The Challenge of Financial Crime in Australia
Discuss about the Financial Crime And Risk Management.
The problems of financial crime can be considered to be a popular and at the same time widespread issue that influences brand vaue as well as reputation, company’s goodwill together with revenue of corporations. Several studies as well as surveys of financial crime within the Australian nation reveals the fact that costs of fraud is no less than $3 billion every year.,
Essentially, as mentioned in AS 8001-2008, the fraud incidents particularly within the Australian economy is rising year after year with approximately 63% of the Australian nations experiencing financial crime (Gottschalk, 2016). Reports also suggest that the larger the size of the corporation, the higher is the probability to suffer from financial crime at certain point in the business cycle (Deloitte.com, 2018). Results of survey also indicate that Australian corporations might suffer a greater rate of reported fraud than the worldwide average. Research in this area suggest that primary source of fraudulent actions stem from within the business concern in which internal factors stand for 75% of the events as well as value of loss suffered. Several Australian corporations are therefore not properly prepared to identify and avert financial crime (Leong, 2016).
There is need to appropriately handle financial crime holistically and recognized certain issues that are vital to the process of formulation of financial crime strategy:
Increase in the regulatory necessities from regional, transnational as well as local stakeholders. Increase in need for an analytical comprehension of financial crime can be observed(Masciandaro, 2017). Intricacy is present in the process of implementation as well as on-going administration of financial crime evaluation and reporting is all the time becoming major concern for corporations. Again, technology is an important key in the process of focussing probable areas of risk and permits them to be more concentrated or else targeted in their endeavours to avert financial crime (Wilson, 2017). Approaches of corporations in Australia to handle financial crime is constantly altering and transforming to handle newly identified issues (Pratt & Peters, 2017).
Aldi, a leading worldwide supermarket chain is necessarily subject to mandatory regulations of both financial as well as risk management (Gregson & Crang, 2017). In essence, the Standards Australia AS 8001-2008 (Fraud and Corruption Control Standard) can be considered to be practice resource that the corporation can adopt for development of robust tactic to avert financial crime (Wilson, 2014).
Strategic Plan for Combating Financial Crime
Strategies for fraud development of financial crime combating plan comprises of :
The strategy is to develop proactive emasures for lessening the fraud risk and corruption occurring in the first place (Brody et al., 2016).
The strategy involves formulation of measures categorically designed to unearth incidents of financial crime at the time when they take place
The specific stratagem includes development of measures that can be designed for the purpose of divising corrective actions as well as remedies for the caused harm occurring owing to financial crime or fraud (Kuhlmann et al., 2016).
Approach of the corporation Aldi to handle the risks of financial crime have the need to be underpinned by a complete organuzational policy structure, with suitable benchmarks that are instituted against best practice programs as well as standards (Gottschalk, 2014). The strategic plan for combating financial crime that can be adopted by Aldi can be described as follows:
Stage 1: Assessment of risk of financial crime:
Consideration need to be given to the overall size as well as functionalities of the corporation Aldi, any alteration in the overall framework otherwise function, both internal as well as external risks of fraud, new as well we emerging fraud risks (Holtfreter, 2015). In addition to this, it is also important to take into account wider organizational operating environment risks for the purpose of development of profile of financial crime risk. As per regulations of AS 8001-2008, the approach to controlling fraud is in line with the objective of the regulation (Merkel et al., 2016).
Stage 2: Execution and maintenance of integrity structure
The company have the need to adopt corruption prevention principles for the the purpose of forming an important part of corporate, functional planning procedures as well as strategic procedures, both yearly and long term basis (Deloitte.com, 2018). Corruption prevention principles can be adopted for project planning, business procedures and processes of review of services. In addition to this, management of the firm Aldi can carry out independent reviews of different operations and efficacy of systems of internal control for making certain adequate prevention, deterrence as well as detection of major financial crime (Stowell et al., 2017).
Stage 3: Development of governance arrangements for controlling financial crime
A particular member of the manmagement can be considered to be the important point of contact for financial crime control policies within the firm. This policy can help in communicating the commitment of the corporation to specifically fraud as well as control of corruption.
Steps in Strategic Plan for Detection of Financial Crime
Stage 4: Commitment of management to control the risk of financial crime
Fundamentally, ethics, financial crime prevention objectives need to be included in the measures of performamce against which cokmpany’s managers can be appraised (Kim et al., 2014).
Stage 5: Development of ethical structure
An ethical code of conduct can be designed that can act as a standard that employees need to be meet.
Stage 6: Development of accountability of line management
Individuals in high risk positions, namely procurement of raw materials, receipt of revenue, delivering exemptions or else having discretionary decision making authority need to be properly trained, monitored and supported (Chambers-Jones & Hillman, 2014).
Stage 7: Establishment of internal controls
The prevention plan can also include uses of internal audit for the purpose of actively assessing system of risk management as well as control, and arranging the same in a line that matches with the risk profile of the firm. The organization can prevent the financial crime by way of systematically monitoring and reporting different efficacies of fraud control stratagems and present clearly documented processes for carrying out high risk actions.
Stage 8: Creation of awareness among employees
In order to prevent financial crime in the future period, the management of Aldi can provide awareness training to employees regarding financial crime in order to ensure that they are capable to undertake proper actions (Ryder, 2014).
Stage 9: Generation of awareness among client as well as community
The customers of the firm Aldi as well as the community need to be made aware regarding the fact that business concerns shall not tolerate fraudulent actions and financial crimes
Stage 10: Development of avenues for the purpose of reporting diverse suspected events
A wide range of internal as well as external mechanisms of reporting can be instituted for the purpose of reporting financial crime (Rahman & Rahman, 2016).
Stage 11: Providing protection for specific disclosures
Specific mechanisms, strategies as well as procedures for the purpose of supporting and at the same time shielding disclosures can be instituted as per the obligations of the Protected Disclosures Act of the year 2012. As such, stringent system of maintaining confidentiality is important for receiving and at the same time processing of declarations of financial crime.
This essentially includes establishment of monitoring activities that refers to fraud and social network analysis. As such, automated approaches can be used for detection of financial crime.
Steps in strategic plan for detection of financial crime
Step 1: Varied sources of information can be used for processing of data. The management of the company can analyse the transaction data sources namely MNO log data, employee records log data, real time data, historic databases and prior offender databases (Holtfreter, 2015).
Step 2: Transaction data that are in action need to be subjected to data cleaning in which successful and failed transactions need to be cleaned for the purpose of processing. Data amassed have the need to be cleaned for reviewing incomplete transactions. As such, management of the Aldi can implement big data tools of analytics as the data might perhaps be in motion and data might be huge. However, complete transactions can be forwarded for the purpose of monitoring.
Step 3: Ontologies can be considered to be domain associated to intensional models developed for the purpose of capturing information and knowledge. Ontology can be considered as necessarily a knowledge based scheme that utilizes a declarative knowledge foundation containing diverse themes and associations that subsist in a specific domain (Baker, 2018). Thus, it can be hereby stated that the system of ontology can help in producing the exclusion list, black list as well as transaction cap for the firm Aldi.
Step 4: Thereafter, management of the firm Aldi can adopt the real time transaction monitoring. In this connection it can be stated that majority of the tools of detection and mechanisms are necessarily passive in character. However, in the current proposed structure, the specified module can examine suspicious transactions and that too at a real time basis. Further, specific techniques of data mining can be utilized for examining diverse offenses by means of clustering, deduced analysis of link, analysis of location in which system can review both geographical location as well as habits of customers. In case if a specific transaction is considered to be suspect, it can be profiled relying upon possibilities of the variable as well as rank (Reurink, 2016).
Step 5: At the time when the specific system is monitoring all the transactions, and in case if there subsists possibility that a particular transaction is suspect in the operation, then in that case, the same can be sent to alert generator for the purpose of attaching red flags along with suspicious activity declaration (Gupta & Gupta, 2015).
Step 6: The system of customer profiling can be utilized for understanding policies of the customers as well as due diligence of the customers. Essentially, profile information can also aids in comprehending habits of the customers as well as social network evaluation (Gupta & Gupta, 2015). Again, link analysis can also be utilized for the purpose of evaluation of patterms of interaction behaviour, identification of links of suspect and unearthing various hidden groups.
Step 7: As the information generated from the process of monitoring is necessarily large, it is good to store amassed information in a warehouse for the purpose of further analysis.
Figure: Detection of financial crime
(Source: Gregson & Crang, 2017).
Response Strategy with special orientation to the operations of Aldi
As per reports presented by Deloitte Consulting, majority of respondents operating in three different cities of Australia can classify financial crime risk exposure. According to them, regulatory framework in which business operates, geographies in which the firm operates, customer type and business type characterise risk exposure of firm to financial crime. Strikingly, delegtes in Sydney classified risk as per business type at particularly higher rate than that of the respondents in Melbourne. Therefore, based on amassed data (both internal and external data) management of the firm Aldi can aptly respond appropriately after gauging risk exposure of the firm based on type of businesses (Gregson & Crang, 2017).
Business concerns still do not have functional convergence program for the purpose of integrating fraud as well as financial crime groups even after recognizing the fact that operating framework was a potential barrier in the way of attaining holistic financial crime approach. There exists a gap in the operational groups of the corporation’s fraud as well as financial crime. For example, the lack of an appropriate IT system might increase the risks of becoming a victim of financial crime. Particularly, in Melbourne, reports presented by Fianncial Solutions Lead recommended that diverse technology tools can provide corporations a more appropriate view of the data, focussing probable quarters of risk and permit them to become more focussed in the process of fighting the financial crime encountered by the corporation (Saiglobal.com, 2018). Thus, it can be hereby identified that technology is a chief aspect in the process of handling the management and examination of the origin as well as cause of cyber incidents. In addition to this, business concern also do not have appropriate infrastructure for future as well as constantly altering legislations, for instance, FATCA. Therefore, the management of Aldi can consider proper response of combating financial crime by developing apposite infrastructure that can support the process.
In addition to this, another state of affairs that affects conditions financial crime of the supermarket chains in the Australia include data breaches as a specific issue. Panel conversation identified the fact that data violation lead to financial crime. In essence, criminals as well as organized groups have got to know the way of using technology in their favour for making their own products even more sophisticated. Credit card fraud has become also common in the retaining industry in which Aldi operates. For this reason, upgrading the existing company infrastructure particularly technology as well as intelligence can be considered to be important for the purpose of combating novel fraud (Deloitte.com, 2018).
Financial crime in the online payment system and use of fake invoices is reported in case of the retail business. Thus, this issue of financial crime that involves false invoicing has been seen in Aldi that led to claim for payments of goods as well as services that is actually not delivered by the company. The company can address the problem by proper internal control.
The e-platforms, digital money as well as other electronic platforms is a playing field for financial crime owing to the speed at which money gets transferred, inadequate physical contact, potential of layering multiple stages of transactions. As per AS 8001-2008, this is an issue and challenge associated to use of technology and admittance to banking services that lead to financial crime and need to be addressed (Deloitte.com, 2018). In this case, the management of the firm encounters threat to security of data and financial crime. In this regard, management of the firm Aldi can consider implementation of fraud detection tools for the purpose of countering this specific financial crime. As per requirement of Corruption Perception Index mentioned in AS 8001-2008, it is important to maintain transparency (Saiglobal.com, 2018). In line with the scope of the corruption control program as considered by the Standard AS 8001-2008, the management of the firm can also respond to the detected issues by maintenance of transparency, release of required information for non-financial purpose. As stated in the section “managing the risks” under AS 8001-2008, the business entity Aldi too can adopt approach to manage the fraud risks by underpinning the corporation wide policy designed with both internal as well as external consultation with apposite benchmarking (Deloitte.com, 2018). This benchmark or yardstick is necessarily against instituted best practice prevention as well as detection programs along with standards and needs to apply sound ways of risk management.
The company selected for the purpose of the analysis of financial crime is Aldi. Aldi is a global brand which is a leading global discount supermarket chain which has more than 10000 stores in around 18 countries in the world. The estimated turnover of the company is around €50 billion. The brand has two leading brands of supermarket chains which owns more than 10000 stores over 18 countries. The original brand was established and founded in 1913 and then the brand was split in two parts in 1960 which were given the names Aldi Nord and Aldi Sud. The chain was founded by karl and Theo Albrecht in 1946. The grocery chain has its headquarters situated in Germany. The company’s earliest traces can be found when the owners of the company opened a small store in Essen. The Aldi Nord group independently controls 35 regional branches which has approximately around 2500 stores. Aldi Sud group has around 31 companies under its control which has approximately 1600 stores. Aldi Sud operates in Australia, United States, Austria and Ireland.
Some of the common practices of the Aldi group are metal gates, turnstiles which forces customers to exit through checkouts and charging customers for the shopping bags which is provided by the company. The company followed the policy of accepting payments only in cash but in some countries like Australia, UK the use of credit cards for making payments is also allowed. The grocery chain specialises in items such as food, beverages, sanitary articles and other widely used household items. The most of the items which the company keeps in the stores are own brands of Aldi. The discount grocery chain supermarket Aldi is performing well in Australian market as the company has no or little competition in this industry in Australia. The company has been maintained around 12.6% market shares as per the estimates of the 2016 and the discount chain grocery market is growing rapidly. Aldi also has the policy of offering special offers to its customers on weekends on some of the expensive items such as appliances, electronic products. The company also provides discounts on items like clothes, toys, gifts provided a strict quantity of the product has been purchased from the store. Besides this Aldi is the largest wine retailer in Germany and also has options of alcohol for its customers in Australian markets. Another policy of the company which is easily identifiable is that the company generally sells products which are exclusively or custom branded. Therefore it can be established that the company maintains certain standards when it comes selling products in the market. Another characteristic which can be identified with the Aldi group is that the company establishes relationship with the local farmers of the country in which the grocery chain is established in order to acquire fresh vegetables and food products from the local farmers.
The discount chain grocery firm Aldi is operating well in Australia. The first store of Aldi was established in the year 2001 in Australia and since the brand is growing rapidly and maintained a 12.6% market shares in the Industry. However the company faces certain risks and problems which need to be overcome in order for smooth running of the business. In the wake of financial frauds which have been occurring in various companies the management of Aldi wants to ensure that the company is prepared to face such risks. The company wants to incorporate a strategy which could tackle the financial risks which the business is exposed around (Vona, 2012). The company wants to formulate a strategy which will be according to the Australian Standard on Corporate Governance which is AS 8001 which deals with Fraud and Corruption Control which was introduced in 2008. The problem which the grocery chain faces is that fake invoices are used by employee which causes loss to the company. As seen in most of the company employees are present in the store for a larger time period and they get accesses to the various areas of the store. These employees are expected to perform their duties smoothly and therefore have access to entire store. In some of the cases such employees engages themselves in fraudulent activities in order for personal gains. In such cases the employee who has the access to the revenue department can issue a fake invoice and take cash or goods on the basis of such fake invoices. The management of the company cannot identify such losses as these are generally of small amounts and are generally continued for a longer period unless such unethical behaviours are noticed by the management of the business. The management of Aldi has faced such an issue where the employee is accused of internal thief. Some of the other unethical shrink which can be caused by internal means are theft, vandalism, wastage of grocery items of business, abuse of position in a business (Lotta, & Bogue, 2015). Nowadays this has become common as the employees have access to the entire building and for a longer period of time, therefore they can cause significant losses to the company during non business hours. Even though cash misappropriations are a bit easy to identify, the same is not the case when the grocery products of the company are stolen. These kinds of losses are not easy to identify. Therefore the Aldi chain wants to revise their strategic plans and security and incorporate a new mechanism which will prevent or discourage such a loss. The mechanism that will be introduced will also mitigate the financial risks which the business is prone to face. Another problem which the company faces is in its digital media. The company also provides online order services and delivery of the same order is also undertaken by the Aldi’s management. The company faces numerous fake orders from fake addresses which are mostly pranks. However these are losses for the company especially in case when the product is of perishable nature and the freshness of the product may be compromised. Another scam which recently occurred in the business of Aldi is the use of fake Aldi Voucher. Recently a fake voucher of £ 85 has been designed in order to steal customer’s information. Theses vouchers have been widely shared in social media sites like facebook and twitter. There is a link provided which needs to be clicked in order to get the voucher of the Aldi grocery chain. The customers who click on this link have to provide some personal information before the voucher coupon can be received. These results in losses for the customers and gains negative publicity for the company. Aldi supermarket faces such risks which can affect the reputation of the company. The grocery chain did issues a statement stating that the if the company is providing any vouchers then the company will definitely not ask for personal details from its customers. The reasons for the chances of fraudulent activities in the business of Aldi supermarket are due to the growth and development of the business. As the business of the company grows the company will be requiring more and more employees in order to effectively run the business. The business has a target to fulfil which is maintaining a percentage of growth rate and market shares each year and if possible to further increase the market share of the company. In such a case the company needs more employees and in such cases if proper background check is not done than the company can face unethical issues with its employees (Taylor, 2016). Another reason can be presence of weak internal control structure which can encourage an employee to indulge in unethical or fraudulent activities. Cash theft generally occurs when there is improper record maintenance of cash flows or where the invoicing system can be manipulated. The most basic reasons for such unethical behaviours are when the business is rapidly changing and the employees are not able to adjust to the work requirements. In such a case that particular employee is sacked normally so an alternative to the employee is to adopt unethical means.
Aldi Supermarkets faces all the above mentioned risks which will be overcome in the strategic plan as formulated by the management. The strategic plan is divided into three specific areas such as detection of the fraud which are or may occur in the business, prevention of frauds or risks in the particular area as detected by the business and the last area is the response of the business which will help to tackle or rectify the risks and ensure that such a risk does not arise in future. The plans of the management have certain limitations which can be overcome or not depending on the situation. The prevention area of fraud as formulated by the business consist of internal audits, daily maintenance of records of cash inflows at the end of the day and also a maintenance of stocks of goods present on displays and also on storage. The first major limitation is that the internal audit will only confirm the cash transactions and maybe check records of stocks of goods. However the auditor will not be able to determine the thefts if the amount is insignificant and properly disguised as is the case in most of the supermarkets. The daily records of the cash inflows and the invoicing of bills might be under the control of the fraudulent employee and then in such circumstances the management would not be able to detect the individual or the thief has been committed for some time. The shop or stores should be under the surveillance camera which should be placed in all corners of the business. However this is an effective means to ensure that the proper surveillance is maintained but the employees can manipulate such cameras if they are engaged in fraudulent activities either by shutting off the camera and claiming that they were under maintenances. Aldi supermarket faces such type of limitations which can be managed by incorporating effective internal control measures which can addresses the above mentioned situations in the business.
The prevention area of the business‘s strategic plan includes proper scrutiny of the all the records of sales and stock, proper implementation internal control structure. The major limitation arises in Aldi Supermarkets is the implementation of proper internal control structure which is suitable for the business. The business can provide an independent party which can check the records of the business and certify whether any fraud has taken place or not. The number of stores that the company has in Australia needs to managed by the head of the operation head which will definitely make the management of the business a bit complex. The records of the management of the business can be manipulated and the same case can contain misrepresented figures which can conceal the fraud activities which has taken place in the business.
The responses of the business to the various threats of the business can be effectively managed by the management of the company and the management of the business should incorporate certain measure which can avoid the risk of frauds in the business. The most important consideration for the business is to implement the strategy considering all the specific areas of the business and where there is a chance of fraudulent activity taking place.
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