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Write a research justification of Job demand resources model. Model is given below.

Job demand resources model

Motivational process

Key Variable

Job Demand Resources Model or a JDR model is a highly researched model that proposes the fact that increased demands in a job lead to a strain in the lives of human beings which further progress is to impairment of health. The high resources which show the way to increased level of motivation and a higher level of productivity are directly proportional to the top resources (Nahrgang, Morgeson & Hofmann, 2011). The following research paper would thus focus towards the theoretical justification of the Job Demand Resources Model and the contextual reason for the same. This will include the introduction of the critical variables, the relation between the primary variables, the theoretical interest of the model and the cross-group comparison to find out the difference between the mediating variable in Australian culture and any other religion.

A Job Demand Resources Model summarise through some short assumptions or taken premises in which occupation can be possessing their specific risk factors that are associated with the stress oriented with job. These are the factors that can be further classified into the general categories of variables such as job demands, job resources, work engagement, and turnover intention. They would also be further discussed as follows:

Job demand can be defined as a social, psychological, organizational or physical aspect of any job which needs sustainable physical and mental skills as well as effort. This is the reason that they can be allied with the psychological as well as the physiological cost like work pressure and emotional demands (Xanthopoulou et al., 2009). Elaborately speaking, a specific kind of job that requires a person to have certain physical and psychological effects of skills and they can be allied with the psychological as well as the physiological aspects of a human being is known as a job demand. Job demand especially requires a person to understand what the job once the person to deliver and apply for the same.

On the other hand job resources is mostly defined as the social, organizational, physical and psychological characteristics of any job which needs that a certain amount of physical and mental skills, as well as efforts, are put into for achieving the work goals (Schieman, Glavin & Milkie, 2009). To just put this, it is a functional aspect of any job which requires that the associated psychological and physiological cost stimulates a person to improve their learning, development and growth skills further to provide opportunities in their career, autonomy and clarity in their respective roles individually.

Work engagement is mostly defined as the mental state of a person related to their job which is mainly characterized by the vigour the person has towards their work, the dedication that person has and the absorption of the concentration towards his or her work. The strength that a person has is mostly characterized by the light energy and resilience in the mental state of that person towards his or her work and the complete willingness of investing their full effort. Furthermore, the dedication that a person has is characterized with the help of the active involvement of the person within work to sense that their significant enough and take pride in whatever they work for the organization (Xanthopoulou et al., 2009). They accept every challenge in the path and inspire others by being observed and fully concentrated as well as happily engrossed within a person's work.

Job Demand

Employee turnover is a fact that put forward the number on the percentage of employees within an organization who are willing to leave or be replaced by a set of new employees (Schaufeli & Taris, 2014). Turnover intention is defined as the measurement of an organization and its employees to find out whether the employees within the organization have a plan to leave their positions or other employees in the organization can easily replace them. In this fact turnover intention, all the fact of employee turnover can be either voluntary or else involuntary.

In contrast with workforce engagement concerning job resources, the extended role of extra performance lies in the process of motivation.  Mostly the factor of burnout is known as a metaphor that is used to describe the mental weariness of a person (Hakanen, Perhoniemi & Toppinen-Tanner, 2008). It is mostly understood that job engagement can be assumed as a positive and report for the concept of burnout. It is assessed mainly by the different pattern scores, and this perspective is resumed for independently using the instruments of psychology to find out how job engagement and the different variables effect on the stress level of human.

In any job, job resources and job demands can be distinguished as two different perspectives. Where job demands can be defined as the degree of the environment in which a person's attention and a response is required, job resources are the response that is needed for the job demands (Halbesleben, 2010). It can be easily assumed through the above statements that when a person comes in front with job demand, he or she clarifies what is there on resources that they can input in the response of that demand and apply for the job.

In the current business environment, organizations are at constant competition with each other to retain the talent they have within their employees but also they keep no stone unturned to explore all the possible ways in which the quality, as well as a quantity of the employees already within the organization, can be improved (Crawford, LePine & Rich, 2010). The qualitative attachment has the potential to enhance the feasibility and efficiency of the employees. On the other hand, the quantitative attachment gives rise to the increase time association of the employees within their work. Therefore, it can easily be affirmed that work engagement as well as turnover intention are related to each other in a positive as well as a negative way.

When organizations go out to explore the possible ways by which quality of the existing employees can be improved, did not let go of any opportunity to let in the improved ideas even if they had to be at the cost of removing and replacing an existing employee from the organization (Broeck et al., 2008). It is a positive approach from the perspective of the business, but on the other hand, it is a negative approach from the standpoint of an employee. Therefore the solution has both positive and negative impact from different perspectives. In addition to that, employees also increase their work in measurement to improve the efficiency to retain their positions within the organization and not get replaced by the new and improved workforce.

Job Resources

When the Job Demand Resources Model theory is involved in finding out the association between the Job Demands as well as Work Engagement, it can be noticed that the combination of demands from the job affects into raising the employee work engagement. The relation between job demand as well as work engagement are directly proportional to each other (Häusser et al., 2010). The only positive connection behind the job demand and work engagement exists in favor of the organization. The more an employee is engaged in their respective roles in the organization, the needs of the particular occupation increase accordingly. The increase in engagement results in the productivity of the employee; further adding to the positive outcome for the organization. However, it is also a noticeable factor that increases in job demand and work engagement result in the increase of stress factor for the employees.

Job Demand Resources Model states that there are two types of funds have further lead to the engagement factor, where on the other hand, there are few resources and increased work demands that finally lead to total burnout. The positive relationship of job resources and job engagement lies in the way by which an individual involves in their respective jobs with the improvement they bring about improvement in own individual skills to engage more and more in the professional life (Jourdain & Chênevert, 2010). The professional life gets massively benefitted as a result, and this is the reason why there is imbalance found in the lives of employees who increase their resources to engage more in their work.

The Job Demand Resources Model was first developed in the 21st century by various researchers to recognize the leading job stress model, which suggest that strain has been a response of embarrassment that extends between the demands on a particular individual and the resources that the person possesses to deal with that of the claims. Elaborately speaking the strain that a person goes through in the professional lives is a result of the demand of the job and the inability of the person to respond to the job demands. It was first published to understand the antecedents of burnout. After the intermodal anything presentation, it was found that during meta-analysis 8 job demands and 13 job resources had the possibility of total exhaustion (Tims, Bakker & Derks, 2013). The Job Demand Resources Model was developed as a tool for the human resource management that helps in finding the strong points and weak points of the demand control model and the imbalance in effort and reward for a person within an organization.

This model helps in predicting the value of every employee in the organization and the reasons for the imbalance between demand to control and effort to reward. The proposition of the model can we implement in the two-stage approach that can highlight the strengths and weaknesses of an individual when the person who do you working in groups, departments or at an organization at a large scale (Babakus, Yavas & Ashill, 2009). The proper engagement of an employee within their work and the prediction of employee burnout can be consequently analysed through the Job Demand Resources Model inconsistent with the organizational performance as a whole. In between the model, there is an assumption of every occupation, which states that every career has its thinking process of the well-being of the employees which can be further classified into the general categories of job demands and job resources. This states that the overhanging model and constituency which may be applied to the occupational settings of very types is not dependent on the particular demands of the resources involved for the employees.

Work Engagement

The entire research process model also elaborates the fact that there is an existence of two simultaneous processes. The job demand sure much higher has the ability and potential to exhaust the employees both mentally and physically off their resources, and this is the reason why there is a depletion of energy found further within the employees leading to the health problems (Bakker, 2011). Therefore it can easily find out that health impairment processes can we figured out through the JDR model. There have been several studies conducted on the resources implied on the job that can safeguard the impact of job demands focusing on stress reactions. Researchers also found out that the job resources have much more motivational potential when it is found that the requirements for all the jobs are comparatively higher than usual.

In this part of the essay, it would be highlighted that what is the fundamental difference between the mediating variable, that is, the cross-cultural difference between the job demand, job resources, work engagement and turnover intention between the two different aspects of different countries (Alarcon, 2011). The land selected for the cross-group comparison is Australia and India. It would be presented through a modified example to state the variance between the work culture of Australia as well as the work culture based in the country of India.

This comparison has been made upon the analysis of the word cultures in both Australia and India based on the four variables of Job Demand Resources Model. The most culturally sensitive issue can we sensed out through the following comparison.

The amount of time that the people in both these countries utilize for work in any given typical day varies. While Australian people mostly engaged with the standard 8 hour work days, the Indian work culture mostly makes people work for about 10 to 12 hours per day. It is not possible that the Australian what culture promotes fair work and this is the main difference as Australian people can maintain walk and family balance, on the other hand, in India, this concept of having a balance between work and family is still a far-fetched issue.

It has been found that the Australian workplace mostly promotes a relationship to build up between the employees within the organization through a cordial engagement in comparison to the death of India. Australian hierarchical managerial post mostly encourages a flat organization in the communication between the people in lower phase of the hierarchical graph an engage in a less formal atmosphere where calling my name is quite reasonable (Brummelhuis & Bakker, 2012). In India however, the conversation between employees in the hierarchical level is mostly formal, and it is preferred that a dependent overall what culture is carved out at the workplace. Therefore it can be said that Australia belongs to be at a distance culture as compared to India which is predominantly high power distance culture.

Now, when it comes to equal opportunity in employment the sense of positive reception and respect to the Australian companies and its work culture is higher than that of its comparison to Indian work cultures. Australian attitude of recognition of hidden skills of an employee is much more laid back. All the opinions of an employee within an organization are openly listened without having a hint of being judgemental (Broeck et al., 2010). On the other hand, the comparison of Indian employees in this matter comes as there is a chance of being utterly judgemental towards the Indian employees. This occurs whenever they want to share their opinions on social issues such as there has been an age-old conventional perception of cast, creed, colour, general and sexual orientation that comes into the question of a professional world as well. Therefore it can be stated that in Australia, work culture is devoid of professional and personal balance but in India, the balance between professional and personal life is not appreciated.

Turnover Intention

Job demand and job resources come into question it can be said that the idea of earning a livelihood in Australia is not jobs by the dignity of labour. At the end of the day in Australia, there is no division by the work that a person or an employee performs. In another way of putting it, it can be stated that Australia has always respected the dignity of labour wherein comparison Indian work culture does not appreciate the dignity of energy and the society friends over whenever a person performs a job beneath their capabilities or social skills. Respecting the individual identity is facilitated by Australian work culture, and much lower view is presented in India. For example, the job of a cleaner on a plumber in Australia might have much increased earning than an IT professional in the country of India.

Therefore, comparing the mindsets of both the word cultures of India and Australia it can be stated that when it comes to the different variables of Job Demand Resources Model including the job demand, job resources, work engagement, and turnover intention, Australia has a much more open environment than that of India (Bakker & Schaufeli, 2008). Indian horticulture does not allow a person to have proper balance in professional and personal life where Australia is from all aspects of work culture respects the balance between personal and professional growth of every individual.

Conclusion

Therefore, in the end, it can be said that to find out the health impairment and stress level of the various individual in their work the Job Demand Resources Model. The variables in the model describe how this stress level can be analysed through all the constraints of work in the life of any individual. This idea is further presented through the research about with the addition of a comparison between the word cultures of Australia and India.

References

Alarcon, G. M. (2011). A meta-analysis of burnout with job demands, resources, and attitudes. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 79(2), 549-562.

Babakus, E., Yavas, U., & Ashill, N. J. (2009). The role of customer orientation as a moderator of the job demand–burnout–performance relationship: A surface-level trait perspective. Journal of Retailing, 85(4), 480-492.

Bakker, A. B. (2011). An evidence-based model of work engagement. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 20(4), 265-269.

Bakker, A. B., & Schaufeli, W. B. (2008). Positive organizational behavior: Engaged employees in flourishing organizations. Journal of Organizational Behavior: The International Journal of Industrial, Occupational and Organizational Psychology and Behavior, 29(2), 147-154.

Crawford, E. R., LePine, J. A., & Rich, B. L. (2010). Linking job demands and resources to employee engagement and burnout: a logical extension and meta-analytic test. Journal of applied psychology, 95(5), 834.

Hakanen, J. J., Perhoniemi, R., & Toppinen-Tanner, S. (2008). Positive gain spirals at work: From job resources to work engagement, personal initiative, and work-unit innovativeness. Journal of vocational behavior, 73(1), 78-91.

Hakanen, J. J., Schaufeli, W. B., & Ahola, K. (2008). The Job Demands-Resources model: A three-year cross-lagged study of burnout, depression, commitment, and work engagement. Work & Stress, 22(3), 224-241.

Halbesleben, J. R. (2010). A meta-analysis of work engagement: Relationships with burnout, demands, resources, and consequences. Work engagement: A handbook of essential theory and research, 8(1), 102-117.

Häusser, J. A., Mojzisch, A., Niesel, M., & Schulz-Hardt, S. (2010). Ten years on: A review of recent research on the Job Demand–Control (-Support) model and psychological well-being. Work & Stress, 24(1), 1-35.

Jourdain, G., & Chênevert, D. (2010). Job demands–resources, burnout and intention to leave the nursing profession: A questionnaire survey. International journal of nursing studies, 47(6), 709-722.

Nahrgang, J. D., Morgeson, F. P., & Hofmann, D. A. (2011). Safety at work: a meta-analytic investigation of the link between job demands, job resources, burnout, engagement, and safety outcomes. Journal of Applied Psychology, 96(1), 71.

Schaufeli, W. B., & Taris, T. W. (2014). A critical review of the Job Demands-Resources Model: Implications for improving work and health. In Bridging occupational, organizational and public health (pp. 43-68). Springer, Dordrecht.

Schieman, S., Glavin, P., & Milkie, M. A. (2009). When work interferes with life: Work-nonwork interference and the influence of work-related demands and resources. American Sociological Review, 74(6), 966-988.

Ten Brummelhuis, L. L., & Bakker, A. B. (2012). A resource perspective on the work–home interface: The work–home resources model. American Psychologist, 67(7), 545.

Tims, M., Bakker, A. B., & Derks, D. (2013). The impact of job crafting on job demands, job resources, and well-being. Journal of occupational health psychology, 18(2), 230.

Van den Broeck, A., De Cuyper, N., De Witte, H., & Vansteenkiste, M. (2010). Not all job demands are equal: Differentiating job hindrances and job challenges in the Job Demands–Resources model. European journal of work and organizational psychology, 19(6), 735-759.

Van den Broeck, A., Vansteenkiste, M., De Witte, H., & Lens, W. (2008). Explaining the relationships between job characteristics, burnout, and engagement: The role of essential psychological need satisfaction. Work & Stress, 22(3), 277-294.

Xanthopoulou, D., Bakker, A. B., Demerouti, E., & Schaufeli, W. B. (2009). Reciprocal relationships between job resources, personal resources, and work engagement. Journal of Vocational behavior, 74(3), 235-244.

Xanthopoulou, D., Bakker, A. B., Demerouti, E., & Schaufeli, W. B. (2009). Work engagement and financial returns: A diary study on the role of job and personal resources. Journal of occupational and organizational psychology, 82(1), 183-200.

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