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Business Ethics : New Strategy Formulation

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Question:

Describe about the Business Ethics for New Strategy Formulation.

 

Answer:

Title: It is justified to formulate a new strategy of addressing the issue of obesity by asking uncomfortable personal questions; however a decent approach should be adopted. The issue of obesity has witnessed a significant increase in the recent years. This has fostered the need to develop a new anti-obesity intervention targeted at the psychological aspect of the society. This paper would highlight the various aspects of obesity as well as design a new program for the reduction of obesity in the population.

Topic: The intervention of obesity is an important measure which would help in reducing the instances of overweight as well as obesity in the society. The obesity is a non communicable medical condition in which the individuals demonstrate a higher Body Mass Index than usual. The higher BMI indicates that the person does not have healthy weight. This is a growing concern in the modern society especially in urban settings. There are several reasons for the rise in the obesity in the modern society. The lifestyle modifications have led maximum people to lead an unhealthy lifestyle with least physical activities. This has led to the fat accumulation in the human body which is not desirable. The excess weight gain can have a variety of implications on the health as well as well being of the individual. This has emphasized the importance of designing an obesity specific intervention program that would address the issue of overweight individuals. The past surveys have shown that the obesity related intervention strategies such as lifestyle intervention, surgery and pharmacotherapy has not been truly successful in treating obesity. This was due to the fact that the participants did not feel the urge to reduce their weight by adopting a healthy lifestyle. Due to this reason, a complete new approach was adopted for creating a highly effective anti-obesity program. This paper would introduce the new social campaign that focuses on creating a unique questionnaire for the obese participants. The questionnaire would be prepared in such a manner that it presents uncomfortable personal questions regarding their excess weight and their lifestyle. The aim of such questions is to create an environment in which the participants would be uncomfortable in answering specific weight related questions. This embarrassment would affect the psychological aspect of the participant and they would give utmost importance to physical fitness, which would help them to maintain a healthy weight.

Summary box

Argument I will argue that obesity is one of the most important constituent of public health. There are many negative consequences of obesity especially for the health of the individual. There is severe physical, social and psychological impact on the individuals. This has led to the development of specific obesity intervention program aimed at reducing the overall weight gain of the individuals. The past research shows that the existing obesity program do not target the individuals on a psychological level which is of utmost importance. This is because of the fact that obesity is linked to the behavioural aspects of the participants. The participants may not feel motivated to lead healthy lifestyle along with the intake of nutritional foods. They may be inclined to junk foods along with minimal physical activities. Hence, in order to treat these issues, a new intervention strategy is formulated that tries to modify the psychological aspects of the participants. This new campaign would involve the creation of a special type of questionnaire that targets the intrinsic details of the weight gain of the participants. The different types of questions were formulated such as how the participants perceive themselves due to increased weight, their level of awareness regarding their physical awareness, potential of discrimination based on their weight and others. This type of questions would make the participants aware of their negative attributes of their physical structure. They might feel offended and this would drive them to think constructively about their weight. They may devise suitable measures to control their weight. Most importantly, they would be motivated to lose weight and would strive to undertake a healthy lifestyle. This would help the participants to lead a healthy life.

 

Background

I will then argue that:

1.      . Obesity is an important component of public health and hence reducing it is one of the primary goals. The obesity has a direct connection with several chronic diseases. There are several reasons of chronic diseases; however, obesity is one of the main causes of it. The people, who are beyond their normal weight range, face several health complications. This may also reduce the average life expectancy of the people. There has been increase in the childhood obesity as well as adult obesity rates in the recent past. The obesity is considered as a “public health problem” which can be compared to epidemic worldwide. There has been a number of public health intervention campaigns aimed at curbing the menace of obesity in society. The prevalence of obesity has doubled in the children who are less than five years of age. There is also an alarming rate of obesity among the teenagers. This is because of the fact that their lifestyle makes them prone to carbohydrate rich foods and unhealthy meals. The International Health Organizations has implemented multi component interventions in order to reduce the instances of obesity. It involves a combination of environmental, educational as well as behavioural activities which improve the health conditions of the people. There are various factors of weight gain such as metabolism, family values, surrounding environment and others. These factors have led to the fact that obesity is a public health concern for the health care practitioners.

2.      . It is important to determine the main causes of obesity. The primary cause is the change in the lifestyle of the urban population. There have been sharp changes in the lifestyle pattern of the people along with the dietary changes as well as physical activities. An increasingly number of people is leading sedentary lives with minimum physical exercises as they have modern technologies to assist them in their daily lives. The urban people are increasingly getting accustomed to the modern transportation and technological advancements in their daily life. The increased utilisation of technology has made people lead a hassle free life; however, this has impacted their health. They have become overweight and obesity is a common phenomenon. The options of eating are not only limited to restaurants but are also popular in unusual places such as petrol pumps or railway stations. This has given number of alternatives to the people which would help them to increase their food intake. The pattern of food intake is not the sole causes of obesity. The calorie intake of an obese individual is usually more than the number of physical activities undertaken by them. The lack of neighborhood spaces, long working hours, stressful lives, lack of time management, lack of availability of healthy foods and others contribute to the medical condition of obesity. This is common for the individuals leading a sedentary lifestyle. The calorie intake from foods should be equivalent to the energy loss due to physical activities. There is a changed mode of transportation which is a direct result of growing urbanization. The inactive lifestyle contributes to binge eating which is directly related to the symptoms of overweight and obesity. The lifestyle changes have contributed to the increase in the weight of individuals. These reasons have led to the increased incidences of obesity.

3.      . There are many negative implications of obesity. The health and wealth being of the individuals are being affected to a great extent by the incidences of obesity. There is an increased risk of non-communicable ailments like cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, musculoskeletal disorder and some various forms of cancer. The individuals that suffer from obesity suffer from serious health hazards. The pregnant women who are obese can have serious complications during the delivery of the baby. There can be complications for the baby as well. The childhood obesity would lead to premature death or can lead to increased chances of disability. The obese children can have an unhealthy life ahead of them. There are an increasing number of children who are obese, especially in an urban environment. There is an increased health concern of the children such as insulin resistance, fragile bones, inhalation issues and hypertension. The obese individuals suffer from a lot of emotional issues such as depression, anxiety, low quality of life, dissatisfaction and poor self-esteem. This makes them frustrated and unable to focus on their professional life. The lack of self esteem prevents the individuals to attain success in their professional endeavours. The increased prevalence of obesity has created major issues for the developing countries. They are experiencing double burden of disease. They are already dealing with the issue of contagious diseases and malnutrition. There is a steep increase in the non-communicable diseases in the recent past. One of the most common non communicable diseases is the increased incidence of obesity. This has created pressure on the public health authorities of the developing countries.

4.      . The development of a new approach towards alleviating obesity is crucial. The intervention programs often target the overweight as well as obese people who have gained excess weight. There should be focus on the individuals with normal weight so that they have least chances of gaining excess weight. There has been a number of lifestyle interventions and promotion of healthy eating measures which has tried to address the issue of obesity in adults as well as children. However, there has been little success rates of these interventions. This has been due to the fact that the incidences of obesity have reached epidemic levels. A majority of the people have exceeded their normal weight due to their erratic lifestyles. This has led to the development of strategies which would effectively address the issue of obesity. This has driven the need of creating a population based intervention program for decreasing the prevalence of overweight as well as obesity of the population. The lifestyle intervention measures such as transformation of the dietary habits, modifications in the lifestyle changes, more physical fitness routines and others has been implemented for reducing the chances of overweight or obese individuals. There have also been clinical interventions that aim to reduce the impact of obesity among individuals. However, there is no specific outcome of these interventions. This is the reason for devising a new innovative anti-obesity campaign that would address the issue in a better manner. This new approach utilises the psychological makeover of the persons and targets the behavioural aspects towards the issue of obesity. All individuals are social beings who would be offended if someone targets them publicly. . A person would not be comfortable to share his personal details regarding obesity in front of everyone. A “social advertising campaign” must be created for the purpose of reducing the risks of obesity. The campaign would be implemented in multiple settings which would involve the primary care institutions as well as the workplaces of the individuals. This new strategy would differentiate policy and environmental aspects of obesity intervention and it has the capacity of identifying the individual weight targets of the population within a specified time limit. . This new approach would also identify the relevant interventions regarding controlling the phenomenon of obesity.

5.      . The questionnaire of the new approach involves uncomfortable questions, which is   essential in this matter. The whole idea behind this new campaign is to attack the psychological aspect of the individuals so that they can be motivated towards the successful weight reduction measures. This campaign would involve the creation of uncomfortable questions to the participants who may feel offended to answer weight related questions in the public. There would be different questions such as how they perceive their look, difficulty in physical activities, discrimination faced by them, bullying or other loss of dignity and similar instances. When the participants were asked to respond to these questions, they were embarrassed to answer these questions. This embarrassment would help the individuals to plan something regarding their excess weight. It would be possible for the individuals to come up with an innovative plan which would effectively help them to reduce their weight. When the participants would be bombarded with such awkward questions, they would feel insulted in giving the answers in a public platform. The regular interventions measures may not work with every individual, however, the psychological based approach would be effective in addressing the issue of obesity. This is the reason for the selection of this unique strategy, which is believed to be highly effective in the issue of overweight and obesity.

Provisional conclusion

The obesity is a serious issue in the modern times. In earlier times, people gave least importance to the issue of weight gain. They were more concerned with the communicable diseases such as tuberculosis, hepatitis’s, HIV and others. The issue of obesity has not created much concern for the people. However, times have changed and there has been growing incidences of obese individuals. Obesity is a particular medical condition in which there is excessive accumulation of fat deposits in the body and this has increased due to the growing urbanization of the society. It has severe health implications for the individuals and it has severe consequences on the health and well being of the individuals. There are various causes of obesity such as excessive food intake, lack of physical activity, environmental factors, hormonal imbalances and use of certain medicines. The obesity has several side effects on the health of the individuals living in the society. The obese individuals can suffer from stroke, cardiovascular ailments and others. The physical ailments are not only a matter of concern for the individuals but also for the society at large. Apart from the social pressures, the Government face public health pressures due to excess obese individuals. There have been several interventions in the past that concern about reducing the instances of obesity; however, they have failed to implement it. There have not been sufficient changes in the community which help in controlling the weight gain of the individuals.  The failure of successfully implementing the obesity interventions have created the necessary of devising a new anti obesity campaign that address the issue of overweight as well as obesity to a greater extent. This is the reason for developing the new model of anti-obesity campaign. An innovative approach is used for the purpose of addressing the issue of obesity. The new approach would help in viewing the obesity issue from a psychological point of view. The innovative questionnaire that is intentionally prepared to ask embarrassing questions to the participants would drive them to think about the issue seriously. The sense of embarrassment coupled with a sense of guilt would force the participants to make effective plans regarding their weight loss. This approach is expected to bring new outcomes in weight loss regimes that would be highly effective in the long run. The psychological transformation of the person would imply serious behavioural changes in the individuals which would help them in reducing their weights to a great extent.

Counterarguments

Despite the best efforts, there can be several counter agreements in the anti obesity campaigns. There can be reduced psychological effects, lack of time of the participants and negative belief of the participants. The participants may belong to a different psychological class in which they may not be impacted by the uncomfortable questions. They may possess a different behavioural component which would not be affected by this kind of approach. This would dilute the sole purpose of this type of anti obesity approach. The participants may be too busy in their personal life or professional life and they may not respond to the unusual questionnaire. They may not understand the purpose of this type of questionnaire and hence they may not cooperate in this campaign. Their rigid attitude would not make the anti-obesity campaign successful. If the participants are not exposed to this type of questionnaire, then there would be no effect on the participants. If they are preoccupied with their work or busy schedules, then they may not be able to accommodate time for the anti-obesity campaigns. There may be negative belief of the participants regarding this type of obesity intervention. The campaign can be misunderstood by the participants that would reduce their participation rates. The participants may provoke a negative feeling about this particular obesity intervention program. They may feel that there is deliberate insult of them which may cause demotivation. As a result of this, they would not be willing to participate in the campaign. They may feel that this method is not correct and this new strategy of asking personal questions is not right. They may feel that it is unethical to ask sensitive questions in a public forum or face to face. These reasons may not cause success of this innovative kind of intervention program. The new intervention program would fail if the above issues are not tackled carefully.

 

Conclusion

It is important to implement an effective anti obesity program that would help to reduce the instances of obesity in the population. In the past, the obesity intervention measure has not been successful due to the intensity of the issue. This has led to the formulation of a new strategy that targets the obese individuals in the psychological level. The behavioural aspects of an individual are the most important and this is the core reason behind this kind of anti obesity campaigns. This strategy would be implemented in multiple setting so that there is maximum impact of the same. The innovative approach is expected to foster an attitude of weight loss among the target population. However, the success of this strategy in reducing the obesity of the individuals is doubtful. This is because of the various counterarguments that are described in this paper. There can be various issues which may dilute the success rate of the intervention program. The participants may not have any psychological effect due to the uncomfortable questions. They may be too busy in their daily life. There can be the induction of a negative belief with respect to this particular type of intervention program. There is an increased possibility of misunderstanding among the participants which would lessen the probability of their participation. They may feel that this method is not correct and this new strategy of asking personal questions is not right. Their resistance to the new kind of intervention program would hinder the success of the anti obesity program. It is important to handle these issues carefully in order to make it a successful obesity intervention program. The new strategy should be conducted in such a manner so that the counterarguments can be resolved. This strategy must be introduced in a decent manner which would make the most impact. The counter arguments should be addressed and possible solutions should be sought in order to maximise the impact. This would ensure that the new intervention program is successful in creating a successful strategy for addressing the issue of overweight as well as obesity.

TITLE: It is justified to formulate a new strategy of addressing the issue of obesity by asking uncomfortable personal questions, however a decent approach should be adopted.

Background

The incidence of obesity and overweight adults is a global issue in today’s world. The persons who possess Body Mass Index (BMI) of at least 30 are termed as “obese” and the adults with BMI above 25 are considered to be “overweight”. This term is used to explain the health condition of the persons who record significant higher weight than their ideal weight. It is a global problem and statistics show that around 2.3 billion adults are overweight and over 700 million people are obese (1). Initially, the issue of overweight as well as obesity was considered to be one of the problems of the developed countries; however, this issue is rising in the developing countries as well. The urban population is exposed to higher risks of obesity due to their lifestyle. The World Health Organization states that there is a significant rise in obesity in the Asia Pacific region.

The obesity is considered as a “public health problem” which can be compared to epidemic worldwide (2). There has been a number of public health intervention campaigns aimed at curbing the menaceof obesity in society. However, they have failed to provide suitable solutions and there have been neglible changes in the society as a result of this. The existing intervention procedures are not so successful in reducing the symptoms of obese individuals.

The goal of formulating intervention measures for the purpose of curbing obesity is important. The primary purpose of treating obesity is the reduction of morbidities caused due to cardiovascular diseases, cancers, type II diabetes and other related health issues (3). The international health organizations are trying hard to reduce the global mortality rate. The second goal of formulating the intervention measures is to reduce the increasing expense of healthcare facilities. The total healthcare costs associated with the treatment of obesity related disorders is around 3.2% of the overall medical costs (1). The third goal is to promote optimum health as well as well-being of the society, which is one of the most fundamental principles of World Health Organization (WHO) (4).

Obesity- Component of Public Health

The medical condition concerning the excessive body fat accumulation that may have negative impacts on the individual’s health is known as obesity (5). The body mass index is the tool used for measuring whether the person is overweight or obese. There is an increasing incidence of obesity in the young population (6). The obesity has a direct connection with several chronic diseases. The chronic disease has negative impact on the health of an individual as well as the sustainability of the overall health care system. The International Health Organizations has implemented multi component interventions in order to reduce the instances of obesity (7). It involves a combination of environmental, educational as well as behavioural activities which improve the health conditions of the people. There can be various forms of activities such as aerobic training, exercise schedules, nutrition education and others (8). It is expected that the multi component intervention would increase the physical activity of the participants as well as improve their weight issues.

The issue of obesity has several health implications for the society, which impacts the health of an individual in a negative manner (9). There has been increase in the childhood obesity as well as adult obesity rates. The average children are no more considered healthy. They demonstrate high BMI level, which is a clear indication of obesity. The prevalence of obesity has doubled in the children who are less than 5 years of age (10). The issue of obesity has tripled among the teenagers. This is due to the unhealthy lifestyle and the increased dietary changes. They do not realise the health hazards of obesity, which they can face in the later stages of life. The increase in weight is due to the combination of several factors working together. The food intake, metabolism, surrounding environment, family values and others can significantly affect the excess weight gain of an individual (11). These factors have contributed to the fact that the issue of obesity is multifactorial in nature which can be solved with a combination of different approaches.

 

Causes of Obesity

There is an increasing tendency of obesity among the urban population. The youths as well as the working professionals are increasingly getting inclined to junk foods (12). There is an increased visit to the various shopping malls and restaurants which serve a wide variety of junk food that have no nutritional value. Instead, they propagate messages that encourage individuals to eat as well as drink as much as they can. The options of eating are not only limited to restaurants but are also popular in unusual places such as petrol pumps or railway stations. There is also an increase in the average food portions which increase the calorie intake of an individual (13). This indicates that there is a modification in the eating habits of people as compared to the earlier times. This phenomenon is particularly observed in urban areas where there is huge number of food alternatives available (14). There is an increased consumption of carbohydrate based foods which are high in the fat content.

The pattern of food intake is not the sole causes of obesity. The lack of physical activity is one of the primary causes of obesity (15). The modern age is characterised by a sedentary lifestyle which implies that the individuals lack energy balance. The calorie intake from foods should be equivalent to the energy loss due to physical activities (16). There is a changed mode of transportation which is a direct result of growing urbanization. The inactive lifestyle contributes to binge eating which is directly related to the symptoms of overweight and obesity. The lifestyle changes have contributed to the increase in the weight of individuals (17). People prefer to take their cars instead of walking down their nearest supermarkets. In the professional environment, there is less dependence on physical engagements due to the increased advancement of modern technology.

The environmental factors are also a major contributor towards obese individuals (18). The lack of neighborhood spaces, long working hours, stressful lives, lack of time management, lack of availability of healthy foods and others contribute to the medical condition of obesity. The genes and the family history also have powerful influence on the weight of a person. The obesity can also be due to hormonal imbalances such as hypothyroidism, polycystic ovarian syndrome and others (19). There are certain medicines such as seizure medicines, antidepressants and corticosteroids, which can cause excessive weight gain.

Consequences of obesity

The incidence of obesity has certain implications on the health and well-being of the concerned individual. There is an increased risk of non-communicable ailments like cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, musculoskeletal disorder and some various forms of cancer (20). The stroke and the heart ailments are the major form of the cardiovascular disease which is a leading cause of death in both the developing nations as well as developed nations (21). The musculoskeletal diseases comprise of osteoarthritis which is considered as the degenerative disease of the joints. The obese people are prone to various types of cancers such as breast, prostate, liver, colon and others (22). The obesity during childhood can be attributed to premature death or can lead to higher chances of disability during adulthood. The obese children are also characterised by breathing issues, hypertension, insulin resistance, high probability of fractures and others.

The phenomenon of obesity has all round effect on the individual concerning physical, social and psychological (23). The physical implications are described in the earlier section. The psychological effects include the anxiety, depression, low quality of life, poor self-esteem and dissatisfaction regarding the body (24). The obese people usually suffer from lack of self-confidence as they consider them unfit for the society. They are often victims of abuse or bullying, which impacts their state of mind. The low self-esteem affects the professional life of the individuals as they are unable to concentrate on their work. There are social effects on the individuals such as less number of acquaintance, less employment options, lack of educational qualifications, less salary, less possibility of marriage and more tendency to commit suicide (25). The overall dissatisfaction from the life of an obese person is reflected in the emotional state of mind and they feel awkward to mix with people. This hampers their social life to a great extent.

The developing countries are facing a “double burden” of disease (1). The issue of malnutrition as well as infectious diseases are common, however, there is a steep increase in the non-communicable diseases as well (26). In urban scenario, the incidences of overweight and obesity are increasing. The issue of obesity is observed in females also and it becomes critical once they become pregnant (27). They can suffer from “high risk pregnancy” that can affect the life of both the mother and the baby.

Development of new anti-obesity program

There is a global emphasis on the prevention of obesity (27). A great emphasis is laid on the people who belong to normal weight range so that they do not enter the stages of obesity. There are treatments for reducing the increased instances of obesity, however, there is little success rates of these intervention program. This is due to the fact that the issue of obesity has already attained epidemic levels. As there are a number of intrinsic factors that lead to some form of obesity, it has become difficult to promote healthy living of the individuals. They are unable to restrain from junk foods or they fail to implement an active lifestyle, which has led to the failure of the obesity intervention programs. This has driven the need of creating a population based intervention program for decreasing the prevalence of overweight as well as obesity. They are complementary to the strategies that aim to reduce obesity from clinical point of view. It is important to develop a new intervention program that aims the obese individuals by creating social pressures on them. All individuals are social beings who would be offended if someone targets them publicly. A person would not be eager to share his personal details regarding obesity in front of everyone. This activity would involve a national “social advertising campaign” that would involve a coordinated strategy aimed for the reduction of obesity. This new strategy would differentiate policy and environmental aspects of obesity intervention. This approach would identify the individual weight targets in a given time limit. This new approach would also identify the relevant interventions regarding controlling the phenomenon of obesity. This is an evidence based intervention that takes into consideration the social as well as psychological constituents of an individual (28).

Implementation of the new unconventional approach

The intervention campaign would involve the obese individuals and making them answer some uncomfortable questions which would be related to the obesity. There would be different questions such as how they perceive their look, difficulty in physical activities, discrimination faced by them, bullying or other loss of dignity and similar instances. When the participants would be bombarded with such awkward questions, they would feel insulted in giving the answers in a public platform. This insult would help them to give due importance to their condition of obesity. This would foster a zeal to reduce their weight so that they would not be embarrassed publicly regarding their body weight. This new intervention aims to address the psychological framework of the obese people.

 

Provisional conclusion

Obesity is considered to be one of the most common non communicable diseases in the modern world (29). This is a particular medical condition in which there is excessive accumulation of fat deposits in the body. The obesity has severe health implications for the individuals and it has severe consequences on the health and well being of the individuals. There are various causes of obesity which is a common phenomenon in the urban population. There are various causes of obesity such as excessive food intake, lack of physical activity, environmental factors, hormonal imbalances and use of certain medicines (30). There are severe consequences of obesity such as physical, psychological and social. There can be stroke, cardiovascular diseases and other physical ailments. There can be abuse or lack of self confidence of the obese individuals. The obese individuals can also suffer from social effects such as lack of educational qualifications and lack of ability to get a good job. There have been several interventions in the past that concern about reducing the instances of obesity. However, these interventions have not failed to address the issue of obesity. There have not been sufficient changes in the community which help in controlling the weight gain of the individuals. This has led to the development of a new anti obesity intervention program that uses an innovative approach to target the obese population. The implementation part of the new intervention program should be done carefully. The central idea of this new approach is to make the obese participants aware of their weight by asking them embarrassing questions in the public. This new approach is expected to solve the issue of obesity to a great extent.

Counterarguments

The new approach may not be effective in reducing the instances of obesity. This can be due to several reasons-

Reduced psychological effects

The participants may belong to a different psychological class in which they may not be impacted by the uncomfortable questions. There can be individuals who are least bothered about these types of questions. They may continue to adopt unhealthy lifestyle and may not take any effort to reduce their weight.

Busy in their schedules

The participants may be too busy in their personal life or professional life and they may not respond to the unusual questionnaire. If the participants are not exposed to this type of questionnaire, then there would be no effect on the participants. This would lead to the failure of this type of intervention mechanism.

Negative belief

The participants may provoke a negative feeling about this particular obesity intervention program. They may feel that this method is not correct and this new strategy of asking personal questions is not right. They may be insulted if they are asked sensitive questions in the public.

Conclusion

The development of a new intervention program for addressing the issue of obesity is essential. In the past, the obesity intervention measure has not been successful due to the intensity of the issue. This has led to the formulation of a new strategy that targets the obese individuals in the psychological level. This strategy would be implemented in multiple setting so that there is maximum impact of the same. However, the success of this strategy in reducing the obesity of the individuals is doubtful. There can be several issues which may hinder the success rate of the intervention program. The participants may not have any psychological effect due to the uncomfortable questions. They may be too busy in their daily life. There can be the induction of a negative belief with respect to this particular type of intervention program. The new strategy should be conducted in such a manner so that the counterarguments can be resolved. This strategy must be introduced in a decent manner which would make the most impact. This would make sure the new program would be able to fulfil its desired objectives.

 

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