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Introduction to Manufacturing Systems

Question:

Discuss About The Handbook Of Flexible Manufacturing Systems?

The manufacturing system adopted fro a product refers to method of organizing its production: there are several types of manufacturing systems and include batch production, assembly lines, and computer integrated manufacturing systems. In this paper, focus is placed in the Flexible Manufacturing System (FMS). The FMS is a system of manufacturing in which there is some level of flexibility that makes it possible for the manufacturing system to react and respond in the event of changes, of which changes can be predicted (and planned fr) or unpredicted (Jha, 2012). FMS can be based on routing flexibility, that enables the system to be changed to manufacture new types of products and change the order of operations as well. FMS can also apply to machine flexibility, a system that enables multiple machines to be used in performing the same manufacturing operation (Beier, 2017). In this paper, the production of a stander staple is discussed, including the different parts of the stapler, the proposed FMS with suitable cells for its manufacture, and the anticipated annual production of the item estimated.

(3) Stapler properties for Different Variants

For this report, the Stander Stapler is manufactured; however, other stapler variants exist, and the table below shows their similarities and properties

Variant

Dimensions (cm)

Intended use

Capacity (Paper Sheets)

Av. Price

Component Materials

Heavy duty stapler

9.38 x 28.19 x 17.53

Heavy duty jobs, such as large paper sheets and stapling on hard surfaces

60 – 200

$50

Rubber, steel, plastic

Gun stapler

2.794 x 14.478 x 10.16

Stapling to walls, stick paper

N/A

$ 15

Plastic, steel

Office Stapler

4.572 x 18.796 x 6.096

Light duty stapling

>30 <80

$ 15

Aluminum, Plastic, Steel

2 in 1 stapler

9.398 x 27,94 x  17.526

Multipurpose stapler

N/A

$ 23

Steel, Plastic

Table I

This is a light duty stapler for everyday use and is a manual type standard stapler weighing about 200 grams. 

The stapler’s main components include a spring steel and tooth, a spring for guiding the staple pins, a magazine cartridge, a carriage, a pin, a top cover, an arm, and the cartridge base with an ergonomic stand. The raw materials needed for the manufacture of the stander stapler include steel (stainless steel), plastic (injection molded), sheet metal, and steel (Haik, Sivaloganathan and Shahin, 2015).

The macro process plan is depicted in the Fig I below: the process begins with understanding user requirements and undertaking the design through simulations and refinements made, before a prototype is developed and tested; the prototype development will help in designing the cell process flow during manufacture, with the help of computer aided simulation to maximize efficiency and the process, while putting in measures to ensure flexibility (Cudney and Elrod, 2011). Once this is done and refinements made, then production can be set up;

The manufacturing type selected for the stander stapler is the lean manufacturing method of just in time production. While mass production was the desired production method of the 19th and 20th centuries, the just in time (JIT) lean manufacturing method is the desired manufacturing method of the 21st century. JIT is a knowledge based production method in which decisions on manufacturing and ordering for parts as well as the quantities made are based on information and data; such as demand projection data and placed orders for items, as well as the required numbers of raw materials (Khajavi et al., 2015).        The JIT lean manufacturing method has been proposed to reduce flow times between suppliers of raw materials and the customers, and also lower costs and eliminated wastes, including costs due to storage and inventory management.

Flexible Manufacturing System (FMS)

The lean manufacturing approach will be premised on discipline and physical organization, defect elimination, flexible approaches to changeovers, attaining flexibility and ultimate lot size, and using leveling as a control mechanism (Marin-Garcia and Bonavia, 2014). The method will ensure multi function workers are used to avoid delays if one operator, for example, is unavailable, and flawless manufacturing without defects. The system will incorporate product oriented design with materials handling being smoothed for optimal inventory based on the Kanban pull system. All these are the basic principles of JIT lean manufacturing method. This method has also been chosen to reduce cycle times and set up times. It will also result in significantly reduced set up times. And ensure parts and raw materials arriving just when they are needed and having the adequate amounts of finished products leaving the premises, without accumulating inventory. This system blends well with the proposed flexible manufacturing system in which lot size flexibility and adaptability are core principles        

The hybrid production process entails machine manufacturing of some parts (automation), and then assembly and inspection. The manufacturing process starts from receiving customer input, such as the desired features of the stapler based on market requirements and these are incorporated into the product design. Design is done automatically using computer aided design, and the materials, dimensions, color, and components chosen upfront (Panwar et al., 2015). The springs are produced from wire coils as the raw materials to produce the leaf and coil sprints, all produced through forming. The coil spring is formed through heat treatment around a rod of desired diameter while the leaf springs are made through rolling and bending processes, also using heat treatment. Stamping is done on the sheet metal to manufacture the base, the carriage, and the cartridge where shearing is done between a die and punch; the materials are fed through a rolling feeder.

The stamping process is like mass production and does not require an operator; it can run automatically. The stamped parts are then formed into the desired shapes through brake forming and heat treatment is used for easy bending. Rivets will be made through a forging process of high carbon steel depending on desired sizes. The plastic moldings are then created through injection molding while the pin is made trough machining using strong steel.  Painting of certain parts to prevent rust is done through a spray conveyor system through electrostatic powder coating. The final step in the process is assembling done by hand which also doubles up as the testing and quality control function. Once a stapler passes the quality test, it is ready for packaging and delivery. The cells for its production are shown in the diagram below;

The most suitable FMS for manufacturing the stander stapler is hybrid manufacturing process using a lean manufacturing process (just in time) (Gopalakrishnan, 2010). The reason for selecting the hybrid manufacturing process is that there are several parts of the stapler that need machine processes, including forming, stamping, brake forming, molding plastic parts, and machining the pin, finished off with painting. The manufactured parts must then be assembled to make the complete stander stapler; assembly can be economically done by hand rather than expensive machines as the hand assembly combines testing and inspection before the component (stander stapler) is cleared for delivery to customers (ElMaraghy, 2012).           

Estimated production times for each process is shown below;

Operation ID

Operation

Set Up Time in s

Processing Time in s

1

Loading raw materials

180

180

2

Forming coil springs

5

45

3

Forming leaf springs

5

60

4a

Stamping

30

45

4b

Brake forming

30

60

5a

Forging rivets

30

90

5b

Pin machining

45

160

6

Plastic molding

60

300

7

Surface treatment (cleaning, drying)

30

300

8

Painting

45

900

9

Assembly

90

600

10

Checking and testing

30

300

11

Finished product

0

0

Table II

Cycle time for each stapler is 26.5 minutes; the activities 1 to 4a and 5a occur concurrently, while the rest occur subsequently (following each other). With flexible production, the system can produce 217 staples daily, working with twelve people in assembly, translating into 56513 staples per annum produced.

Conclusion

Producing the stander staple is best achieved through flexible production incorporating JIT; the system can produce 217 staples daily using 12 assembly pints, translating into 56513 staples per annum. Because its flexible, the system can be ramped up or capacity reduced depending on demand

References

Beier, J. (2017).Simulation approach towards energy flexible manufacturing systems. New York:    Springer, p.142.

Cudney, E. and Elrod, C. (2011). A comparative analysis of integrating lean concepts into supply chain management in manufacturing and service industries. International Journal of Lean         Six Sigma, 2(1), pp.5-22.

ElMaraghy, H. (2012).Enabling manufacturing competitiveness and economic sustainability. Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Gopalakrishnan, N. (2010).Simplified lean manufacture. New Delhi: PHI Learning.

Haik, Y., Sivaloganathan, S. and Shahin, T. (2015).Engineering design process. 3rd ed. Boston, MA: Cengage Learning, p.339.

Jha, N. (2012).Handbook of flexible manufacturing systems. San Diego: Academic Press.

Khajavi, S., Partanen, J., Holmström, J. and Tuomi, J. (2015). Risk reduction in new productlaunch: A hybrid approach combining direct digital and tool-based   manufacturing.Computers in Industry, 74, pp.29-42.

Marin-Garcia, J. and Bonavia, T. (2014). Relationship between employee involvement and lean manufacturing and its effect on performance in a rigid continuous process industry.      International Journal of Production Research, 53(11), pp.3260-327

Panwar, A., Nepal, B., Jain, R. and Rathore, A. (2015). On the adoption of lean manufacturing principles in process industries. Production Planning & Control, 26(7), pp.564-587.

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My Assignment Help. (2019). Handbook Of Flexible Manufacturing Systems - Production Of Stander Stapler. Retrieved from https://myassignmenthelp.com/free-samples/handbook-of-flexible-manufacturing-systems.

"Handbook Of Flexible Manufacturing Systems - Production Of Stander Stapler." My Assignment Help, 2019, https://myassignmenthelp.com/free-samples/handbook-of-flexible-manufacturing-systems.

My Assignment Help (2019) Handbook Of Flexible Manufacturing Systems - Production Of Stander Stapler [Online]. Available from: https://myassignmenthelp.com/free-samples/handbook-of-flexible-manufacturing-systems
[Accessed 15 July 2024].

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My Assignment Help. Handbook Of Flexible Manufacturing Systems - Production Of Stander Stapler [Internet]. My Assignment Help. 2019 [cited 15 July 2024]. Available from: https://myassignmenthelp.com/free-samples/handbook-of-flexible-manufacturing-systems.

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