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The purpose of the assignment is to;

  • get you to become familiar with geographical concepts,
  • develop essay writing skills, and
  • develop research techniques for geographical analyses.

A Comparative Geographical Analysis of Two Communities

This is an individual and independent research to measure your understanding of the subject matter of this course. You must write a research essay on the comparative geography of two communities (sub areas) within a Metro Vancouver city of your choice. Your essay should answer which is the better of the two to settle in and raise a new family in the next 10 years. Your research essay should cover at least three elements from the following list to secure maximum marks:

  • Physical geography
  • Population characteristics
  • Social and cultural patterns
  • Urban and settlement patterns
  • Transportation and communication patterns
  • Main economic sectors

Elements of a research essay

Research essays have several key elements. They include:

  1. Research Topic – it must have at least a single objective to be investigated in a scientific manner
  2. Data and datasets– these are the collected facts that allow examination to realize the objective, and can be primary (e.g. field collection), secondary or tertiary
  3. Graphics – these include maps, charts and tables, and are important means of
  • summarizing the data, and
  • displaying patterns within datasets, both spatial and attribute

An ideal research essay will consist of the following

  1. Introduction - this section provides the reason for the research and defines its  objectives
  2. Method - this section describes how the research was conducted, and includes a discussion of the datasets and the methods used to analyze them
  3. Results - this section details the findings of the analysis
  4. Conclusion - this section assesses how well the objectives were met, and discusses the potential for future research

Economic Analysis of Langley

Comparative geography analysis of Langley and Delta sub-area in Metro Vancouver city.

Metro Vancouver city comprises of a number of cities such as the Langley, Richmond, Burnaby, Delta, Surrey, Abbotsford just to mention but a few.  These places are as identified in the map below:

Map showing satellite locations of the different sub-areas of the metro Vancouver city.

This paper aims to provide comparative geographic analysis of any two sub-areas of the great Vancouver city and suitability to possible destination for a family settlement and raising of children in the near decade.  In such analysis, among  the following elements: physical geography, population characteristics, social and cultural patterns, urban and settlement patterns, transportation and communication patterns and main economic sectors, at least three shall be considered. Specifically, this paper addresses comparative geography analysis of the Delta and Langley areas on the basis of main economic sectors, transport and communication patterns as well as urban and settlement patterns. This is as in the following subsections;-

  1. Main economic sectors:
  2. Langley

Langley townships is a home to a variety of industries with notable contributions from construction industries, manufacturing, wholesale and retail sectors, and Agriculture. In comparison to Vancouver, Langley is more endowed in these areas hence economically well placed above Vancouver. Langley being centrally located in the great Vancouver metropolitan area coupled with improved life quality and competitive land prices have made it more appealing and attractive to potential investors and being an economic hub in the region. It since has become among the blooming and vibrant regional centers in metro Vancouver. Inside only 10 square kilometers (4 square miles), Langley City contains a standout amongst the most dynamic business and industrial land centers in the Lower Mainland, impelling huge development in dense private advancement ("Township Of Langley British Columbia | Trade And Invest BC").The City is transected by 300 sections of land of parkland and characteristic terrains, giving serenity to a few single-family neighborhoods. Langley is home to Kwantlen Polytechnic University, the Cascades Casino Resort with Coast Hotel and Convention Center, an energetic pedestrian arranged downtown center, and a goal shopping region of local essentialness ("Township Of Langley British Columbia | Trade And Invest BC").

With reference to 2018, in the last five years Langley city has achieved almost 250% growth rate in construction value. The city also boats of the most significant job to population ratios in the great Vancouver municipality and is placed at position 5 among the best places of work in BC. The city has also been identifies as business friendly as approval times are fast and among the best in the region as well as supportive local government and the local business environment (Investing in Township of Langley, British Columbia). According to NAIOP (2016), Langley city offers among the lowest residential mill rates with affordable housing schemes compared to the East Vancouver. The tax rates are shown in the figures that follows:-

Personal income tax rates in Langley city

Sales tax rates in Langley city(Agency).

  1. Delta

Delta municipality is estimated to occupy about 180 square kilometer consisting of commercial districts, farm lands, residential property homes and buildings, wetlands as well as industrial areas ("Delta, British Columbia. The City Of Delta, BC, Canada").Delta has been known for its unquestionable and marveling history on agricultural practice. Being an agricultural hub, it avails a distinctive rural character within its municipality producing some of the best vegetables, turf and nursey plants of British Columbia. Farming and equestrian facilities have hence thrived given its fertile soils. Besides agriculture, Delta is a home to key and a diversity of industries including communication manufacturing, tourism, aerospace, transportation, construction, energy, deep sea and river shipping ("Delta British Columbia | Trade And Invest BC"). The Delta port which is so far the largest container terminal in Canada is located in Delta hence adorning it economic configuration in the greater Vancouver (Team et al.). Some of the industries located in Delta include: Avcorp industries, Seaspan Ferries Corporation, Marcon metal fabrication, Ind Diagnostic INC., Airborne engines ltd, Novax Industries limited, Guard Rfid, Tag Aerospace inc., Bnb Aviation services etc. ("Delta British Columbia | Trade And Invest BC").

Economic Analysis of Delta

The leading employers in Delta area are as indicated in the table below:-

Sales income tax information in Delta (Agency)

Based on the above comparison, Langley is well placed above Delta considering the main economic factors. However considering the case of family settlement alternative, Delta is much favorable.

  1. Transport and communication patterns;-
  2. Langley

Langley Township sits on 122 square miles of land. It verges on Surrey city westwards, the Fraser River toward the north, the City of Abbotsford toward the east, and the United States of America toward the south (Discover Langley City).

Aerial view of Langley Township.

 The city exhibits an open transportation framework. With simple access to interstates, rail, waterway, and air transport, Langley’s bearing is globally well placed for coordination of equally approaching deliveries and active goods.

Access by road

Overhauled by 4 noteworthy thruways, the organizations in Langley take simple access to significant focuses in Greater Vancouver over an exceedingly created street arrange.

  • Street/Highway Connections: 2 and 4-path roadway (Fraser Freeway) covers southeast beginning at Surrey and connecting to Langley ending in Abbotsford at Highway 1
  • Roadway 10: This road connects Langley to delta to surrey and goes east- west before reaching the intersection.
  • Trans-Canada Mainland (Highway 1): highway 1 links BC to Vancouver city through the Langley Township and extends to the Vancouver Island by use of the ship terminal at Horseshoe Bay.
  • Waterway Transport: The Northwest Langley Industrial Area incorporates water facing with canal boat transport. Initiating at privates docks located along theFraser River is the canal boat transport.

Air transport

Air transport is majorly through two of the international airports namely the Abbotsford and Vancouver international Airports. Also, there is a regional airport, the Lngley International airport.


  • Translink: gives normal hourly transport administration and transport benefit, including lift-prepared transports, all through Langley, associating with different networks inside Metro Vancouver, throughout the week. Furthermore, a suburbanite Park and a facility for Ride situated at 202 Street and 86 Avenue.
  • Greyhound Bus Lines: gives lengthy separation transport benefit starting at Langley to every single real goal within Canada and the United States Greyhound. The transport station is situated at 20471 Logan Avenue, Langley.
  1. Delta

Delta lies 49.14 degrees North, 122.91 degree west with an estimated elevation of 91 meters above the sea level (DeltaMap). It consist of a network of roads and transport links that opens to the neighboring states hence promoting accessibility and easy movement of about 101, 000 inhabitants. Below is are satellite views of delta area;-

Access by road:

Among the main arterial roads in Delta include Scott road also known as 120th Street, Nordel way and South Fraser Perimeter Road / River road.

  • River road lies along the Fraser River until the construction of the South Fraser Perimeter Road. The road initiates at Surrey passing via the industrial zones of North Delta and through Annieville before it links Nordel way which offers entrée to Highway 91. Beyond north of Delta, River Road proceeds due north from Burns Bog terminating at highway 99 where it terminates into Highway 17A.
  • The South Fraser Perimeter Road forms part of highway 17A and was commissioned in 2013 traversing closer to the shore than River Road for the better part of North Delta region.
  • Nordel way which is high speed corridor covers to Surrey from River Road, the point at which it emerges with 88th Initially, this road terminated at 116thstreet but in 1990s it was extended into Surrey hence has since become a major commuters connect from areas around north Delta and Surrey to Highway 91 and back.
  • Scott road/ 120thStreet forms a line of division between Surrey towards the east and Delta. This road has a lot of business establishments along it including shopping areas and business joints. Scott Road journeys into Surrey past 96th avenue joining the King George Highway from which crossing The Pattulo Bridge into the New Westminster is enhanced.
  • Other major connectors such as 56thavenue, 64th and 72 avenues provide access into Surrey from Highway 91.

GCT Deltaport is Canada's lead container terminal and the main semi-mechanized facility in the nation. As the Gateway to the Pacific, the 85 hectare (210 section of land) best in class terminal is situated in the external harbor at Roberts Bank, upheld by a 1,100 meter adjacent berth (Vancouver). The facilities armada of electric, fast, super post-Panamax cranes serve the biggest transpacific holder vessels calling the trade lane, flaunting consistent ship-to-rail profitability. Utilizing cutting edge PC frameworks to insert the most abnormal amounts in wellbeing and effectiveness into Delta activities, following full buildout of the GCT Deltaport Intermodal Yard Reconfiguration Project, the developed dock rail yard will be the biggest and most gainful multi-purpose facility on the planet.

Air transport

Vancouver International Airport (YVR)

  • Worldwide and residential air administrations for traveler and freight
  • Planned and contract benefits by significant worldwide and residential carriers
  • 19 kilometers from Delta.

Vancouver Harbor Water Airport (CXH / CYHC)

  • Handles domestic flights from Coal Harbor
  • 27 kilometers from Delta.

Orcas Island Airport (ESD / KORS).

  • This airport handles domestic flights from Eastsound, Washington.
  • Positioned 44 kilometers from Delta.

Abbotsford International Airport (YXX / CYXX).

  • Handles domestic flights from Abbotsford.
  • Located 56 kilometers from Delta.

Bellingham International Airport (BLI / KBLI).

  • Domestic flights from Bellingham in Washington
  • Located 63 kilometers from Delta.

Victoria International Airport (YYJ / CYYJ).

  • Has international and domestic flights from Victoria, Canada
  • Positioned 71 km from Delta, Canada.


  • Mass transit exist between Manhattan and LGA.
  • Air train between JFK linking to the subway.
  • LaGuardia Delta terminal available only at specific intervals during the day.

Both of these cities are deserving as a possible destination for a family but Langley is well established considering its extensive infrastructure on transport and communication alternatives and patterns.

  1. Urban and settlement patterns.
  2. Langley

Langley city is estimated to be 10 square kilometers found in the region of the lower Mainland. The city’s residents is estimated to be about 25,000 in number. Langley is characterized by entertainment spots, recreations facilities as well as opportunities, world class education, significant dining and shopping facilities. Additionally, Langley has an extensive parkland stretched over 346 acres. All these amenities and facilities accessible to its residents. The first settlement of Langley City was known as "Innes Corners," and was later called "Langley Prairie." The region along (Old) Yale Road formed into a noteworthy business and administration focus and pulled in exchange from all through the district (Wilson 14). Proceeded with development brought about the interest for larger amounts of administration in the network and, on March 15, 1955, the City of Langley — neighbor to the Township of Langley — was joined as its very own different district (Mehiriz 186).

Transport and Communication Patterns of Langley

Today, the City's provincial town focus is a standout amongst the most dynamic modern and administration business arrive bases in the Lower Mainland. The City of Langley is outstanding for its particular retail contributions and diners, while the encompassing territory has turned into a magnet for top of the line extravagance brands and enormous box retail (Mehiriz 187). Offering a person on foot situated downtown center and a Kwantlen Polytechnic University grounds found right around the local area, the City flaunts a top of the line strip mall, autonomous stores, agriculturists' business sectors, tremendous old fashioned retailers and a plenty of network expressions, culture and stimulation openings. Also, it is a looked for after games tourism and speculation region ("Langley Sustainable Urban Extension And Peddimore Supplementary Planning Documents - Birmingham City Council - Citizen Space").

While the City keeps on advancing, the tight-sew network and interesting legacy feel stay at the bleeding edge of our reasonable city's appeal. With its rich history, great feeling of network, lavish contributions of nature and closeness to Vancouver, Langley just might be the best kept mystery in the Lower Mainland!

  1. Delta

Delta has household population of 0.1 million individuals. Delta conceit itself with its preceding and its feasible prospect. Within Delta are doctor's facility, an air terminal, a historical center and chronicles, reference library, sporting and recreational facilities, and numerous bicycle in addition to strolling trails in a changed system of parks as well as waterfront stops on the Fraser River, Boundary Bay and Strait of Georgia ("Deltamap").

Delta includes 180 square kilometers circumscribed by the Fraser River on the north, the United States fringe and Boundary Bay on the south, the City of Surrey on the east and the Strait of Georgia on the west. Inhabitants appreciate protected, spotless and calm neighborhoods, and the steady thriving of the network makes it alluring for organizations to pick as their favored area. Delta's evaluated family unit normal pay is 30 percent higher than the Canadian normal. The district likewise has one of the quickest developing modern zones in Greater Vancouver ("OECD Ilibrary | Infrastructure Provision And Perceived Quality").

With the help of a solid cultivating and horticultural establishment, Delta has developed into three flourishing networks: Ladner, Tsawwassen and North Delta. Delta identifies as an energetic region that is wealthy in soil and water, wealthy in history and industry, and particularly wealthy in individuals ("Urban Redevelopment Research Papers - Academia.Edu").

Langley is smaller compared to Langley and has limited population compared to Delta sub area. Considering urban and settlement patterns in these two areas therefore, Delta is more qualified as a destination for a family in near decade. It offers diverse experience and offers both urban and local set up and settlement variations.


"Delta British Columbia | Trade And Invest BC". Britishcolumbia.Ca, 2018, Accessed 19 Oct 2018.

"Delta, British Columbia. The City Of Delta, BC, Canada". Bcadventure.Com, 2018, Accessed 19 Oct 2018.

"Deltamap". Delta.Ca, 2018, Accessed 19 Oct 2018. “Discover Langley City |.” Discover Langley City |,

"Langley Sustainable Urban Extension And Peddimore Supplementary Planning Documents - Birmingham City Council - Citizen Space". Birminghambeheard.Org.Uk, 2018, Accessed 19 Oct 2018.

"OECD Ilibrary | Infrastructure Provision And Perceived Quality". Oecd-Ilibrary.Org, 2018, Accessed 19 Oct 2018.

"Township Of Langley British Columbia | Trade And Invest BC". Britishcolumbia.Ca, 2018, Accessed 19 Oct 2018.

"Urban Redevelopment Research Papers - Academia.Edu". Academia.Edu, 2018, Accessed 19 Oct 2018.

Agency, Canada. "Canadian Income Tax Rates For Individuals - Current And Previous Years - Canada.Ca". Canada.Ca, 2018, Accessed 19 Oct 2018.

Mehiriz, Kaddour. “The Impacts of Intergovernmental Grants on Municipal Infrastructure: Evidence from the Canada-Quebec Infrastructure Works 2000 Program.” Evaluation and Program Planning, vol. 58, 2016, pp. 184–193., doi:10.1016/j.evalprogplan.2016.06.009.

Team, Real et al. "Blog - Page 18 Of 24 -". Realcanadianmovers.Com, 2018, Accessed 19 Oct 2018.

Vancouver, City. "City Of Vancouver". Vancouver.Ca, 2018, Accessed 19 Oct 2018. 

Wilson, Andrew. "Settlement, Urbanization, And Population". Academia.Edu, 2018, Accessed 19 Oct 2018.

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