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The broad learning area of Health and Physical Education


Discuss about the inclusion of HPE in the school curriculum through explaining the benefits for all dimensions of health and the Importance of developing health and Physical literacies.

The inclusion of Health and Physical Education in school curriculum is crucial for the students since it teaches them the technique to elevate their health, safety, and overall well being including academic learning. It covers a vast learning area and has a strong foundation in the scientific field including physiology, psychology, nutrition, etc. Since the students get an opportunity to develop and strengthen their knowledge, and overall skills, it is essential to inculcate the HPE in the school curriculum so that their resilience can be enhanced, and their physical activity participation can be ensured. As students grow and mature, they use the critical enquiry skills to identify and understand its influence on themselves and use it in future (Almond, 2014). It is necessary for the parents of the school kids to understand the significance of health and physical education among their children from an early age since it would have an impact on their health and well being in future. Thus their role is vital since they could motivate both their kids as well school management to introduce a subject covering the physical health aspects so that the kids could turn into healthy individuals of the future. The particular traditional game from Australia that has been chosen here is called boogalah. The game has been selected since it would not just help to be physically active but it would enhance their interactive skills.

The health and physical education addresses various subjects including how the various contextual elements have an impact on the health, and physical development of individuals as well as communities. It is known fact that healthy active living does not just benefit an individual but the entire society. It promotes fit body weight, physical fitness, cognitive ability, psychological wellbeing and overall learning. Thus including this education at school allows the students to understand the significance of maintaining an active lifestyle so that their physical health can be strengthened. Due to all these benefits, the HPE must be incorporated in the curriculum of students so that the progression and development relating to the disciplinary knowledge can be applied in the contemporary health contexts (Edwards, 2008).

The primary focus of the health and physical education would be to contribute to a large number of objectives that exceed the educational purpose but help in the overall development of an individual. Since the priority of the HPF is to offer an ongoing developmentally relevant and explicit learning on the health and fitness aspects, it is vital for children to understand its relevance in life so that in future they can incorporate it into their lifestyle. The model does not just focus on the potential health risks but it also lays emphasis on assisting the children to strengthen their understanding, knowledge, and skills that can make them healthy, strong and active individuals in life (Forbe & Watt, 2015).

Significance of Health and Physical Education in promoting overall student wellbeing

It is a vital learning area that explicitly focuses on the development of movement skills and relevant concepts that students need to acquire in order to participate in the physical activities that can enhance their competence and engagement level. It believes in ensuring that the students and overall community has the support of necessary strengths and resources that will be used to nurture their overall wellbeing (Hills, Dengel & Lubans, 2015). This curriculum recognizes the fact that the students have wide ranging access to the personal and community resources which depends on their contextual factors. Thus it is vital to recognize the benefits of the health and physical education in school since it could help in educating children so that they would turn into active and healthy individuals of tomorrow.

In order to incorporate the HPE into the school curriculum, it is necessary to understand the broadness of the subject. In layman’s words the health and physical education refers to the curriculum that helps the students to engage in a number of worthwhile learning circumstances so that they can develop skills, self-efficacy, dispositions, etc that will allow them to live an active and healthy life. It includes various sub-disciplines including health education, physical education, personal development, nutrition, etc. All these categories allow the students to get an exposure to unique learning opportunities. The strong link that exists between health and physical education and scientific research and best practices help in building a strong curriculum that supports the teaching and learning skills (Kirk, 2014).

The learning on the health and physical education aspects can be used by the students to make informed decisions on a number and health and well being subjects (Metzler et al., 2013). Schools are regarded to be one of the main settings for the developing numerous health associated skills and knowledge so schools must take the initiative to encompass health and physical education into their curriculum so that the life of the students can be enhanced and their overall well being can be ensured in the best possible way. It is vital to understand that HPE is not a health profession but a learning area that aids students to make healthier choices in their life.

EDX1450 - Lesson Plan

Learning Area: Health and Physical Education


Duration: 40 Minutes

Overview of lesson focus:

The health and physical education plan that has been designed would basically allow the students to participate in the traditional indigenous games of Australia which have a cultural significance in the island nation. It would allow the exploration of the similarities with the games of other cultures such as Australian Rules and Gaelic Football. This model in the curriculum would help the students to understand their traditional games better and develop the inner skills that can be used to strengthen the healthy living. The game that has been illustrated in the lesson plan is “Boogalah” which focused on the interaction of the players during the activity. Taking into account the duration of the game i.e. 40 minutes, the year of the students, and their total number the particular traditional game from Australia has been selected.


Example: Content Description. This particular sport has been selected since it is an inclusive game and not a competitive game which allows the students to participate and enhance their engagement ability. The participants would get a chance to get involved in the physical activities that have evolved in their own land and they would get an opportunity to understand how their culture shares similarities with other cultures and creates community connections and intercultural understanding.

Example: Elaboration: The selected game would provide an opportunity to the participating students to understand the heritage of game and its cultural significance in Australia and it would bring together the students from different communities in the school to take part in the activity. It would provide them an opportunity to not just be physically fit but also to be more agile mentally since it would strengthen their interaction skill. It would also encourage them to explore the various similarities of Boogalah with other games that are of significance to other cultures in the world. Since in the olden days people used to use sports to interact with one another, this game would allow the school students to understand their culture in a better manner and at the same time they would be inclined to learn about other’s culture to create a strong bond with people from diverse cultural background.

The sport “Boogalah” is a ball game that was played by both the genders of Juwalarai population in the New South Whales region. The term boogalah refers to the ball that is used while playing the game. In the traditional times, the ball was made of the sewn-up kangaroo skin. It can be described as the throwing and catching game which was played among the team members. All the players are divided among two teams and each team comprises of about 6 to 10 members. A specific area is selected where the game can be conducted so that all the students can play in a proper game environment. The equipment that is used to play the sport is either a soccer ball (size varying between 2 and 3) or ball made out of kangaroo skin or gator skin.

The game is designed in such a way that allows the participants to interact with one another and develop their social skills in the process. Thus this Yulunga traditional indigenous game has been selected to be incorporated in the school syllabus since it would be apt for year 2 students. This ball game would allow the suitable interaction between both the genders and it would give them an opportunity to strengthen their social interaction skills by being part of the fun game.

Objectives: Two learning objectives for the lesson. These must relate to the curriculum you selected and what it is you are hoping the students will learn in this lesson.

  1. The students will demonstrate the knowledge of Traditional Indigenous Game from Australia – Boogalah and understand the role of engagement and interaction among the fellow players and students.
  2. Including Boogalah in school curriculum would allow the players to get an insight on the culture of other communities through the game and thus they could make an effort to involve themselves in such games in order to create community connections and intercultural understanding among themselves. It would enhance their physical fitness and help them to develop their social skills.

Risk Assessment and Safety Checklist.

Curriculum activity risk management guidelines – Ed Qld:

It is important for schools to follow strict risk management policies so that the students do not get involved in any activity that can cause them or the fellow students any kind of harm.  A solid risk assessment tool allows schools to identify the potential hazards, so that effective control measures can be taken to ensure everyone’s safety and well being. Even though Boogalah is a safe and suitable game that can be played by school children but the involvement of game equipments in form of balls could increase the need to assess the amount of risk for the participants. So it necessary for the school to assess the involved risk in an effective manner so that the participants can take part in the traditional Australian sport without the fear of getting injured.

It is necessary for the students to be aware of their own space so that they can have limited contact with other students unless actually needed. If a particular physical activity session is planned in the outdoor area then they must have sun safety measures in form of hats and sunscreen. They also should be hydrated so that they do not feel weak during their participation in the activity (Roth et al., 2016). The teacher must check that there would be no pushing or pulling among the players to obtain the boogalah. When the ball touches the ground, the game must be stopped so that the fresh turn can be taken.

The school should be on its heels and formulate an emergency plan to so that all medical arrangements are in place. The students should also be imparted basic first-aid knowledge so that they can assist their injured friend at the time of need. The school must also have the provision to let students use mobile phone during emergencies and they must be given details of medical team whom they need to call during an accident. The school should also ensure that the equipment like ball, chalk (to form circle), etc used during activity are safe and it must not cause any sort of harm to the fellow participants of the game. The area where the physical activity takes place needs to be checked to avoid hazards and the outdoor area must be preferred for better ventilation and space.

Introductory Activity: (10 mins)

Name of activity and diagram

Learning experiences including organisation and teaching points.

Teaching Style for each activity in brackets.



The boogalah was a ball game that was played by both girls and boys in New South Whales of Australia. The ball that was known as boolgalah was used by the participants while playing the game along with the team members. Mostly two teams of maximum 10 members each could participate in the game but given the specific scenario, a total of 4 teams would be formed so that there could be participation from all students.

The playing area is selected that suites the total number of students and allows free body movement. The equipment necessary for the game is a soccer ball (with size 2 or 3) or the ball made from gator skin.

The skills that are used in boogalah is simple yet it requires teamwork and skill so that the desired result can be produced to win the game (Telljohann, Symons & Pateman, 2015). It allows the students to engage with all the players and makes the atmosphere fun and enjoyable. Thus it is an apt example that not just has health benefits but also has behavioural advantages for students since it allows them to understand different cultures.

Game play and basic rules

•      The game begins when all the players from 1st team are in the middle of the playing area. And all players of other team form a circle around them. (command)

•      In order to decide the player who will initiate the game, the teacher or referee throws the ball in air and the player who catches it moves along with his team to form a group and stand in the centre of the playing area. (instruction)

•      The 2nd team circles the 1st team and the ball is thrown in the air and the players try to catch it. The players cannot move beforehand to catch the ball until it is thrown. (rule)

•      In case a participant from the circle catches the ball then his team goes to the centre and swaps places with the insider team. (Quick practice)

•      Physical contact among the students is avoided as much as possible and the teams aim to win the game by keeping the boogalah for the longest time. (such as 45 seconds).

•      In order to add a bit more action, the balls could be thrown in different directions.

Teaching points

•      All the participants of one team in the middle.

•      Formation of 1 circle around another team

•      Throwing ball high.

•      Watching the contact in careful manner.

•      Call for the ball

•      Edwards. K. (2009) Yulunga: Traditional Indigenous Games. Australian Sports Commission. Canberra. ACT

•      6 boogalahs or 6 soccer balls (including extra)

•      Whistle

•      stopwatch

Body of Lesson(25 mins):learning experience/s for the main part of the Lesson

Learning experiences including organisation and teaching points.

Teaching Style for each activity in brackets.

Resources: List all the resources needed for this section of the lesson

Boogalah allows a number of players to play at once so it increases their tolerance level. Since it is a group activity, the students are bound to interact with each other and be more sociable. During the game, players exhibit team spirit so that their respective team can win the game by keeping the boogalah in the play for the longest time. (Winnick & Porretta, 2016).

This game needs coordination among players while attempting to catch the ball. It helps the participants to understand the fact that a cooperative game can be fun at the same time.

All the students of one team must be positioned in the middle (Command)

The healthy competition among participants must be guided by the teacher (Instructions)

Ball must be thrown high and students should be careful while attempting to gain the ball. (observation)




Concluding activity (5 mins): learning experience/s

Look for specific activities that could be used to cool down and prepare the class for transition to another lesson.

Learning experiences including organisation and teaching points.

Teaching Style for each activity in brackets.

Resources: List all the resources needed for this section of the lesson

There could be a number of variations while playing the game so that the competitiveness is maintained throughout the activity. The students could be asked to share their input to play boogalah in a different manner so that they could enjoy it further. This would in fact be useful to encourage the team building and sportive attitude among the participants (Telljohann, Symons & Pateman, 2015).

Teacher should be guiding the student at all times to observe the team that holds the ball for the longest time for the highest number of times so that the true winner could be declared.  (observation)

Drinking water

First-Aid kit

C. Modifications of one learning experience for inclusion of all students - catering for diverse learning needs.

The sport activity would be modified so that all the 24 students in the class could participate in the activity and their team building ability could be strengthened:

T – The game strategy could be modified so that all the students would get the opportunity to participate in the throwing and catching game.

R – The rules of the game would be explained by the teacher so that all the students would be on the same page before participating in boogalah. It could be improvised until all the students got comfortable with the rules and process.

E – The outdoor environment would be mostly preferred so that there is proper ventilation and sufficient space for the playing players.

E – The equipment – ball would be selected based on preference of the students so that it would be easier for them.

Modifications of one learning experience for inclusion of all students 

The selected game would be slightly modified and there would be a division of the game into two sections so that altogether four teams could participate in the activity where two teams would be directly competing with one another. The winner of each section would further compete with one another so that in the end only one team comprising of 6 members could be declared as the winner of the ball throwing game. All the safety aspects would be taken into consideration since the involved participants are quite young. There would be no pushing and pulling among the students to avoid possibility of injury. When the ball would be touching the ground, the game would automatically stop and the turn would be taken again by the participating teams. A number of variations would be included while carrying out the game for year 2 students so that the students in the groups would not be bored while taking part in the event that would strengthen their interactive ability.

The students would get a chance to participate in differently designed games and work on their social interaction among their peers. They would also get an insight on the cultural links with the particular games and have a better tolerance level towards the traditional games of other cultures. The selected games have been designed in such a manner so that they would match the age group of the students that would be playing the traditional games.

The designed lesson plan would be beneficial for all the students since it would be inclusive and engaging at the same time. It would also reduce or eliminate the need for behaviour management interventions since the students would get an opportunity to improve their iterative ability with the fellow students at a young age. Since the game that has been included in the lesson plan reflects the cultural aspects of Australia, the players would develop a more tolerant behaviour towards other culture. They would be willing to understand the students that came from different cultural background because they would have the mental maturity to understand the significance on culture on an individual (Winnick & Porretta, 2016). The learning model could initially be difficult for the children to accept since it would be a new thing for them. But the role of both parents and school is crucial here since it could help the students to adjust to the new and healthy school curriculum so that they could get comfortable with it and have a better understand of their cultural background.

The role of traditional games in enhancing physical activity and social interaction skills

It would not only allow the students to imbibe physical activities in their routine but it would also help them to be socially sound individuals since it would mould their interaction ability with other students and also help them to develop team spirit at a young age. (Telljohann, Symons & Pateman, 2015). Thus the lesson plan relating to boogalah has been illustrated since it supports healthy competition and allows the players to improve their engagement ability with their team members. Thus the ultimate benefit that the students would enjoy would be much beyond a healthy and active lifestyle since their entire behaviour would be moulded by the Traditional Indigenous Game from Australia – Boogalah.


The significance of health and physical education in the school curriculum is important since it not only enhances the physical health of the students but it also helps them to strengthen their engagement and interaction ability among fellow students from different culture and background. The proper management of such physical activities minimizes the need to adopt different behaviour management interventions that can be used with children. The focus has been on Boogalah since it is a physical activity that strengthens the unity among team members. In current times such activities among students help in strengthening the bond since there is limited competitiveness in this model. So schools must encompass positive HPE in their curriculum so that there will be no need to include behaviour management interventions in the model. It is useful not just to strengthen their physical fitness aspects but it also has a strong bearing on their social skills and behavioural aspects. Boogalah would be an apt game for the 24 students from year 2 since it would encourage them to interact with their peers and understand their cultural background and maintain an active physical life.


Almond, L. (Ed.). (2014). Physical education in schools. Routledge.

Edwards, K. (2008). Yulunga: Traditional indigenous games. Australian Sports Commission.

Forbes, H., & Watt, E. (2015). Jarvis's Physical Examination and Health Assessment. Elsevier Health Sciences.

Hills, A. P., Dengel, D. R., & Lubans, D. R. (2015). Supporting public health priorities: recommendations for physical education and physical activity promotion in schools. Progress in cardiovascular diseases, 57(4), 368-374.

Kirk, D. (2014). Physical Education and Curriculum Study (Routledge Revivals): A Critical Introduction. Routledge.

Metzler, M. W., McKenzie, T. L., van der Mars, H., Barrett-Williams, S. L., & Ellis, R. (2013). Health optimizing physical education (HOPE): A new curriculum for school programs—Part 1: Establishing the need and describing the model. Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance, 84(4), 41-47.

Pope, C. C. (2014). The jagged edge and the changing shape of health and physical education in Aotearoa New Zealand. Physical education and sport pedagogy, 19(5), 500-511.

Roth, K., Zittel, L., Pyfer, J., & Auxter, D. (2016). Principles and Methods of Adapted Physical Education & Recreation. Jones & Bartlett Publishers.

Telljohann, S. K., Symons, C. W., & Pateman, B. (2015). Health education: Elementary and middle school applications (p. 26). McGraw-Hill Humanities/Social Sciences/Languages.

Winnick, J., & Porretta, D. (Eds.). (2016). Adapted Physical Education and Sport, 6E. Human Kinetics.

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