylor, Bogdan, and DeVault, 2015, p-5)

EU Energy Efficiency Directive is being implemented by the United Kingdom through the establishment of 19 policies namely, Energy Company Obligation, Community Energy Saving Programme, and Carbon Emission Reduction Target. As of today, the nuclear power plant in encountered for less that 2.5% of the total nuclear energy with no independent reactor (Billig, and Waterman, 2014). The production of the nuclear power form the neutron reactor is done with the utilization of uranium. No uranium is available in the United Kingdom for the production of nuclear fuel. Cohen, Reichl, and Schmidthaler, (2014) showed that all the nuclear reactor in UK is solely dependent on the uranium imports from other countries. According to Genus, and Mafakheri, (2014), the current uranium reserve will last from 10 to 100 years depending upon the energy consumption (Helm, 2014). Previous researchers have shown that the uranium that could be easily mined for delivering the low carbon electricity for more than a decade.

Electricity Demand according to year

Figure 3: Electricity Demand according to year

(Source: Hoppmann, Huenteler, and Girod, 2014, p-1431)

According to Kern, Kuzemko, and Mitchell, (2014), 21% of the 338 TWh electricity produced in the United Kingdom is obtained from nuclear power sources. EU Renewable Energy Directive has implicated that by the year 2020, 30% of the electrical energy should come from nuclear energy for maintaining the low carbon environment (Khor, and Lalchand, 2014). Various authors have claimed that the future scenario is unfeasible to attain as much nuclear power plants has closed due to the lack of resources. On the other hand, Kiriyama, and Kajikawa, (2014) have cited that the expansion of the nuclear power plant has significantly worsened the different sustainability aspect namely depletion of the ozone layer, radiation, natural resource depletion. Laes, Gorissen, and Nevens, (2014) have pointed out that while marinating the sustainability development, it is infeasible to meet 21% need of electricity need through nuclear power plants.

 Assessing whether nuclear power generation can be increased in the UK between now and 2020, in order to minimize the reliance on gas imports (currently sitting at approximately at 50%):

Lee, Lee, and Lee, (2014) showed that the production of electricity from the natural gas is 7.8% higher in the year 2015 when compared to the production in the year 2014. According to Portugal-Pereira, and Esteban, (2014), the production of the electricity from sources using Gas is completely dependent on the gas import from other countries. Rutherford, and Coutard (2014) cited that the import of gas was quite high when compared to the electricity production at 159 TWh. Moreover, the demand for electricity is noticeably high in UK while increasing the percentage of import by 2.4 (Verbruggen, Laes, and Lemmens, 2014).

Warren, (2014) stated that the implementation of the nuclear power plants is aimed at increasing the low carbon environment. In addition to that, Winfield, and Dolter, (2014) showed that the implementation of the different UK power laws and legislation aimed at increasing the different sources of nuclear energy power plants in UK.

 Electricity Generated in 2014 versus electricity generated in 2015

Figure 4: Electricity Generated in 2014 versus electricity generated in 2015

(Source: Al-Amir, and Abu-Hijleh, 2013, p-665)

The above figure shows that the electricity production through the nuclear plant was 18.8% in 2014 where the production was 20.8% in the year 2015. The production of electricity has significantly increased by 2% within the time span of one year. On the other hand, t is depicted that the energy production from the gas import was 29.8% in 2014 that has reduced to 29.5% in 2015. The percentage of electricity production using imported gas in UK has decreased, but the percentage is much low when compared to the increased in electricity production from a nuclear power plant (Balcombe, Rigby, and Azapagic, 2013).

Electricity Generated in fourth quarter of 2014 versus Electricity Generated in fourth quarter of 2015

Figure 5: Electricity Generated in fourth quarter of 2014 versus Electricity Generated in fourth quarter of 2015

(Source: Cox, and Beland, 2013, p-321)

The above graph depicts that the implementation of the laws and legislation of the UK for reducing the carbon emission for the production of electricity has significantly lowered the electricity production with the utilization coal. The electricity production in the fourth quarter of 2014 was 30.9% whereas the production was 19.9% in the year 2015. Hammond, Howard, and Jones, (2013) cited that the implementation of different laws and legislations in UK has assisted in reducing the carbon generation from electricity power plant using coal. The electricity generation through the nuclear power plant has increased from 15.6% in 2014 to 21.2% in 2015. On a contrary, the electricity production using gas was 29.1% in 2014 that increased to 29.7% in 2015 (Heffron, 2013).

The above graphs show that in spite of the increase in the electricity production through the nuclear power plant, the electricity production utilizing the gas power station remained unchanged. Johansson, (2013) showed that the increase in the nuclear power plant fails to reduce the gas import from other countries.

Evaluate the long-term stability of the UK’s nuclear energy policy by assessing whether the current policy framework will be able to replace retiring facilities (50% are due to retire by 2025):

The Government of the United Kingdom believes that the nuclear energy has a significant role in providing a low carbon, secure and affordable future of the energy consumption (Owen, van der Plas, and Sepp, 2013). The government of UK had developed various policies and legislation for the carbon capture storage (CCS) and renewable energy. According to Visschers, and Siegrist, (2013), the policies developed by the Government are aimed at providing long term objectives to the electricity market. Negro, Alkemade, and Hekkert, (2012) showed that the re-modification of the different policies are aimed at ensuring the transition for providing more nuclear power in to the market.  According to Neuman, and Robson, (2012), the nuclear power plant in one of the significant low carbon technology that has low running cots and high upfront cost through various decades. Billig, and Waterman, (2014) cites that the current framework of the UK energy laws provides effective competition against the other procedure of low carbon electricity generation. According to Taylor, Bogdan, and DeVault, (2015), the significant priority for the nuclear power plant for ensuring the future is through the deployment of 16GW nuclear capacity.

Goto, and Sueyoshi (2015) cited that the development of the Energy Act 2013 have provided an alternative to the CfDs (Contracts for Difference) having goals for low carbon environment. Franco, Castaneda, and Dyner, (2015) showed that the new formulated policies have significant advantages, but the conclusion needs to be made with the evaluation of the long-term activities and delays. Bolton, Foxon, and Hall, (2015) stated that through the implementation of the different policies and laws for nuclear power plant, the Government aims at meeting the dual issues for ensuring the energy security and handling the climate challenges. The various alternative source of electricity have been developed for roving low carbon solution to the environment. Bolton, and Foxon, (2015) cites that the sustainability of the nuclear power plant is yet unclear despite the various development when compared to another source of electricity.

According to Abdmouleh, Alammari, and Gastli, (2015), the different proliferation and fuel senses, various issues like investment risk, safety and health, security and environmental impact of the nuclear power plant needed to be assessed for defining the sustainability of the different laws. Ramana, (2016) showed the implementation of the UK nuclear policies have assisted n reducing the carbon emission by 60%. The white paper of published on the nuclear power laws stated that 2020 is the earliest date for delivering the new nuclear reactor (Hall, and Buckley, 2016).

To assess whether the UK’s 2010 to 2020 energy law and policy is promoting a sustainable mix in light of current EU and international requirements for safeguarding the environment and human life:

Daojiong, (2016) showed that the European Union (EU) has aimed at achieving 40% reduction of carbon emission by the year 2030 and almost 80% carbon reduction by the end of 2050. According to Batel, and Devine‐Wright, (2016), for safeguarding the environment and human life in UK, the Government has formulated five green laws for ensuring the energy efficiency and encouraging recycling. Sirin, and Ege, (2012) cited five significant green laws of UK are “Zero Carbon Bill”, “Zero Waste Bill”, “Nature Bill”, “Green Homes Bill” and “Green Transport Bill”.

Åžekercioglu, and Yılmaz, (2012) showed that the implementation of the Zero Carbon Bill is to eliminate the negative impact of climate change by the end of 2050. Negro, Alkemade, and Hekkert, (2012) cited that the law aimed at decarburization of the power sector while promoting the different methods of electricity production. According to Chu, and Majumdar, (2012), the applications of the EPS (Emissions Performance Standards) have aimed to end the generation of unabated coal. On the other hand, "Zero Waste Bill" provides a deal between the business and government. Visschers, and Siegrist, (2013) showed that the implementation of the particular law ensures the packaging of the products are recycled rather than dumping. The Green Homes Bill law ensured the significant up gradation of the efficiency of electricity in homes. Sovacool, (2013) cites that the reformation of the "Green Deal" has ensured the use of renewable source of electricity in homes. According to Owen, van der Plas, and Sepp, (2013), the Green Transport Bill insures the carbon emission reduction from the infrastructure project including public transport. Therefore, Johansson, (2013) stated that the UK’s 2010-2020 energy laws are effective and sufficient for the reducing the carbon emission and safeguarding the environment and human life.

To assess whether the current fossil fuel, renewable and nuclear will promote energy security until 2020 and 2025 (i.e. should the promotion of nuclear be replaced with renewable while nuclear should be treated as a stop-gap for the short-term, especially as public opinion against nuclear power increases):

The production of fossil fuel is expected to rise, which in turn doubles the amount of use of fossil fuel. Public concerns over nuclear power security and its role in the environment. To be more precise, the demand for electricity is enhancing twice as fast as the overall energy use and is expected to rise by more than two thirds towards 2035. However, lower capital investments essentially increase the number of nuclear power plants; nevertheless, rising fossil fuel prices will make the UK cities to turn to alternate fuel. Heffron, (2013) investigated that new nuclear power plants are usually not able to lessen the infrastructure vulnerability distribution of other fuels in a direct manner. In addition to that, the global population growth with a specific mix of industrial development will essentially lead to a doubling of consumption of electricity by the year 2025 (Balcombe, Rigby, and Azapagic, 2013). The nuclear power including various other robust strategies of mitigation typically depended partially on finance. Energy security strategies involve both national and international actions. The government of UK has forwarded a partial assessment of the security of energy along with its new policy statements, most specifically, on the new nuclear power in 2007 (Cox, and Béland, 2013). In addition to that, Hammond, Howard, and Jones, (2013) surveyed that nuclear power currently reduces carbon dioxide (CO2) emission on a global scale by some 2.5 billion tons per year with respect to the primary alternative to coal fired generation (Al-Amir, and Abu-Hijleh, 2013). A substantial argument has been made by UK ministers in the area of new nuclear dependence, which in turn reduces the UK dependence on gas imports, specifically from Russia.

The particular chapter in the research study has highlighted the different impact and significant of the UK energy policy for energy security and economic strategy of the nuclear power plants. The entire discussion and analysis in this particular chapter have been conducted for the understanding of the different theoretical model and concept of laws and policies for nuclear power plant. As observed from the secondary data analysis done in this particular chapter, the analyst has evaluated the sustainability of the secure energy policy for reducing the carbon emission in UK. Furthermore, the data analysis chapter has provided a detailed view of the impact of the different energy laws in UK for developing a sustainable development by 2020.

Chapter 5:  Conclusion and Recommendation

Conclusion

The paper has critically evaluated the major economic strategies for new nuclear power plants in the United Kingdom. The key threats associated with energy security for the new UK nuclear power plants are mainly the associated price and its availability. In this paper, the researcher has successfully observed and evaluated the different economic strategies that can perform an important role in the area of conserving energy security for the new nuclear power plants in the UK. It is obvious that the UK consumers have adequate access to the electricity, gas and oil. In relation to the context of energy security, the Government is specifically concerned regarding making sure that the UK consumers have potential access to the energy services. For this particular purpose, they require physical security as well as price security so as to reflect prices that can successfully avoid excessive volatility (Rutherford, and Coutard, 2014). Furthermore, in order to achieve the research objectives, it is important to assess the characteristics of the energy systems from the point of view of consumer fuels. Energy policies throughout the decades have potentially addressed the threats and risks associated with energy processing in the UK plants. There are a number of realistic options found that are aimed to reduce carbon dioxide emissions from electricity generation. It additionally concerns with the increase of efficiency in electricity generation and use. The retention of electricity generation by the nuclear power, which is presently 21 %, is expected to degrade to half by the year 2025 in the light of current sustainability measures (Verbruggen, Laes, and Lemmens, 2014). In addition to that, the researcher talks about the sustainability of the UK nuclear energy policy. For this purpose, the study explores the fundamental characteristics of the energy system. The Government analyzes the consumer fuels in light of the elements of energy security such as reliability, diversity, adequate capacity and the demand side responsiveness.

United Kingdom implements the EU Energy Efficiency Directive via 19 energy security policies that involve different schemes under energy company obligations. These are CERT or Carbon Emissions Reduction Target, CESP or the Community Energy Saving Program and the ECO or Energy Company Obligation. The energy efficiency policies of the country are expected to deliver around 467 TWh (terawatt-hours) of savings. Various measures for improving energy efficiency in the UK also target electricity as well as gas networks. In addition to that, UK had set a target to achieve a 15 % renewable share of the final energy consumption by 2020 vs. 1versus 1.2 % in 2005 and 4.1 % in the year 2012 (Portugal-Pereira, and Esteban, 2014). However, nuclear power has significantly higher overall life –time costs in comparison to natural gas with CCGT or Combined Cycle Turbine Technology (Laes, Gorissen, and Nevens, 2014). Moreover, the researcher has taken adequate measures for evaluating whether the energy regulation and policy of 2012 and 2020 by UK is looking to promote a sustainable mix in the light of EU as well as international requirement in order to safeguard human life as well as the environment. Apart from that, it is essential to preserve the nuclear option for future and thereby, it requires overcoming the major challenges associated such as safety, costs, wastes and proliferation. UK has over 15 reactors that generate about 21 % of its electricity. However, almost half of this capacity will retire by the year 2025. Needless to say that increase of energy efficiency essentially help lowering the exposure to domestic and international energy market risks.

The Government articulated new energy efficiency policy in November 2015 for UK energy. It involves progress in deployment renewable electricity generation was 12.8 terawatt hours in of 2013, an increase of 56 % on the 8.2 in the TWh in the year 2012. In Scotland, renewable energy is accounted for around 33 % of the total UK renewable output during this period. The UK has set specific targets to 2025 specifically for GHG emissions. It includes phasing out coal fired generation without carbon dioxide abatement in 2025. However, fossil fuels continue to play a substantial role in modern economics. Therefore, one of the high priorities is to secure enough fossil fuels at adequately affordable prices. 20 % of the existing nuclear plants in the UK slated to shut down over the next 10 years, in UK electricity supply and security at risk. However, an assessment of the likely effect of the new project of nuclear power on the UK energy security needs for analyzing its capability to address the groups. Nuclear power has the potential to succeed in the long run when it has a lower cost compared to competing technologies. A model is constructed for evaluating the real cost of electricity markets that help lowering economic regulation in many parts of the world. The extent to which nuclear power has the potential to mitigate threats due to scarcity and external disruptions depends on planning and guidance for infrastructure support.

Safety recommendations: The United Kingdom’s Government should concentrate more on developing the full capabilities for analyzing life cycle health and safety impacts of fuel cycle facilities as part of its short term Research and Development (R & D) program. It further concerns with focusing reactor development on options, which helps achieving increased safety standards and principles. These are further deployable within a couple of decades. Furthermore, the incorporated safety standards should accurately maintain modern standard of less than one serious release of radioactivity accident for around 50 long years from activity of the fuel cycle. The high temperature of the reactor is one of the fascinating contenders for reactor research also, improvement considering the fact that there is as of now various involvement with the particular framework, in spite of the fact that not every last bit of it is ideal. The particular reactor outline offers safety benefits circumstances because the high capacity of the center for bearing high heat and longer times taken by the reaction and blocks over the temperature along with the accurate arrival time of splitting. Apart from that, I shows favorable position analyzed to light water reactors as far as expansion resistance. However, no nuclear plant is entirely free of risk. There are technical possibilities as well as work force issues. However, there has not been a good record of safety in the processing plants. Moreover, there has been very little safety analysis of fuel cycle facilities with the use of probabilistic risk assessment method.

Recommendation on waste management: Proper management of disposal of the high - level radioactive spent fuel from the nuclear fuel cycle is one of the most significant intractable issues with respect to the nuclear power industries. In the context of waste management, the following steps can be recommended: The DOE should increase its present focus with a balanced as well as long –term waste management R & D program. In addition to that, a research program should be appropriately launched in order to identify the viability of geological disposal in the deep boreholes within one or two decades. Apart from that, a network of centralized facilities should be arranged on order to store spent fuel for several decades and it should be adequately established in the UK as well as in an international level.

Recommendation on economics: Nuclear power has the capability to become prominently successful in the long - run only if significantly lower cost is associated compared to the different technologies in the competing in the industry. It is specifically true because current market of electricity have become essentially less subjected to different regulation of economy in most of the parts of the globe. The nuclear power technologies are most commonly used today. These are also less expensive compared to many of the renewable technologies. Furthermore, nuclear becomes significantly competitive in comparison when the social cost of carbon dioxide or CO2 emissions become successfully internalized. There are several steps that can be taken on the basis of improving the economic viability of nuclear power. These are being discussed underneath: The UK government need to cost the shares for the purpose of site banking for number of plants, certifying new plant designs by the “Nuclear Regulatory Commission”. It should be combined operating licenses and construction for nuclear plants built in an instant manner or in the future. Moreover, it also helps supporting Energy Initiatives department of the United Kingdom on various matters. The recognition of the government of the United Kingdom about the carbon free nuclear power ensured the inclusion of new nuclear plants. It can be an adequately option eligible both in any state or federal mandatory renewable (carbon free) energy portfolio standard. Moreover, the Government of the United Kingdom required to provide subsidy modest particulars for various commercial nuclear power plants that are small in size for providing the regulatory and cost demonstration with the tax credit production.

Recommendation on technology and infrastructure: It is important to ensure system reliability through specific set of policies, rules and regulations based on diversity. Technologies such as nuclear power are typically not adequately good or bad for diversity since it is based on the overall mix of options that are deployed. Furthermore, it is important for ensuring public acceptance of nuclear energy. The citizens of EU (European Union) should be properly aware of the fact that the energy dependency is a significant challenge in today’s international environment. System reliability is to be ensured by means of taking the most suitable and appropriate measures. Furthermore, several surveys and studies conducted has identified that there is potential lack of investment in the UK infrastructure.

Recommendation on nonproliferation: It is obvious that nuclear power ought not expand where there is the chances of potential threat proliferation from the function of the commercial nuclear fuel cycle and it is made small in an acceptable manner. Furthermore, an international response is required for the purpose of reducing the risk associated with proliferation. The IAEA (“International Atomic Energy Agency”) should particularly emphasis on the safeguarding the specific function as well as they should be provided proper authority for carrying out investigations beyond the already announced facilities to the suspected illegal facilities. In addition to that, the UK Government should provide significant attention to the increasing number of risks at the fuel cycle’s front end from the enhanced technologies. Besides, safeguarding of IAEA ought to shift their strategy to a specific approach, which in turn is dependent on the continuous accounting, control and protection, of the materials with the help of containment and surveillance systems. Moreover, the demonstration, development, analysis and research of fuel cycle illustrated the efforts that must adequately ensure continuous analysis of continuing risks as well as measures defined for the purpose of minimizing the proliferation threats or risks. Furthermore, it should be recognized that the fuel storage spent on International Domain has substantial nonproliferation advantages in terms of the growth scenario. Therefore, it should be promptly negotiated as well as implemented in the most suitable and timely manner. Apart from that, it is further recommended that more focus on Research and Development program should be given, especially on the once through fuel cycle.

Certainty is required for business to engage strongly as well as in a wider approach with the opportunities in the United Kingdom. For this purpose, incentive schemes such as the things that are offered by the TSB are required for encouraging the SMEs in preparing for the opportunities. UK Government should properly make sure as a part of the negotiations that the opportunities for the UK business for engaging in the new reactor build projects that that maximized.

The limitation in the present study involves a restricted amount of time for budget and therefore, it does not involve a thorough assessment of the impacts of the suggested recommendations if they are implemented. Furthermore, it does not involve any analysis or assessment of the characteristics of energy system with respect to the scanning and realization of risks. In addition to that, the study does not involve a primary data collection and analysis by including any questionnaire survey or interview sessions.

The study can be further extended in the future to include a primary study by involving particularly selected organizations for questionnaire survey. Apart from that, future study can also incorporate a detailed comparison and contrast between the different and major countries who have implemented nuclear power technologies in order to evaluate their adopted economic strategy. Furthermore, it can also include the different approaches for studying the performance of individual organization operating in this field.

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