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Discuss About The Fredrick Taylor Management Theory Focuses.
The scientific management theory that was developed by Fredrick Taylor also referred to as the classical management theory focuses on efficiency and is similar to Max Weber’s theory (Krenn, 2018). Conversely, as per Taylor’s opinion, employers should be on the frontline rewarding employees for increased productivity as opposed to scolding such workers for every minor mistake made. Taylor once said, “the primary objective of management should be to safeguard the optimal prosperity for the employer coupled, with optimal prosperity for each employee.” The context in which optimal prosperity has been used means not only huge profits for the proprietor or company but also the progress of every department of the enterprise to the highest degree of excellence such that prosperity is permanent (Krenn, 2018). Though the theory facilitates the development of efficient employees, it has its flaws. Most of these subtasks are menial making workers feel as if they are part of an assembly line as opposed to the innovative additions they make in their teams. However, the concept of productivity is a valuable consequence of this practice and with regards to the kind of industry, the theory could be a great asset to modern businesses.
As opposed to assigning the whole project to one individual and allowing such an individual adequate time to complete the task, managers divide the larger tasks into smaller tasks (Krenn, 2018). The subtasks are aimed at making the process look more organized and efficient as there are multiple workers working on one project with each worker taking charge of their piece.
The executives evaluate that the most efficient method of accomplishing a given task is to delegate subtasks only to workers that have the relevant skills and abilities. Such workers are then trained by management. The roles played by workers in this context tend to be specific and fixed and their tasks are routine and basic. In most times, workers feel insignificant as they complete the same task hours on daily basis. However, according to Taylor, each employee plays a vital role in ensuring the success of the company.
It is the responsibility of supervisors to ensure that each employee under them perform their duties efficiently and in the process, if a more productive process gets discovered, employees are retrained to implement the practice in their work (Krenn, 2018). Incentives in this context are high as employees repeat the same mundane chores. Employees here are motivated to deliver quality work since they are rewarded financially with regards to their performance. The more efficient employees are, the higher their wages are set.
Responsibilities are delegated and workers are trained
Most enterprises have different categories of employees ranging from supervisors to part-timers. Typically, the level of experience and the drive of employees are the prerequisites for landing in an executive position. Taylor had the belief in an identical hierarchy of three ranks where the most powerful employees were ranked top. Each level in this scenario is assigned exact responsibilities with detailed guidelines that are specific to each level. Workers on lower levels respect and adhere those that are above them and only perform duties that are assigned to them.
The selection, workers’ benefits, training, and motivation are components that are relevant to managing people in the current environment and are a primary contribution from Taylor’s theory (Krenn, 2018). They are still applicable to businesses today and have been the center stage of every management platform. However, the use and applicability of Taylorism can be utilized in business environments of today where the majority of the labor force have soft skills. An organization of current generation is primarily into automation and runs on creative ideas and logical thinking. For example, the stock prices depict that Apple Inc. outshines Microsoft at change management. The motives behind the stunning change of game were revealed to be a failure of imagination and lack of execution at Microsoft Corporation. Steve Jobs once said that if a company aspires and wants to have great employees, the managers have to let the employees make decisions and the manager has to run by ideas and not hierarchy. It is the best ideas that win and make the good people stay in the company. Such innovative ideas and ideological thinking can be measured on physical weights. They need to be identified and examined on human aspects and one cannot evaluate such aspects using Taylorism.
The scientific study that was conducted by Taylor of tasks was to facilitate standardization of work and to overcome the inefficiency of employees that was witnessed on a daily basis. However, as of today, the corporate world embraces standardization of work for a position and is almost developed in most companies in the world and workers are given a chance and choice of adapting and utilizing their set of skills to their optimal level to attain the set goals and objectives of the organization.
The division of jobs has been attributed to establishing environments that are hierarchical oriented. Though employees and managers are made to concentrate and focus on specific tasks, it has been linked to reducing the development of the organization to accommodate new ideas. The current business world craves for workers that practice and embrace the art of multitasking and have the zeal to inculcate new technologies and eliminate workers who perform single jobs.
Monitoring of performance
The remuneration of an employee in an IT company is different compared to a worker in the manufacturing industry. The Human resource of an IT company strives at retaining the employees due to the unique set of skills they possess thus a good pay in terms of salaries and bonuses is guaranteed. However, in a manufacturing sector, there is less focus on growth and development of one’s career.
Another perfect illustration is the Johnson & Johnson. The company has standardized most of its operations and the process aspect has been centralized. For instance, the Research and Development activities manage operations as a unit research portfolio. Also, the sales and manufacturing processes are managed in a decentralized manner to facilitate decision making that is tailored to suit the specific requirements and product’s dimensions.
The management theory by Fayol is a simple framework of the way management associates with personnel (Bhasin, 2017). The management theory by Henri Fayol encompasses concepts in a vast way such that any business can integrate his theory of management. As of today, the business fraternity prioritizes Fayol’s classical management theory as an application guide to managing the staff productively.
The management theory by Henri Fayol entails 14 principles of management. It is from these principles that Fayol came up with a conclusion that it is the responsibility for the management to interact with the staff in five primary ways to facilitate control and plan for production. The scientific paradigm paved way to strict adherence to the procedures in which planning and control were now in the hands of managers and employees had no liberty at work. It also facilitated breaking-up of labor due to its focus on division of labor. Many of the aspects of human labor were ignored and led to the onset of monotony and repetitive tasks.
Tasks should be proportioned among employees and teams to enhance that endeavor and attention are concentrated to unique segments of the task (UK Essays, 2017). According to Fayol, specialization of work is the best strategy to utilize labor in a given organization.
The ideologies of authority and responsibility are interlinked closely. Fayol defined authority as the freedom to give commands and the power to influence obedience. On the other hand, responsibility entails accountability and is thus naturally linked to authority. It is thus obvious that whoever has authority also commands responsibility.
An organization that is deemed successful needs the common endeavor by employees. The applicability of penalties should be administered judiciously to promote this common effort.
Work allocation between the managers and workers
Employees are entitled to receive orders from only one manager.
The whole organization should aspire to move towards a specific set objective in a unilateral direction.
Subordination of interests that are personal to general interests
Individual’s interests should not crowd and take control of the interests of the organization.
The pay of worker is commensurate with variables such as the standards of living, the qualifications of the personnel, success, and growth of the enterprise among other factors.
Centralization according to Fayol can be defined as eliminating the need for a subordinate position. However, decentralization, on the other hand, is gaining relevance and importance. The extent to which adoption of centralization and decentralization should be embraced relies on a particular enterprise in which the manager is leading.
Hierarchical managers are part of the chain such as authority scale. Managers right from the division of a supervisor to the president exercise certain levels of authority. Most of the authority is possessed by the president whereas the division supervisor has the least authority. Managers at lower levels are tasked with informing managers positioned in higher levels of their activities in the workplace. One of the factors that facilitate the success of the organization is the adherence to the scalar chain.
In order to facilitate efficiency and coordination in an organization, then all inputs and employees that are to perform a particular kind of work are to be treated with utmost respect and equally.
All workers are to be treated equally with no special favors for some of the employees.
One of the highest priority for the managers should be to embrace and employees that are productive through retention. The costs associated with retention and staff recruitment coupled with product-reject is primarily associated with recruiting new employees.
It is the duty of management to take initiative to promote employee initiative that is defined as additional work task that is undertaken with regards to self-direction.
Management should promote harmony and good relations among its workers.
The theory of bureaucratic management by Max Weber entails two primary elements entailing structuring an enterprise into a hierarchy and establishing rules that are well defined to facilitate the governing of an institution and its members (Virtual Learning Environment, 2018). Max Weber was a sociologist from Germany and developed a theory to run an organization in a mode that is effectively known as bureaucratic management methodology. However, Weber’s work is sometimes translated as a caricature of current bureaucracies with their limitations. However, it was beyond that. The work of Weber was recognized for displacing the ancient institutional structures of the period of industrialization. Weber discovered varying traits in bureaucracies that would facilitate the concept of decision making, regulation of resources and safeguarding the interests of workers. Weber outlined six fundamentals of bureaucratic management theory.
Compatibility of Taylor's theory in the modern business world
Work is to be divided into tasks that are specialized and each worker is assigned tasks according to their specializations in a manner that is predictable (Caramela, 2018). This is the case as each worker has the required skills and qualifications needed for a particular task. There is a high possibility of division of work in both levels that entail administration and operations in a bureaucratic institution.
The operating procedures that control activities of an organization provide stability and enhance coordination (Caramela, 2018). The prescribed procedures are designed to facilitate consistency and work performance predictability. It entails utilizing fixed adherence to the established standard rules that have been vetted and prescribed by the administration at the top level for uniformity in decision making and acting as receptacles of learning, for eliminating incumbents and for ensuring fairness and equality in the workplace.
Weber was of the notion that responsibilities are to be delegated based on the set of skills and ability. According to Weber, flexible roles are to be eliminated. Rather, workers should be aware of their workplace responsibilities and are mandated to stick to them. Employees acting beyond the designated roles may disrupt the order of authority. As such collaboration, innovation of ideas and pitching of ideas is strongly discouraged. Hierarchy, on the other hand, promotes power distribution among employees. Employees that have most power are ranked top and employees that are classified lowest should report to those above them. Workers are obliged to respect their supervisors and be clear not to cross the line.
Weber demonstrated that leaders should develop the habit of note-taking on every position, event or function that entails the company (Caramela, 2018). In such a manner, the managers can always refer to the notes later and resolve any issues arising. For example, managers are encouraged to record responsibility for each role in the company to avoid any future misunderstandings. Additionally, employees should maintain a track of the hours they have worked for and keep a record of their assignments and development on a daily basis. Managers are at liberty to have knowledge of how workers are utilizing or wasting their time.
Weber valued the ideal candidates that had the exact set of skills needed for a position as such a candidate guaranteed the best results. Such high standards are possible by eliminating instance of nepotism and favoritism. If an individual is not qualified, they are not worth for the position. Having a candidate that gets along with others does not translate that they are suited for the job. The decision to hire should rely on the experience and required a set of skills by the candidate.
Application of Taylor's theory
Weber never condoned development of any kind of personal relations in organizations. Weber supported the idea that all relationships based on work were defined by set rules and regulations (Caramela, 2018). According to Weber, small talks and collaborations are not to be tolerated as work is work and not a social stuff.
The individuals employed in an organization have a relationship with the employer that is contractual. Job tenure, in this case, is defined by a set of rules and regulations that are framed within a company. Salary, in this case, is determined by the nature of job assigned and the length of service.
Authority as one of the traits in bureaucracy particularly hierarchy of command is evident in armies and police institutions where the organization is a hierarchy that is continuous and each level is under the control of level above it. Each position in the hierarchy prevails by its right and job holders in this context have no exclusive rights to a specific position. Responsibilities at each level are well defined and each level has its sphere of qualifications. The appointment to serve in an office and the degree of authority that accompanies it rests on technical competence. The positive repercussion of hierarchy authority is that it defines and distinguishes the person in command. However, the negative implication of hierarchy of command to particular workers is that it limits workers from generating ideas and decisions to the organization. Also, it provides room for errors to go unnoticed and may take time change a particular concept and thus though bureaucracy has flaws, it is applicable in modern organizations.
The idea of bureaucracy as developed by Weber was designed to enhance rationality and behavior predictability in organizations and due to its traits, it facilitates the efficiency of organization’s operations. Weber considers bureaucracy as a superior structure of an institution as it strengthens the virtues of efficiency, unity, and discipline. According to Weber, bureaucracy is an administrative tool that helps the following advantages:
Bureaucracy provides benefits of specialization since every employee gets assigned task based on their specialization. Thus, specialization results in organization’s efficiency. Specialization also facilitates the streamlining of different tasks in an organization. This is enabled by making sure that the right person is aligned to the right job. It is through specialization that efficiency and optimal job performance are enhanced.
Adherence to rules and regulations curbs and limits ambiguity and anxiety among individuals as people act in an acceptable manner. The various reactions that may arise in unique situations are well known in advance since there is a framework that is in the form of writing and is used as a guide.
One core criteria of evaluating objectivity are by ascribing in advance the process entailed in decision making on a daily process. The decisions made are in line with the rules and regulations of the company. Such critical decisions do not go by prejudices or whims of individuals. The behavior of workers may be termed as logical and predictable. Due to the stipulated rules and regulations, all actions are given due diligence and care, actions are consistent and performance in the workplace is regulated.
Bureaucracy is normally associated with rules and regulations that are rigid. The aspect of rigidity and adherence to rules and regulations discourages initiative and innovation by individuals thus limiting personal development (Caramela, 2018). Also, people have goals and aspirations that at times oppose the goals of an organization thus creating a conflict of interest. An organization based on bureaucracy does not listen or give priority to goals of an individual.
All the three theories have contributed to the development of management by far and large. There is also a similarity in some concepts, for instance, the issue of remuneration and staff development in the theories. Some of the concepts from the theories are still applicable in the operation of modern businesses. For instance, the concept of specialization and division of labor is evidenced in motor vehicle assembly and even in corporate enterprises. It is thus crucial to appreciate and give credit to the three theories as modern management theories have borrowed and are based on the three classical theories of management.
Bhasin, H. (2017, December 17). Henri fayols 14 principles of management – With examples and application. Retrieved from marketing91: https://www.marketing91.com/henri-fayols-14-principles-management/
Caramela, S. (2018, February 12). The Management Theory of Max Weber. Retrieved from Business: https://www.business.com/articles/management-theory-of-max-weber/
Krenn, J. (2018, Feb 13). Management Theory of Fredrick Taylor. Retrieved from Business.com: https://www.business.com/articles/management-theory-of-frederick-taylor/
UK Essays. (2017, May 11). Management Theories Of Henri Fayol. Retrieved from UK Essays: https://www.ukessays.com/essays/commerce/management-theories-of-henri-fayol-commerce-essay.php
Virtual Learning Environment. (2018, May 5). Max Weber’s Bureaucratic Management. Retrieved from University of Delhi: https://vle.du.ac.in/mod/book/view.php?id=8635&chapterid=11576
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