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Objectives

Discuss about the Future Global Energy Production and Infrastructure.

During the assessment of energy requirement for rural, global and urban environment it has been found that, availability of energy in the required places are very much important. Basically for human settlement in the environment, determinant of the quality of life is strictly required (Chu & Majumdar, 2012). Due to current high cost of the energy resources most of the growing countries are getting affected. Most of the oil importing developing countries is getting affected due to high rising price of the energy resources.

Over the past 20 to 30 year significant changes in global energy production are highlighted and technically it has been evolved also. Technology acts as a driver for social and economic development (Pant et al., 2012).  The technological advances not only changes the way of thinking but also changes the application. Along with social and economical development population demand has always been a key driver for environment. In the year of 1993, two renewable power resource hydro power and biomass are identified.  

In primitive days or in the 17th century due to lack of technological advances people used to utilize, wood as fuel. After that in the 18th century people started using the coal from the natural resources (Haapala et al., 2013).  However, due to the excessive usage of coal harmful gases also generates in the surrounding atmosphere.

During the production of energy, the environment including its creatures faces certain key challenges. In case of oil and gas, the import dependency is increasing at a rapid rate and it has been found that the growth will reach up to 80% till 2035 (Brandenburg et al., 2014). Massive usage of gas and oil emits excessive carbon dioxide in the environment.  The organic fuels also generate green house gases such as methane, carbon dioxide, chloroflurocarbon (CFC) (Gupta & Verma, 2015).

In the Polar Regions the glacier is also melting and due to that reason the water level is also increasing which is affecting the living creatures living under water. On the other hand, another major challenge regarding energy production is the ozone layer hole. CFC generates due to usage of fossil fuel. Ultraviolet ray is very harmful for the living beings and in order to protect them from the ray, there is an ozone layer over the troposphere layer. Due to the generation of CFC the ozone layer is getting affected. The ozone hole allows the ray to attach the earth surface directly.

Energy sustainability factors

The objective of the report is to represent a report that is related to energy generation for urban, commercial and global usage. It will also frame the key challenges that might generate due to energy production.

Based on the population size, density of employment, administrative functionalities, agriculture, environmental infrastructure and educational backbone a difference is created between the urban and the rural areas (Logan & Elimelech, 2012). The most frequently used criteria are the population size and density.  

 The energy production is dependent on various commercial and expanse factors. Each amount of energy used by every individual comes under the calculation factor (Medipally et al., 2015).  There is a very close relationship between the commercial and non commercial and human development indexes. From the indispensible aspect of sustainable human development, regular access of the human beings from the modern energy services is considered. It does not only help to increase the economic growth for the household income but also helps to develop the life style in terms of better education system and health services. Inadequate modern as well commercial energy will force an environment to underdeveloped situation.

Most of the time it has been found that, excessive usage of natural resources misbalance the environment very badly. The spontaneous changes in the climate affect all the human living in the environment. Absence of adequate safeguards also needed to get promoted to resolve the issues regarding ecosystem.  The objectives are as follows:

  • To meet the sustainable future needs and different development strategies required for development.
  • To understand the relationship between the human and their energy usage
  • To find the current challenges and requirements of rural, urban and global energy requirements
  • To encounter the key challenges associated to energy production.
  • To identify different technological advances that can resolve the challenges.

The energy sustainability factors implies that, over the last twenty to thirty years different types of energy production processes are widely using by all over the word.  Even, along with the caning time the process is also keep on changing. The factors needed to be considered are price of the energy resources, technological advances, social pressure and discovery of other natural resources (Smith & Ball, 2012).  Nuclear power, oil, natural gas, wood and coal are the resources used as fuel. Over the changing years not only the organic resources but also the non organic resources such as solar energy, thermal power are also used for generating energy for the regular usage.

The human development can took broader space in the development perspectives if modern development factors are analyzed. During analysis of the environmental factors, the human belonging faces different challenges (Kraan, 2013). According to the changing years, human are also getting advanced and depending on the commercial benefits from wood, human have started using the unconventional oil and natural gas from the natural resources. According to Spangenberg (2013), to show the environmental affect due to rapid growth of population “S-shaped curve” it shows that due to excessive usage of natural resources, there will be time when the resources will be finished. That time, the population growth rate will, become a static and after that it will keep on deceasing with the changing time period. 

Development of energy production historically

 It has been found that, the supply and the usage of energy put effective impact on the social and economical environment. However, all the supplied energies are not based on the commercial basis. Fuelwood, that plays one of the leading role for heating and cooking also in the developing countries for are non commercial resources. 

Years

Resources

Usage

1700

Wood

Human used to utilize the wood for fuel and energy production.

1800

Coal

First commercial coal mine was used for the energy production. Almost in all the parts of the world coal was started to be used, to operate the heat production and energy production. For different electric power generator and power machinery the demand of coal was also increased rapidly all over the world.   From the commercial perspectives it has been found that, the commercial benefit will increase if human will start to use, coal instead of wood. It has been found that, from the commercial  perspectives, it will be much beneficial if the users use Cola but not wood, However, certain negative impact are also associated to the process. Due to excessive usage of coal harmful gases also emits.

1990

Oil and natural gases

According to changing time and technological advances, from 1990, the users have started using the oil and natural gases for fuel. Over, 1990, in order to serve transportation, power generation and space heating  the human beings are started utilizing oil and natural gases. However, in this case the chances of occurrences of harmful green house gases are also very high.  

Table 1: Energy evaluation

(Source: Kucukvar et al., 2014, pp- 1187)

Due to the population growth rate the rate of requirement also increases. As in traditional days the population are lesser and thus for fuel can be processed from the wood. However, now the climatic frequent change is affecting the growth of human and plants also (Sohn et al., 2013).  Nowadays deforestation is one of the major issues that have been identified. Due to deforestation soil erosion is taking place which is not effective from the environmental perspectives. As the population is increasing rapidly, thus the number of resources in terms of wood and other resources are decreasing rapidly (Kraan, 2013). In order to maintain the ecological balance, people started utilizing renewable resources such as solar energy, thermal energy etc. Non-renewable resources are needed to be used instead of renewable resources.

In order to reduce the amount of harms and for economical or commercial growth people start to utilize the oil and natural gases from the resources. Similarly, in case of the natural gases also it has been found that the process is commercially beneficial but at the same time, most of the green house gases generates from the massive usage of the oil and natural gases. The demand on electric cars and other electronic devices, the rate of energy production is required to be very high. In order to reduce the emission of the green house gases and global warming necessary requirement are needed to be adopted by the human.

 Governance and legislative issues: In order to utilize the resources properly in proper place, financial support is referred to as one of the important things. Where the amount of energy is limited according to the number of population there utilization of appropriate resources with proper technical support is needed to use by the development team (Wang, Wang & Yang, 2012). If the government does not come to support the system then, the supply will lack according to the demand of the consumers.  

In order to maintain communication between the service provider and the consumers, sensor and transportation system is needed to be acquired (Smith & Ball, 2012). Sensor system plays a vital role to indicate whether the electronic device is running properly or not.  

Diversity in Energy production process

Currently many new technologies are using such as turbine, solar energy and photovoltaic manufacturers are using widely to serve the requirement of the consumers.  Production of the renewable technologies:

Turbine: This is used to produce electricity for large farms and rural areas also. The machine operates on high pressure of water. The generated electricity is used for organizational and home uses (Tester et al., 2012). In order to create a more electricity driven city, more technology based devices are required to be used y the consumers.   

 Photovoltaic:  In order to increase the amount of electricity, currently in rural areas solar energy is stored and utilizes. In many places throughout the world, the street lights are operated with the help of the solar energy.  

It has been found that, for business development and energy production, renewable resources are needed to be used to serve different works (Wang, Wang & Yang, 2012). A business will be commercially benefited if the supply becomes efficient according to the demand of the consumers. The financial perspectives imply that, the price rises of the demand increases and at the same time the price will decrease with the decreasing demand. Whenever, a system performs in a global environment,

The report reflected the importance of energy production to create and manage the sustainable future. Many factors are needed to be examined during the generation of energy in urban, commercial and global usage. If proper management and infrastructure is not adopted during the energy production then, the future energy production system might face several challenges. The urban, rural and global energy requirements are discussed in this report. Apart from this, it illustrated the development scenario of energy production process over the changing years. It has been found that, demand for the resources also keep on changing with the rapid growth of population. It can be said that in the coming future, the global energy production will be evolved more. The issue occurred during energy production process, can be mitigated with adopting certain recommendations.  Such as- energy conservation process, energy policy implementation etc.  

References

Brandenburg, M., Govindan, K., Sarkis, J., & Seuring, S. (2014). Quantitative models for sustainable supply chain management: Developments and directions. European Journal of Operational Research, 233(2), 299-312.

Chu, S., & Majumdar, A. (2012). Opportunities and challenges for a sustainable energy future. nature, 488(7411), 294-303.

Gupta, A., & Verma, J. P. (2015). Sustainable bio-ethanol production from agro-residues: a review. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 41, 550-567.

Gupta, A., & Verma, J. P. (2015). Sustainable bio-ethanol production from agro-residues: a review. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 41, 550-567.

Haapala, K. R., Zhao, F., Camelio, J., Sutherland, J. W., Skerlos, S. J., Dornfeld, D. A., ... & Rickli, J. L. (2013). A review of engineering research in sustainable manufacturing. Journal of Manufacturing Science and Engineering, 135(4), 041013.

Kalogirou, S. A. (2013). Solar energy engineering: processes and systems. Academic Press.

Kraan, S. (2013). Mass-cultivation of carbohydrate rich macroalgae, a possible solution for sustainable biofuel production. Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change, 18(1), 27-46.

Kucukvar, M., Noori, M., Egilmez, G., & Tatari, O. (2014). Stochastic decision modeling for sustainable pavement designs. The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, 19(6), 1185-1199.

Logan, B. E., & Elimelech, M. (2012). Membrane-based processes for sustainable power generation using water. Nature, 488(7411), 313-319.

Medipally, S. R., Yusoff, F. M., Banerjee, S., & Shariff, M. (2015). Microalgae as sustainable renewable energy feedstock for biofuel production. BioMed research international, 2015.

Pant, D., Singh, A., Van Bogaert, G., Olsen, S. I., Nigam, P. S., Diels, L., & Vanbroekhoven, K. (2012). Bioelectrochemical systems (BES) for sustainable energy production and product recovery from organic wastes and industrial wastewaters. Rsc Advances, 2(4), 1248-1263.

Smith, L., & Ball, P. (2012). Steps towards sustainable manufacturing through modelling material, energy and waste flows. International Journal of Production Economics, 140(1), 227-238.

Sohn, J. I., Cha, S. N., Song, B. G., Lee, S., Kim, S. M., Ku, J., ... & Kim, J. M. (2013). Engineering of efficiency limiting free carriers and an interfacial energy barrier for an enhancing piezoelectric generation. Energy & Environmental Science, 6(1), 97-104.

Spangenberg, J. H. (2013). Design for Sustainability (DfS): Interface of Sustainable Production and Consumption. In Handbook of Sustainable Engineering (pp. 575-595). Springer Netherlands.

Tester, J. W., Drake, E. M., Driscoll, M. J., Golay, M. W., & Peters, W. A. (2012). Sustainable energy: choosing among options. MIT press.

Wang, L., Wang, Z., & Yang, R. (2012). Intelligent multiagent control system for energy and comfort management in smart and sustainable buildings. IEEE transactions on smart grid, 3(2), 605-617.

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